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ALBANY, N. Y. 



CLASS. 



.NO.- 






H A L L'S 



JOURNAL OF HEALTH 



FOR 1854. 



HEALTH IS A DUTY. — Anon 



" MEN CONSUME TOO MUCH FOOD AND TOO LITTLE PURE AIR ; 
THEY TAKE TOO MUCH MEDICINE AND TOO LITTLE EXERCISE." Ed. 

" I labor for the good time coming, when sickness and disease, except congenital f 
or from accident, will be regarded as the result of ignorance or animalism, and will 
degrade the individual, in the estimation of the good, as much as drunkenness now 
does. — Ibid. 




EDITED BY 

W. W. HALL, M.D., 

42 IRVING PLACE, N. Y. 



VOL. I. 



|Uto Ifilt : 

PUBLISHED BY HENRY B. PRICE, 

No. 3 EVERETT HOUSE, UNION SQUARE. 
1854. 



#. If 










1 






\ 









INDEX TO YOL. I. 



PAGE 

Air and Exercise, 35 

Anointing with Oil, 79 

American Manners, 88 

American Climate, 93 

Air Passages, 105 

Air Indispensable to Healtb, 114 

Asthma Described, 111-119 

A Rapping Dream, 127 

Annual Ailments , 145 

Allen's Great Dental Achievement,. 219 

Aims of Life, 271 

Apples, fried, 296 

Brandy and Throat Disease, 74 

Baths and Bathing, 76 

Benefit of Action,. 79 

Boarding Life Mischievous, 85 

Bronchitis — what is it, 106 

Bodenharaer on Cholera, 212 

Beer Drinking, 272 

Brain and Thought, 287 

Coffee and its Use, 236, 231, 6 

Clerical Letter, 57 

Clergymen's Sore Throat, 75 

Clergymen's Case, 106 

Comparative Health of Cities, 106 

Consumption — what is it, 108 

Convict's Autobiography, 114 

Cutting Tonsils Dangerous, 117 

Croup Described, 119 

Courtesies of Life, 121 

Children of the Rich, 123 

Christianity and Medicine,. 136 

Coughing in Consumption, 138 

Children Governed, 161 

Cholera — what is it, 169 

Cheerfulness, 220 

£old Water, vs. Health, 226 

Common Sense, 27 <fc 227 

Corn Bread and Constipation, 280 

Consumption and Climate, 290 

Dietetic Recipes, 120 

Doubtful Witness, 157 

Do we ever Forget, 263 

Dyspepsia and Vinegar, 272 

Doctors and Lawyers, 279 

Drowning Sensations, 282 



PAGB 

Death not always Painful, 285 

Editor's Address, 1 

Eating and Drinking, 6 

Exertive Exercise, 25 

Earth and Mind Culture, 163 

Effects of Imagination, 249 

Elbow Room, 293 

Fatuity of Old Age, 84 

Food we Eat,. . . .' 11 & 225 

Fruitful Neighborhood, 248 

Fruit Healthful, 292 

Family Jars, 295 

Heart Disease, 17 

Horseback Exercise, 40 

Hominy and its Use, 68 

How to Sit, 87 

How to get up Early, 88 

How we Grow, 117 

How to be a Man, 155 

Hardest Mode to Die, 162 

Homeopathy, 217 

How to Effect Reforms, 220 

Half a Century in Bed, '. . 259 

Health, Wealth and Religion, 273 

How to avoid Consumption, 297 

Ice House Model, 288 

Incurable Insanity, 287 

Inhalation in Lung Diseases, 297 

Kindness the best Punishment, 141 

Kindness to Children, 268 

Longevity, cases of, 30 <fe 80 

Lung Measurement, 49 

Lungs, 73 

Lady's Bath, 76 

Lament for Health Neglected, 89 

Laryngitis — what is it, 106 

Looseness of Cholera 183 

Life's Great Object, 276 

Milk and its Use, 291 & 1 

Mistake of going South. 95 

Merchant's Case, 109 

I Measures, 120 

i March to the Grave, 168 



IV 



Contents, 



PAGE 

Marriage, disparity in age, 258 

Marry, who to, 275 

Marriages Happy, 296 

New Shoes made Easy, 71 

Neglect of Physical Education, 118 

Octogenarian Letter, 102 

Overworking, 233 

Physician, the good, 1 

Physical Cultivation, 86 

Pitching, 94 

Perpetual Asthma, Ill 

Patent Medicines Murderous, 119 

Preventives of Cholera, 181 

Potatoes Cooked, 237 

Preservation of Cranberries, Fruits, 237 

Pickles Healthful, ' 238 

Preserved Eggs, 244 

Rich Christian Men 60 

Rich Men's Children 123 



PAGX 

Rage and Ruin, 133 

Recipes, 12, 43, 87, 103, 120, 155, 235-246 
Rainy Day, Recipe for, 279 

Spirometrology, 49 

Small Pox, 66 

Shaving the Beard, 97 

Sick Head Ache, 109 

Suicide by Starvation, 113 

Speak Gently, 246 

Travelling for Health, 14 

Theological Seminary, 82 

Tobacco, its Use and End, 100 

Throat Ail, 106 

Teeth Cleaning, 78, 219 

Tea, 6,232 

The True Christian Doctrine, 278 

Ventilation, 31 

Visiting Cards Poisonous, 155 

Vinegar and Dyspepsia, 272 

Who Murdered Downie, 253 

Weight of Various Foods, 289 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 

VOL. 1.1 JANUARY, 1854. [NO. I. 



EDITOR'S ADDRESS. 

The first and immediate aim of the good and great physician, 
is to restore his patient to health in the shortest time, with the 
smallest amount of medicine, and with the least discomfort prac- 
ticable ; when this is accomplished, he has a more elevated am- 
bition ; an object nobler and still more humane presses upon his 
attention, the prevention of all disease. This good time may not 
come, in the broadest acceptation of the terms ; but for genera- 
tions past, medical men have so steadily labored in that direction, 
and do still labor, that the average duration of human life has 
been constantly raised. 

" In the latter part of the sixteenth century, according to Pro- 
fessor Joseph R. Buchanan of Cincinnati, "one half of all who 
were born, died under five years of age, and the average longevity 
of the whole population was but eighteen years. 

" In the seventeenth century, one half of the population lived 
over twenty-seven years. In the latter forty years, one half 
exceeded thirty-two years of age. 

" At the beginning of the present century, one half exceeded 
forty years of age; and from 1838 to 1845 one half exceeded 
forty-three years — that is to say, in the sixteenth century one 
half of all who were born lived only five years, while in the 
present century, which is the nineteenth, one half of all who are 
born live to the age of forty-three years," To accomplish such 
magnificent results, educated and honorable physicians have 
devoted their energies with increasing success for the last three 
hundred years ; and to them the world owes a debt of gratitude 
which cannot be easily computed. And thus they labor still, 
hoping for yet higher results from the diffusion of general know- 
ledge as to the best methods of preserving health, by teachings 
as to the laws of our being in relation to air, exercise, food, sleep. 



2 Hall's Journal of Health. 

personal habits, clothing, the locality and construction of houses, 
and the management of infants. And aided by the ever-widening 
influences of the principles of the christian system, which, by 
inculcating, as one of its cardinal elements, "temperance in all 
things," strikes at the very root of disease, we may reasonably 
hope that, when the true knowledge covers the earth as the 
waters cover the face of the great deep, the ordinary average of 
human life will be the full three-score years and ten, or even 
four-score years, which will then not be years of labor and 
sorrow. 

The world would hail it as a glad event, if physicians could be 
so educated as to cure all disease ; but it would more largely add 
to its happiness if all could be so well instructed, as to the first 
symptoms of every ailment, as to be able at once to arrest its 
progress, and thus no physician be needed to cure ; and yet any 
one must know, that if men could be so taught to live that disease 
would not be possible, half the sufferings of humanity would be 
annihilated. And for this I labor. 

DC? 3 To teach men how to avoid disease was the idea which 
first prompted the determination to publish this periodical, and 
the only pledge or promise I can give is, that whatever is herein 
published, will be designed more or less directly, in my opinion, 
to tend in that direction. 

My first purpose was to issue a publication for the particular 
benefit of clergymen and theological students ; and in order to 
secure their special attention, I designed calling it a "Journal of 
Clerical Health," which, while it would be understood as appli- 
cable to them, would as well meet the wants of all students, of 
professional men, and of women in general, their occupations 
being alike sedentary; but its present designation was finally 
thought to be the more desirable one, while it need not interfere 
with the object first contemplated. 

I consider it proper for me to say here, that perhaps a larger 
proportion of my patients are clergymen or theological students, 
than of any other allopathic practitioner in our country, arising 
very naturally from the fact that, for more than ten years past, 
1 have devoted my attention to those maladies which most gene- 
rally prevail among the classes named, to wit, those chronic dis- 
eases which implicate the throat and lungs. 

From the disclosures made to me professionally, in the course 



Editor s Address. 3 

of my practice, my mind has been painfully impressed, almost 
daily, with the conviction that the most useful and efficient men 
in the community are often lost to society, the church and the 
world, from a remarkable ignorance of some of the simplest laws 
of their being. This is not to be wondered at ; for, from the 
nursery, through the primary schools, the academy, the college, 
the seminary, to the study, not one single lesson is given how to 
save from a premature death the man who has prepared himself 
to act in the great drama of the world, by the expenditure of 
thousands of money, and a score of years of incessant and painful 
labor and study and research. 

According to the present generally received views of prepara- 
tory professional requirements, the student who has his diploma, 
the pulpit or the bar in view, has no time for other than studies 
which qualify him directly for graduation in the university or the 
seminary ; in fact, so many studies are compressed in such a 
comparatively short period, that there is not even time for a young 
gentleman of medium abilities to fully master the most essential 
elements, or if he does, it is from such close and incessant appli- 
cation that often, with commencement-day, he dies! or if he 
survives its reaction, his licensure is too frequently clouded and 
then closed forever, by the stealthy poison of a disease instilled 
during the diplomatic race. Many a reader of mine will be 
stricken with the painful remembrance of cases like these in his 
own sphere of observation, of energies and abilities early blighted, 
which, had the possessor of them enjoyed the health to work, 
might have stirred a nation to high resolves. 

What is not designed. 

This Journal is for the people, and is not intended even to 
admit a single medicinal recipe, although it may be as "simple" 

as syrup of loaf sugar, and as " harmless' 1 as a " vegetable" 

pill ; prussic acid being also " vegetable." 

It is not contemplated to issue a series of prose essays on 
"Physiology 1 ' or "Hygiene" nor to enter into technical and 
learned disquisitions on the chemical analysis of food, the philo- 
sophy of cell life and development, nor indeed any systematic 
expositions, but simply in short articles, in plain English, to treat 
on such subjects, as may present themselves from time to time, 
calculated to bear upon the great points, 



4 1 Halls Journal of Health. 

How to determine disease in its very first approach. 

How to arrest it at once by natural agencies. 

How to live so as to prevent sickness. 

I desire, not promise, that each article shall be complete in 
itself. 

As mine is a consultation practice, and strictly confined to 
chronic ailments of the throat and lungs, the reader need not be 
surprised if I give more attention to Bronchitis, Throat Ail, 
Consumption and Dyspepsia, because this last is sooner or later 
inseparably connected with the others, than all others together, 
in fact they are the main scourges of literary men ; but when it 
is considered that almost all disease comes through the stomach 
or the lungs, the range will be sufficiently wide for the wildest 
liberalise 

The design of this Journal is strictly practical ; practical in 
the every-day sense of the word : its teachings will accompany 
the reader in nearly all the occupations of life ; every hour of the 
day will afford him opportunities of carrying out its principles, 
not as a weary, fretting task, but in the way of an intelligent and 
pleasurable observation. The accomplished geologist, while trav- 
eling over barren wastes and rocky hills to explore some distant 
golden district, can make every pebble and every lump of earth 
minister to his instruction and amusement, without its at all 
interfering with the main object of his journey : just so may a 
man's mind be so well stored with intelligent information on the 
subject of health, and the general laws of life, that observations 
may be made on these every hour of his waking existence almost, 
with pleasure and with profit, without at all interfering with the 
main business of life, and also without having any undesirable 
influence on mind or body ; for he may do this without being 
forever engaged in looking out for symptoms, aggravating those 
present or imagining those which are not. In short, the Journal 
will embrace whatever the Editor thinks will tend to the con- 
venience, comfort, health and perfection of the physical man, as 
far as that can be done without the recommendation of any in- 
ternal medicine, that being the appropriate business of the family 
physician, and no other than a physician can safely do it. And 
the man who takes medicine of any kind on his own responsi- 
bility, is as sensible as he is said to be who pleads his own cause 
at the bar, or the wholesale merchant or banker, who, to econ- 



Editor's Address. 5 

omize, spends an hour in mending an old shoe, or in sewing on a 
missing button. A man will seldom attempt to mend his watch 
that is out of repair, for fear he may do it a greater injury, and 
yet multitudes of otherwise sensible people are tinkering and 
tampering with their constitutions by the use or application of 
remedies of whose qualities they are wholly ignorant, and of 
whose effects they have never had any experience ; and were it 
not for the rudeness of the expression, I would almost say that 
the man who uses a patent medicine is a fool, and the one who 
sells it to him is a knave or an ignoramus. 

The subjects presented from time to time will be such as 

How to eat. 

How to sleep. 

How to exercise. 

How to dress. 

How to walk. 

How to read in public. 

How to declaim with ease and fluency. 

How to select food so as to make it both nutritive and medi- 
cinal. 

How persons become dyspeptic. 

How and why the health of the young so often begins to fail 
while pursuing an education. 

How they may so conduct their studies as to preserve the 
health, and yet accomplish in the course of the year a larger 
amount of mental and literary labor. 

If an essay is admitted, it will be among others from eminent 
practical dentists, as to the best means of preserving the teeth 
perfect to the close of life, as perfect teeth are essential to a 
distinct enunciation, which is of indispensable importance to 
public men, whether professional or literary. 

I will endeavor to make this publication such an one as will 
be proper for the youth of both sexes to read with increasing 
interest and attention, so as to induce them early, while the con- 
stitution is yet vigorous and unimpaired, so to study the nature 
and effects, on the human frame, of food, clothing, air, exercise, 
cheerfulness, system, industry, profitable and interesting employ- 
ment, as will be an effectual guard against those negligences and 
indiscretions which so often lay the foundation for an early 
grave and the utter blasting of parental hope ; for none but an 



6 HalVs Journal of Health. 

affectionate parent can ever know the abiding anguish which 
rends the heart, to the last day of life, the remembrance of a son 
or daughter early dead, and I know that such anguish could be 
prevented in multitudes of hearts, if the principles were early 
inculcated, which this Journal will advocate from time to time ; 
and my hope is, that the father or the mother of a family will not 
only take. a copy for their own use and constant reference, but 
will also order a copy for one or more of their children, which, 
from the fact of its being their own, will secure their personal 
interest in it, which cannot be done so well, when taken for the 
whole family. 

Eating and Drinking. 

I believe that unwarranted and monstrous errors are propa- 
gated, by different writers, on the subject of food and drink. 
Each man has a whim or hobby, so that it has at length come to 
the point that if a man will live healthfully to a great age, say a 
hundred and fifty or two hundred years, he must eat nothing but 
grapes and drink nothing but rain-water. The gentleman who 
advocates the grape diet contends that wheat bread ought not to 
be eaten, that it has too much earth in it, and tends to stiffen a 
man's joints and muscles half a century sooner than if he sub- 
sisted on grapes. * 

Tea and Coffee. 

There are certain districts in the United States where new 
notions of every description flourish with amazing vigor, as far 
as the number of converts are concerned ; among these mere 
notions are the injurious effects of tea and coffee as a daily drink. 

I think that it is demonstrable that a single cup of weak tea or 
coffee at a meal, especially in cold weather, and most especially 
in persons of a weakly habit or constitution, is far more healthful 
than a glass of cold water. 

Tea and coffee doubtless do injure some people — that is, some 
persons may not be able to drink them without its being followed by 
some discomfort ; so will even water, if used too freely ; and I 
think it will be found that, in nearly every such case of uncom- 
fortableness after a cup of tea or coffee, this condition of things 
has been brought about by the too free use of these articles, or 
that the tone of the stomach has been impaired by improper 
eating. 



Editor s Address* 7 

Man is styled an omnivorous animal, an animal eating every- 
thing. No created animal can eat and drink, without discom- 
fort, half the articles consumed by man. I know very well that 
men die before their days are half numbered, in consequence of 
errors in eating and drinking; but these disastrous results do not 
arise from the quality of man's aliment, but from its quantity — 
it is the quantity which prematurely kills millions. A sensible 
man may eat almost anything with impunity, a simpleton nothing; 
the former eats like a philosopher, the latter like a pig. The 
former eats as much as he wants, the latter eats more than he 
wants. 

In small quantities, and occasionally, many things may be eaten 
with advantage, which, if eaten continuously for weeks and 
months, or in inordinate amounts, would occasion serious results. 
There are also times and seasons for different articles of food ; 
for example : fruits and berries, when ripe, fresh, perfect, may 
be freely eaten in the earlier parts of the day, but if largely eaten 
after sundown, especially at some seasons of the year, actually 
endanger life, and have destroyed thousands. 

Milk. 

Many persons imagine that the milk of cows is one of the most 
healthful of all articles, and yet it is a great mistake, except under 
certain limitations. By stout, strong, hardy, industrious out-door 
working men it may be used advantageously for breakfast and 
dinner, but, except in tea and coffee, and now and then half a 
glass for breakfast or dinner, it is not a proper article of food for 
invalids. In many instances patients have said to me, "I used 
to be a dear lover of milk, but I thought it made me bilious, and 
I have ceased using it altogether." This is the common-sense 
observation of ordinary men, one that, without any theory and 
against a life-time of prejudice, has forced itself upon the at- 
tention. 

The rule that a man may eat almost anything with impunity, 
applies to one in good health, eating in moderation, according to 
the quality of the food, but when an invalid is to be fed, very 
different principles are to govern. 

In all that I may say, I ask credence for nothing, except in 
proportion as it is followed up by the argument of whole facts. 



8 HaWs Journal of Health. 

MUNIFICENCE OF Dr. NOTT. 

The following statement from the Albany Evening Journal, in 
reference- to a great and good man, is here given at length, as 
bearing directly on one of the main objects of this Journal, the 

PRESERVATION OF THE HEALTH OF STUDENTS. It is a Step forward 

in the right direction, for which the Editor has spoken and written 
for nearly twenty years, to wit, the establishment of a professor- 
ship in colleges, for the express purpose of imparting instruction 
in reference to the preservation of the constitutions of the young. 
It carries with it more than ordinary weight, since the importance 
of it has forced itself on the mind of the President of a college, 
from the observations of half a century. It is within a day or 
two that I read a notice of the death of a young gentleman, and 
with a change of name only it would be an appropriate obituary 
of thousands of others. " He was the son of the pastor of the 
old church, who had educated his children, and they were noble 
men. He was a great favorite, and deservedly so. He was not 
well when he returned from college after graduating, and after 
a few weeks of struggling, he gave up entirely, and lay down in 
his father s house to die. It was a terrible blow to the father 
and the family." And well it was. How terrible ! none but a 
father can ever know. And it is to prevent the re-occurrence of 
such incidents, by hundreds every year, that this publication is 
undertaken, and that Dr. Nott has founded a perpetual profes- 
sorship in the last item but one of his princely donation : 

''Albany, Dec. 29, 1853. 

" We spoke yesterday of a day of full and complete vindication 
for Dr. Nott. It has come. 

" There was a time, not long since, when it seemed possible 
that vague charges, maliciously originated and ignorantly spread 
and prosecuted, might be allowed to outweigh, in the public esti- 
mation, the acts of a long, upright and useful life. That time, 
we are glad to be convinced, is not only passed, but, in the facts 
given below, there is a guarantee against it ever returning. 

" It is just fifty years since Dr. Nott was called from the Pres- 
byterian Church in Albany to the Presidency of Union College, 
then a feeble and puny institution, struggling for its very exist- 
ence. He gave up the brilliant professional career that was 
opening before him, and devoted his time and his great abilities 
to the College, and through it to the advancement of Christian 
Education. How well he has succeeded is best testified by the 
thousands who have profited by his instructions. There is hardly 



Munificence of Dr. Nott. 9 

a school district of the State, or a Church, or a Court of Justice, 
or a Legislative Session, that has not at one time or another felt 
his teachings through the divines, the lawyers, the teachers and 
the statesmen, that have been his pupils. His eulogy is not 
written, but living and breathing around him. And, in the mean- 
time, the College has gradually become the largest, the richest, 
and the most celebrated, west of the New England line, and not 
inferior to those two which it has taken New England centuries 
to build. 

"At the same time he made himself known as an inventor and 
author, and by laborious research and industry has been amassing 
a large private fortune. But this, also, he has jealously kept 
sacred, not for himself, but for the cherished objects of his life. 
Grown to almost princely proportions, he uses it now, in accord- 
ance with his long-entertained purpose, in a series of endowments 
that will place Union College above every similar institution in 
the land. 

* The action of the Board of Trustees, at their meeting at 
Schenectady yesterday, explains how this is to be done, and how 
it is received. At some future time we hope to give the report 
in a more extended and complete form. The invitation in the 
concluding resolution will be responded to by the assembling of 
an army of graduates for congratulation, not only of their vener- 
able Preceptor, but of the College, the State, and themselves. 

"'This Board having witnessed, for several years past, the 
unceasing efforts made to impair the public confidence in this 
institution, and to injure the character and destroy the usefulness 
of our distinguished President, have, with him, waited their time 
with full confidence in an ultimate and triumphant result. This 
day, in pursuance of a determination formed and expressed more 
than twenty years ago, and the effectual accomplishment of which 
was many years since secured by the proper legal papers to take 
effect in the event of his unexpected decease, Dr. Nott has de- 
livered to this Board, in trust, for the use of the College, money, 
securities and property of the estimated value of more than six 
hundred thousand dollars. This result, the fruit of individual 
skill and far-sighted policy, with donations previously made, 
show the noble disinterestedness which has marked his whole 
administration of the affairs of Union College, and which entitles 
him to the highest credit and honor, and to the lasting gratitude 
of all friends of education, and of the amelioration of our race; 
therefore, 

; ' Resolved, That the Trustees representing the College, and 
as individuals feeling a deep interest in the cause of education, 
tender to our venerable President our warmest thanks for his 
noble and disinterested conduct, for the moral courage and firm- 
ness with which he has met the assaults made upon his character, 



10 Hall's Journal of Health. 

and for his munificent endowment of the institution committed 
to our charge. 

" ' Resolved, That we earnestly request all the graduates of 
Union College to meet us at the next annual commencement, 
and unite in -congratulations to Dr. Nott at the then close of 
fifty years since he entered on his duties as President, and to 
rejoice with him and with us in the prosperity of this institution, 
to the advancement of which he has so successfully devoted the 
energies of a great mind for the thus unexampled period of half a 
century.' 

" The following are the endowments. The several sums are 
to form a perpetual fund, the income only being used for the 
various purposes : 

For the establishment of nine Professorships, $1,500 each, per 

annum, 8225,600 

Six Assistant Professorships or Tutorships, at $600 per 

annum 60,000 

Observatory, 20,000 

Sixty-eight Auxiliary Scholarships, .... 50,000 
Fifty Prize Scholarships for under graduates, . . 50,000 
Nine Prize Fellowships for graduates, $300 each, per 

annum, 45,000 

Cemetery and Pleasure Grounds, .... 20,000 
Philosophical, Mathematical and Chemical Apparatus, 10,000 

Text Books, 5,000 

Scientific, Classical, Philosophical, Theological, Medical 

and Law Books 30,000 

Cabinet of Geological Specimens, .... 5,000 

Historical Medals, Coins, Maps, Paintings, and other 

Historical Memorials, %f? 5,000 

Lectures on the Dangers and Duties of Youth, especially 
Students; the Development and Preservation of the 
Physical, Intellectual and Moral Constitution of Man ; 
Preservation of Health, and on the Laws of Life, . 10,000 
To meet taxes, liens, assessments, incumbrances, insur- 
ance, and compensation to Visitors, and to make up 
any deficiencies in the income of any of preceding 
principal sums, so as to secure the attainment of the 
objects and purposes designed, .... 75,000 

Total, $610,000 

" There are to be five Visitors appointed, charged with the 
duty of acting in connection with the Trustees, and seeing that 
these trusts are faithfully carried out." 



The Food we Eat. 11 

THE FOOD WE EAT. 

Hufeland calls the stomach Atria mortis, the entrance-hall of 
death, and says without a good stomach it is impossible to attain 
a great age. All have naturally good stomachs, that is, good 
digestion, but it is ruined early by improper feeding as to time, 
quality, quantity, and mode of preparation. Therefore a large 
portion of the Journal will be occupied with statements in refer- 
ence to these items. Substantial, nourishing food, properly pre- 
pared and well digested, these three are the great essentials of a 
long and healthy life. I will here give two examples, full of 
instruction, highly encouraging and well worthy of imitation by 
all who would like to live in the full enjoyment of health, and all 
the faculties of mind and body, for a hundred or hundred and 
fifty years or more. The first shows how an injured stomach 
and constitution may be repaired, the second how they may 
remain in perfect health for a hundred and fifty years, and all 
by the proper management of eating and drinking. 

Lewis Cornaro, an Italian nobleman of wealth, by intemper- 
ance and debauchery made a wreck and ruin of his fortune and 
constitution at the early age of forty years. His physicians con- 
sidering his habits inveterate, informed him that restoration was 
impossible, and with characteristic recklessness he resolved that 
if he had to die, he would abandon himself to the fullest, indul- 
gences, and thus get. all the good possible out of the short rem- 
nant of life before him. But some circumstance shortly occurred 
which induced him to reverse his decision, and experiment on 
the possibility of disappointing his doctors and his heirs, and 
living to a good old age. This he attempted at once by means 
of his food and drink alone. He began by eating and drinking 
very little, and found that his health improved. Sometimes he 
would eat more, then less, untH he discovered what amount of 
food was most suitable for him, which was twelve ounces of solid 
food, and thirteen ounces of fluid, every twenty-four hours. At 
length his health became so good, that his friends suggested to 
him, that now he was so hearty and well, there was no longer 
any necessity for such a strict allowance, and that if he ate and 
drank a little more it would be of advantage to him. He replied 
that he was now well, and had continued well for some years, on 
this allowance, that he could not be better, and that he had no 



12 Hall's Journal of Health. 

disposition to run any unnecessary risks, nor to make hazardous 
experiments, and that as he had regained his title and estates, 
and. his health too, he now wished greatly to preserve the last, 
that he might long enjoy the others. However, he was at length 
induced to gratify his friends, and increased his food to fourteen, 
and his drink to sixteen ounces a day, and said he, 

''Scarcely had I continued this mode of living ten days, when 
I began, instead of being cheerful and lively as before, to become 
uneasy and dejected, a burden to myself and to others. On the 
twelfth day I was seized with a fever of such violence, for thirty- 
five days, that my life was despaired of. But by the blessing of 
God, and my former regimen, I recovered ; and now in my 
eighty-third year, I enjoy a happy state of both body and mind. 
I can mount my horse unaided. I climb steep hills. When I 
return home from a private company, or the senate, I find eleven 
grand-children, whose education, amusements and songs are the 
delight of my old age. I myself often sing with them, for my 
voice is clearer and stronger than it was in my youth ; and I am 
a stranger to those peevish and morose humors which so often 
fall to the lot of old a^e." 

CD 

In the latter years of his life he published an "Earnest Exhor- 
tation," which he closes by saying, " Since length of days abounds 
with so many blessings and favors, and I happen to be one of 
those who have arrived at that state, I cannot but give my testi- 
mony in favor of it ; and I assure you all that I really enjoy more 
than I express, and that I have no other reason for writing, but 
that of demonstrating the great advantages which arise from 
longevity, to the end that their own conviction may induce them 
to observe those excellent rules of temperance and sobriety. And 
therefore 1 never cease to raise my voice, crying out to you, 
may your days be long, that you may be the better servants to 
the Almighty." 

When about to die, he raised his eyes and exclaimed, with 
great animation, " Full with joy and hope, I resign myself to thee, 
most merciful God !" He then disposed himself with dignity, 
and closing his eyes, as if about to slumber, gave a gentle sigh 
and expired, in his ninety-ninth year, A.D. 1565. 

If a systematic life of temperance has given sixty years addi- 
tional to a broken-down constitution of forty, it becomes almost 
a crime for an invalid under fifty years of age not to avail him- 
self of the trial. 



Too white Flour. 13 

This was a case where the energies of the stomach have been 
restored by temperance in eating and drinking, and remaining 
in their integrity for more than half a century thereafter ; and 
what has been, may be again. 

The next example shows that the stomach is made, in modern 
times too, to last a hundred and fifty years. 

Thomas Parr, of Shropshire, England, when a hundred and 
twenty years old, married a widow for his second wife, who lived 
with him twelve years, and who stated that, during that time, he 
never betrayed any signs of age or infirmity. The King of 
England having heard of him, invited him to London in his 
hundred and fifty-second year. He was treated in so royal a 
manner at court, and his mode of living was so totally changed, 
that he died soon after, in 1635, aged one hundred and fifty-two 
years and nine months, proven by public documents. His body 
was examined by Dr. Harvey, who ''found his internal organs 
in the most perfect state, nor was the least symptom of decay 
found in them. His cartilages, even, were not ossified, as is the 
case in all old people. The smallest cause of death had not 
settled in his body ; and he died merely of phlethora, because 
he had been too w T ell fed." 

This man was a farm-servant, and had to maintain himself by 
daily labor, consequently he must have lived on plain food, and 
not over-abundant ; and the simple fact that at his death his 
stomach was in a healthy condition, proves conclusively its 
capabilities of duration, working healthfully to the last. And 
there can be no reason, in the nature of things, why the human 
stomach may not be preserved in its integrity as a general rule 
to a like old age. 

I trust no reader will attempt to live on common allowance, 
on his own responsibility ; he should consult with his family 
physician, for age, sex, condition in life, occupation, materially 
modify the amount of food requisite for the wants of the system. 

Too white Flour. 

Messrs. Mouriez & Chevrene, Chemists, who have superin- 
tended the provision of bread for the hospitals, and subjected all 
kinds to experiments, submitted a report to the French Academy, 
in which they condemn the practice of making bread too white. 
It is then, thev remark, a condiment, not an aliment. The ex- 



14 HalVs Journal of Health. 

elusion of bran is a loss of nourishment to the consumer ; the 
palate and fancy are gratified at the expense of the whole animal 
economy. 

TRAVELING FOR HEALTH. 

"Death of Rev. Lewis Weld. — We regret to learn, through 
the Hartford Courant, of the death of Rev. Lewis Weld, Prin- 
cipal of the American Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb at Hart- 
ford, Conn. Mr. Weld was an earnest and efficient worker in 
the cause of Deaf-Mute education, and the members of the vene- 
rable Institution lately under his care sustain a heavy loss in his 
decease. He had but just returned from a European trip, un- 
dertaken for the benefit of his health, which had recently become 
much impaired. The voyage did not alleviate his complaint, a 
congestion of the lungs. For the past twenty years Mr. Weld 
has acted as the Principal of the Asylum." 

The above is given as another of the numerous illustrations of 
the utter inefficiency of going abroad for diseases of the lungs. 
The atmosphere of steamers and sail-vessels, loaded with im- 
purities of bilge water, of hot steam, of cookery, their damp 
decks, confined promenades, shelf bedsteads, are as well calcu- 
lated to benefit invalids as the sumptuous hotels, diligence ac- 
commodations, postal and passport comforts of the continent, 
and yet for these, invalids leave a loved and loving home in 
multitudes every year, sometimes only to get home again and 
die, as in this case, at others to die in sight of home, and often, 
very often, never to return. 

Some of the experiences of foreign travel are detailed by an 
ex-editor while abroad for his health: 

" It may be strange, but it is nevertheless true, that I have 
been as really and truly home-sick for the last three months as 
ever was any little girl in her first quarter at the boarding-school. 
If you knew how much pleasanter a life of real work and study- 
in the United States is than this nonsensical travel and idleness, 
you would not be so discontented. One will only learn by expe- 
rience, however ; and the best thing I expect to get, personally, 
out of this mission, is just this — that I will be satisfied when I 
get back, and never again be haunted by those intolerable long- 
ings for Europe, which tormented me in the years gone by. 

"The pleasure of actually seeing celebrated places is small. 
It is all anticipation and memory. The real comforts of Europe 
don't compare with those of the United States. Everything costs 
just double what it does at home. The people are nowhere as 
good as ours. The women are uglier — the men have fewer 



Wearing the Beard. 15 

ideas. I intended to write a book about it all ; and I thought, 
when I left the United States, that I would have to stretch the 
blanket a good deal to make out our superiority. But there is 
no need. The meanness, the filthy life, the stupidities of all the 
countries I have seen, surpassed all I expected, and all I hoped. 

"Here, in Turin, which is the most beautiful city I have ever 
seen, I am busy learning to speak French and studying what is 
popularly, but most falsely, termed the 'great world' and 'polite 
society.' I have dined with dukes, jabbered bad grammar to 
countesses, and am spunged on for seats in my opera box by 
counts, who smell of garlic, as does the whole country. I receive 
visits from other diplomates, with titles as long as a flag staff, and 
heads as empty as their hearts, and find the whole concern more 
trashy than I had ever imagined. . I must, however, keep up 
their miserable acquaintance, for that is the way to see the 'ele- 
phant' of European life. So I dance the dance of fools, like the 
best of them, and return their visits sedulously, carrying about 
great cards, like that I enclose for your inspection. 

" The pictures, the operas and ballets of Europe are good 
things ; the people, the governments and the society more con- 
temptible than can be conceived. 

" I find the idea current among the European physicians, 
which I have often broached to you, that chemistry is not com- 
petent to extract all the essential components of natural produc- 



Wearing the Beard. 

Although it is not customary to wear the beard in the United 
States, it would undoubtedly contribute to the health of men to 
do so, at least if unshorn from the edge of the jaws and chin 
downward. Clergymen would in all cases be benefited by it. 
Hair is nature's protector against cold. Our beneficent Creator 
does nothing in vain. 

Rowland says on this subject, 

" It may be safely argued as a general physiological principle, 
that whatever evinces a free and natural development of any 
part of the body, is, by necessity, beautiful. Deprive the lion of 
his mane, the cock of its comb, the peacock of the emerald plu- 
mage of its tail, the ram and deer of their horns, and they not 
only become displeasing to the eye, but lose much of their power 
and vigor. And it is easy to apply this reasoning to the hairy 
ornaments of a man's face. The caprice of fashion alone forces 
the Englishman to shave off those appendages which give to the 
male countenance that true masculine character, indicative of 
energy, bold daring, and decision. The presence or absence of 
the beard, as an addition to the face, is the most marked and 



16 Hall's Journal of Health. 

distinctive peculiarity between the countenances of the two sexes. 
Who can hesitate to admire the noble countenance of the Os- 
manli Turk of Constantinople, with his un-Mongolian-length of 
beard ? Ask any of the fair sex whether they will not approve 
and admire the noble countenance of Mehemet Ali, Major Her- 
bert Edwards, the hero of the Punjaub, Sir Charles Napier, and 
others, as set off by their beard ? We may ask, with Beatrice, 
4 What manner of man is he ? Is his head worth a hat, or his 
chin worth a beard?' I have noticed the whiskers and beards 
of many of our most eminent physicians and merchants encroach- 
ing upon their former narrow boundaries, while it is well known 
that not a few of our divines have been long convinced of the 
folly of disobeying one of nature's fixed laws; but hitherto their 
unwillingness to shock the prejudice of their congregations, have 
prevented them from giving effect to their convictions. The 
beard is not merely for ornament, it is for use. Nature never 
does anything in vain ; she is economical, and wastes nothing. 
She would never erect a bulwark were her domain unworthy of 
protection, or were there no enemy to invade it." 

Eyelashes. 
In Circassia and neighboring countries the eyelashes of chil- 
dren are clipped, with scissors, at their extreme points, while 
asleep, every six weeks, giving them in time a beautiful gloss 
and curve, besides adding to their length and thickness. 



INVALIDS AND EXERTIVE EXERCISE. 

Common consumption of the lungs destroys more people than 
any other half dozen diseases, while perhaps a third of all who 
die in civilized society, do so from ailments connected with the 
air passages, hence whatever tends to diffuse true knowledge on 
the subject must be a public good. Theories are good enough 
in their place, but the mass of society prefers 1o deal in facts, in 
well established whole facts ; these are more tangible, and the 
common mind can more easily grapple with them. The diseases 
to which the lungs and their proper appendages are liable, are 
Asthma, Bronchitis, Consumption, Laryngitis or Throat ail, Croup, 
Pleurisy, Inflammation of the Lungs, Congestion of the Lungs, 
Quinsy, &c. All these diseases arise from two causes: 

1. Changes of temperature. 

2. The failure to keep the breathing apparatus in vigorous, full, 
healthful operation, by a sufficient amount daily of exertive exer- 
cise in the open air. By a wise attention to this second cause 



Heart Disease, 

of lung diseases, the. former will cease to be a cause, except in 
occasional cases. Not only so, threatened consumption may be 
effectually warded off, in the vast majority of cases, by the proper 
adaptation of daily out-door exertive exercise to the require- 
ments of the system, as indicated by the condition of the pulse, 
the heart, the breathing organs, of which the physician ought to 
be the standing judge. For, when a man is an invalid, the 
amount of food, air and exercise requires as much of medical 
intelligence, experience and skill, as would the judicious exhibi- 
tion of medicine. 

An example — Heart Disease. 

It is well known that the symptoms of a disease of the heart, 
and those of the lungs, as well as those of a spinal affection, 
are so apparently alike in the main, that it requires large medi- 
cal experience to decide safely and certainly between them ; but 
the exercise requisite in an affection of the lungs would inevita- 
bly destroy life if advised for a disease of the heart or spine. In 
no form of sickness is exercise so immediately and certainly fatal 
as in heart affections, while the results of active exercise in spinal 
disease are terrible, literally terrible, not in their immediate 
effects as involving life, but in the certain penalty of weeks and 
months and weary years of corporeal helplessness, and agonizing 
almost ceaseless pain, requiring a thousand times more endurance 
and a far higher degree of fortitude than marching up to the 
cannon's mouth in the heat of battle. An affecting instance of 
this kind came under my notice within a few years past, and I 
feel sure that a recital of it will be a public benefit, as teaching 
the importance of taking early competent medical advice in cases 
of sickness. 

On the 23d of September, 1851, I was called to see a young 
lady on a visit to New York, who was supposed to be in a 
decline. She was from a neighboring city, an only daughter. 
She was just entering life, with all the advantages which position 
and fortune and refinement could bestow. She had a pulse of a 
hundred and twenty a minute, thirty-six respirations, an incessant 
cough, debility, such that she could not walk without two assist- 
ants. She still lives, a noble monument of heroic endurance and 
mental energy and worth. Previous to applying to me she had 
suffered a dozen deaths, in her efforts to take air and exercise on 



18 HalFs Journal of Health. 

foot, on horse, in carriage; and as often almost as she would 
take them, she could, on reaching her own door, scarcely prevent 
herself from shrieking out with an agony of pain. She was en- 
couraged to persevere in these efforts, and, with a daughter's 
affection for a loving mother, whose solicitude and watchfulness 
never slept, she did so, untii locomotion became impossible. This 
being a clear case of spinal disease, every step she took, every 
moment she sat still, aggravated the complaint. The best medi- 
cal skill in the country has failed to afford her any permanent 
relief, and to this hour she is unable to stand, suffering daily tor- 
ture, hardly desiring to hope for even relief until she is called to 
go where all the good are. 

With this case, given as a precaution against the danger 
which attends taking daily out-door exercise, without medical 
advice, for any of the prominent symptoms of consumption, 
such as cough, short breath, quick pulse, debility, pains about 
the chest, &c, I here give, as being highly instructive, an article 
from "The Home Journal" of December 10th, 1853, under the 
editorial head : — 

(For Invalids only.) 

Are you quite well, dear reader? Are all those who are dear 
to you quite well? If so, perhaps you will kindly pass on to 
another topic, allowing me, under the Idlewild caption, for this 
week, to answer a letter from an invalid — the information, thus 
called for, being interesting to invalids only, or to those with 
precious invalids for whom they feel and care. In a world 
where mortals walk beside Death with a face averted, the sick 
can talk safely of their sorrows only to the sick. I do not claim, 
therefore, the attention due to a general topic. Though, with 
pulmonary consumption for our country's most fatal liability, any 
experience, in eluding or defeating it, may be of interest to so 
many, as to be, at least, excusably tedious to the remainder. It 
comes appropriately from Idlewild. The Highlands around us, 1 
fully believe, are the nearest spot to New York, where the acrid 
irritation of our eastern and seaboard climate is unfelt. Poke 
your fire, then, dear delicate reader! — (for you are an invalid, 
by your following me thus far) — and settle yourself comfortably 
in your arm-chair, while I lay before you a sad and well-written 
letter from an invalid : 

" £******; November 21, 1853. 

"Mr. Willis. — Dear Sir: You will perhaps think it presump- 
tion in me, an entire stranger, to address you as I now do; but 
1 shall be willing to abide your judgment after you have heard 



A Letter. 19 

my story. I am a Presbyterian clergyman, in feeble health. 
After five years' preaching in one happy parish, my lungs gave 
out, and I was obliged to give up my calling. By the advice of 
physicians here and in New York, I spent two winters at the 
South, roaming from place to place, but spending most of the 
time in Jacksonville and St. Augustine, Florida. I was there 
during the winter of your tour in that region, and on the same 
sad errand. And I may here say, that I have taken great plea- 
sure in reading, weekly, your record of travel in those parts. 

"But I got no essential benefit from the 'Sunny South' — 
nothing but some disgust for it, weariness of travel, and a warmer 
love for the North and for my home. Neglecting further medical 
advice, I bought, two years since, \ pleasant site for a country 
residence in this, my native place, built a house, and devoted 
myself to tree-planting and gardening of all sorts. This has 
been my sole employment for two summers. In winter I warm 
my whole house moderately, not allowing the mercury to rise 
above sixty or sixty-two degrees, and connect with this a thorough 
ventilation. I remain within doors most of the time. Between 
romping with my two children, playing with grace-sticks, battle- 
door, etc., fighting imaginary foes with my cane, and the music 
of a piano, I manage to get regular, daily exercise and recrea- 
tion. In favorable weather I also take a brisk walk of half a 
mile. 

" This mode of life makes me quite happy, and I enjoy a toler- 
able degree of health; but / dont get well. I followed you to 
Idiewild with much interest, having a fellow-feeling on one point, 
at least, and watched to see whether you would get the mastery 
of disease. In your last letter you say that you are no longer to 
be classed among consumptives. AJas! I can't say as much for 
myself, I fear. And on reading your lines, I resolved to write 
to you, as a once fellow-invalid, and ask, What has cured you? 
The doctors advise me to go South and take cod-liver oil, but 
their prescriptions do me no good ; and I improve most when 
following my own judgment. I spade, and hoe, and rake quite 
lustily, and ride horseback, in summer; I cough but little, and 
eat and sleep as well as ever — but cannot use my lungs. Now, 
may I trouble you to give me some plain advice — a little of your 
own daily regimen — it" you are willing to do so, an account of 
what has helped you. 

"1 consult you, not as a doctor, but as a man of benevolence, 
knowing by experience the feelings of a young man arrested by 
disease, and laid aside from the activities of life. 

"If you do not think proper, or find it convenient, to address 
me personally, 1 beg leave to suggest that you give your friends, 
through the Home Journal, some of your views and your expe- 
rience relating to the treatment of pulmonary affections. A 



20 Halts Journal of Health. 

large and eagerly attentive audience would listen to your words, 
I assure you. 

"Pardon me, sir, if I have annoyed you by this letter; and if 
you are willing to do so, please allow me to hear from you, and 
greatly oblige, yours, with true respect, a. d. g." 

[To which straightforward and touching letter, the following 
was the bulk of my reply— not very satisfactory, I fear, though 
possibly there may be a point or so in which it is either sugges- 
tive or corroborative :] — 

* * The politicians teach us how to treat a disease, I think. 
They do not try to convert the opposing party. They are con- 
tent if they can keep it in the minority — sure that it will tire, in 
time, of its want of power, change sides, or disappear. The 
patient who troubles himself least about his disease, (or leaves it 
entirely to his doctor,) but who perseveringly outvotes it by the 
high condition of the other parts of his system, is the likeliest to 
recover — and it is of this high condition, alone, that I have any- 
thing to say. Of twenty who may be sleepless with a cough 
and weakened with the raising of blood, no two, perhaps, are 
subjects for precisely the same medical treatment, or diseased in 
precisely the same locality, though all are called "consumptives." 
Our friends, the physicians, are better geographers than we, as 
to where the healing is wanted, though they strangely confine 
themselves to the specific ailment, taking it for granted that the 
patient keeps the rest of his body in proper training for recovery. 
It is medical etiquette, I believe, to refrain from any very par- 
ticular inquiry into this. But few sick men are wise or firm- 
minded enough to be safely trusted with their own general con- 
dition ; and J, for one, came very near dying — not of my disease, 
but of what my doctors took for granted. 

To leave generalities, however, and come to the personal 
experience which you ask for : 

J went to the Tropics, as a last hope, to cure a chronic cough 
and blood-raising which had brought me to the borders of the 
grave. I found a climate in which it is hard to be unhappy 
about anything — charming to live at all — easy to die. (At least, 
those who were sure of dying, and did die — and in whose insepa- 
rable company I thought I was — were social and joyous to the 
last.) The atmosphere of that Eden-latitude, however, is but a 
pain-stilling opiate, while the Equator might be called a kitchen- 
range for a Sardanapalus, and the Antilles are but tables loaded 
with luxuries. The Caribbean Sea is the Kingdom of the Present 
Moment. The Past and the Future are its Arctic and Antarctic 
— unthought of, except by desperate explorers. Hither are sent 
invalids, with weakened resolution, to make a pilgrimage with 
prescription and prudence! You may see by the book I have 
just published, (Health-Trip to the Tropics,) with what complete 
forgetfulness of care or caution I made one of an invalid com- 



A Reply. 21 

pany for months. Was anybody going to be shut up in a bed- 
room with such nights out of doors? Was anybody going to be 
dull and abstinent with such merry people, and a French break- 
fast or tempting dinner on the table? 

I reached home in July, thoroughly prostrated, and, in the 
opinion of one or two physicians, a hopeless case. Coughing 
almost the whole of every night, and raising blood as fast as my 
system could make it, I had no rest and no strength. T lingered 
through the summer, and, as the autumn came on, and the winter 
was to be faced, I sat down and took a fair look at the proba- 
bilities. With the details of this troubled council of war, I will 
not detain you; but, after an unflinching self-examination, I 
came to the conclusion that I was, myself, the careless and indo- 
lent neutralizer of the medicines which had failed to cure me — 
that one wrong morsel of food or one day's partially-neglected 
exercise might put back a week's healing — and that, by slight 
omissions of attention, occasional breaking of regimen, and much 
too effeminate habits, I was untrue to the trust which Gray, my 
friend and physician, had made the ground of his prescriptions. 
And, to a minutely persevering change in these comparative 
trifles, I owe, I believe, my restoration to health. There was 
not a day of the succeeding winter, however cold or wet, in 
which I did not ride, eight or ten miles, on horseback. With 
five or six men, 1 was, for most of the remaining hours of the 
day, out of doors, laboring at the roads and clearings of my 
present home. The cottage of Idlewild was then unbuilt, and 
the neighboring farm-house, where we boarded, was, of course, 
indifferently warmed ; but, by suffering no state of the thermom- 
eter to interrupt the morning cold bath, and the previous friction 
with flesh-brushes, which makes the water as agreeable as in 
summer, I soon became comparatively independent of the tem- 
perature in doors, as my horse and axe made me independent of 
it when out of doors. With proper clothing to resist cold or wet, 
I found (to my surprise) that there was no such thing as disa- 
greeable weather to be felt in the saddle ; and, when a drive in 
a wagon or carriage would have intolerably irritated my cough, 
1 could be all day in the woods with an axe, my lungs as quiet 
as a child's. 

To bo continued. 



22 Halls Journal of Health. 

NOTICES OF BOOKS, PERIODICALS, &c. 

PROSPECTUS of the INDEPENDENT.— Volume Sixth, 1854.— This well- 
known and widely circulated Journal, conducted by Pastors of Congregational 
Churches in New York and vicinity, has completed its fifth year. 

It is now enlarged ; is published in a quarto form, and contains sixteen columns, 
or 50 per cent, more reading matter than ever before, being THE LARGEST RE- 
LIGIOUS PAPER IN THE WORLD. 

In addition to the regular editorial corps, the Rev. G. B. Cheever, D.D., the Rev. 
Henry "Ward Beecher, Mrs. H. B. Stowe, the Rev. C. L. Brace, and "Minnie Myrtle," 
are stated contributors, engaged to write weekly, and will be assisted by most able 
correspondents at home and abroad, who will do all in their power to make this 
Journal an interesting RELIGIOUS and FAMILY PAPER. 

Terms. — Notwithstanding the immense addition of at least $8,000 to the yearly 
expenses of the paper, the price will remain the same, 

$2 PER ANNUM, BY MAIL, $2 50 BY CARRIERS, 
if paid strictly in advance, or $2 50 if not paid within three months. No new names 
entered without the money. 

Agents. — Clergymen and Postmasters are authorized Agents, and are solicited 
to engage in the work of extending our circulation. Fifty Cents commission on each 
new subscriber will be allowed them. 

Any person wishing to subscribe, will please enclose in an envelope TWO DOL- 
LARS, and address JOSEPH H. LADD, 

Publisher of The Independent, No. 10 Spruce st., New York, 
Prepaying postage ; and money so sent, will be considered at our risk. 

The paper will be sent in exchange for one year to any newspaper or monthly 
periodical that will publish this prospectus, including this notice. New York, Jan. 
5, 1854. 

A PAPER FOR YOUR FAMILY. 



%m iniBs— lirm attrartintrs— Mm €nyt. 

THE HOME J^JJKNAIj F<0>I£ 1804. 

In consequence of the great and continually increasing demand for this elegantly- 
printed, widely-circulated and universally popular Family Newspaper, we have, 
heretofore, been unable to furnish the back numbers to only a very limited extent. 
To avoid this disappointment in future, we shall, on the first of January next, print 
such an increased edition as will enable us to supply new subscribers from that date. 
Besides the original productions of the Editors — the Foreign and Domestic Corres- 
pondence of a large list of contributors — the spice of the European Magazines — the 
selections of the most interesting publications of the day — the brief novels — the 
piquant stories — the sparkling wit and amusing anecdote — the news and goseip of 
the Parisian papers — the personal sketches of public characters — the stirring scenes 
of the world we live in — the chronicle of the news for ladies — the fashions and 
fashionable gossip— the facts and outlines of news — the pick of English information 
— the wit, humor and pathos of the times — the essays on life, literature, society and 
morals, and the usual variety of careful choosings from the wilderness of English 
periodical literature, criticism, poetry, etc. — several new and attractive features of 
remarkable interest will enrich and give value to the new series of the work. 

Terms — For one copy, $2 ; for three copies, $5, or one copy for three years, $5 
— alwavs in advance. 

Subscribe without delay. Address MORRIS <fc WILLIS. 



"*J§E§ ANI> AKUSE§ OF AIM," 

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ventilation of houses; 12 mo., 249 pages, with numerous plates, plans of houses, 



Notices of Books, Periodicals, etc. 

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Price Seventy-five cents. 



"HUFELAND'S ART OF PROLONGING LIFE" has just been republished 
by Ticknor, Reed & Fields, Boston ; 328 pages, 12 mo. 

The enterprising publishers have done a public service in the reissue of this 
useful book. It is thus noticed by the American Medical Monthly of New York, of 
which Edward H. Parker, M.D., is Editor, assisted by the Faculty of the New York 
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" It treats of the means that shorten and those which lengthen life. The work 
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sleep better and longer, work to better advantage, by learning to think before acting, 
lay together less kindling wood for future repentance, and live to a better old age." 

This well-written notice indicates the point to which the attention of educated, 
medical men is directed, the preservation of the health and constitutions of the 
young, showing that the true physician is not only ambitious of curing those who are 
sick, but that he disinterestedly strives for the prevention of disease; and from the 
endorsement of such names as Green and Carnochan, the public have a guarantee 
that the American Medical Monthly will in this, as in others, labor for what " per- 
tains to the welfare of our public institutions, and the advancement of professional 
excellence and knowledge. Its design is not to supplant existing Journals, but to 
cultivate a field which it is believed has hitherto been neglected." 



NOTICES. 

Prepayment in all cases is indispensable. The receipt of the 
"Journal" will be presumptive evidence that it is paid for, or 
sent as a specimen, intimating, in the latter case, that it is the 
special desire of the Editor that the person to whom it is sent 
should become a subscriber without delay. 

The postage of the Journal is only six cents a year, if pre-paid 
at the Post Office of each subscriber. 



TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

All orders or communications, books for notice or review, cor- 
respondence, &c, must be addressed simply to 

" Hall's Journal of Health, New York," 
or, if within the city, to the office of the Editor, 37 Irving Place, 
New York, near Union Square, until May 1st next, and there- 
after, at his private residence, 42 Irving Place. 

A single specimen number will be sent by the Editor, post- 
paid, to his personal friends and former patients in the different 



24 Hall's Journal of Health. 

states of the Union • and he desires it to be considered as his 
particular desire, that such would become subscribers ; thus 
affording him, from time to time, the satisfaction of knowing 
that they "still live," and that his labors are tending to pro- 
mote the health and consequent happiness of those whom he has 
once pleasurably known. 

One specimen number will be also sent to a number of clergy- 
men, for it originated in a desire to promote their good, and the 
Editor will endeavor to conduct it in such a manner, that any 
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gone up to their reward. 

The Journal will be sent also to some of the public men in the 
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CONTENTS. 



Editor's Address 1 

Subjects to be Treated 5 

Eating and Drinking 6 

Tea and Coffee 6 

Use of Milk 1 

Dr. Nott's Munificence 8 

The food we Eat 11 

How to attain Old Age 12 

Too white Flour 13 

Traveling for Health 14 



Page 

"Wearing the Beard 15 

Invalids and Exertive Exercise 16 

Heart Disease 17 

Consumption and the South 18 

Book Notices 22 

" The Independent" 22 

The Home Journal 22 

The American Medical Monthly. . . .23 

To Correspondents 23 

A Premium 24 



DCf* The " Journal " will be sent one year to any established 
newspaper or periodical which will notice its appearance, and 
copy the contents of the January number — -provided such publi- 
cation is sent, with the article scored, to address of 

"Hall's Journal of Health, New York." 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 

VOL. I.] FEBRUARY, 1854. [NO. II. 



INVALIDS AND EXERTIVE EXERCISE. 

CONTINUED FROM LAST NUMBER. 

With all this, and looking like the ruddiest specimen of health 
in the country round about, I am still (you will be comforted to 
hear) troubled occasionally with my sleep-robber of a cough ; 
and, in Boston, the other day, on breathing that essence of pepper 
and icicles which they call their "East Wind," I was seized with 
the old hemorrhage of the lungs, and bled myself weak again. 
But I rallied immediately on returning to this Highland air, and 
am well once more — as well, that is to say, as is consistent with 
desirable nervous susceptibility. The kiss of the delicious South 
Wind of to-day, (November 3D,) would be half lost upon the 
cheek of perfect health. 

I fear I cannot sufficiently convey to you my sense of the 
importance of a horse to an invalid. In my well-weighed 
opinion, ten miles a day in the saddle would cure more despe- 
rate cases, (particularly of consumption,) than all the changes 
of climate and all the medicines in the world. It is vigorous 
exercise without fatigue. The peculiar motion effectually pre- 
vents all irritation of cold air to the lungs, on the wintriest day. 
The torpid liver and other internal organs are more shaken up 
and vivified by the trot of a mile than by a week of feeble walk- 
ing. The horse (and you should own and love him) is company 
enough, and not too much. Your spirits are irresistibly enlivened 
by the change of movement and the control of the animal. Your 
sense of strength and activity, (in which lies half the self-confi- 
dence as to getting well, which the doctors think so important,) 
is plus one horse. With the difference from walking, as to 
puliing upon the forces of the spine and consequently upon the 
brain, it is recommended by the best English physicians as much 
the preferable exercise for men of intellectual pursuits. And, 
last, (I think not least,) the lungs of both body and soul are 
expanded by the daily consciousness of inhabiting a larger space 
— by having an eagle's range rather than a snail's — by living a 
life which occupies ten miles square of the earth's surface, rather 
than that " half mile" which you speak of as the extent of your 



26 Hall's Journal of Health. 

daily walk. The cost is trifling. At this particular season, 
when horses are beginning, as they say at the livery stables, to 
" eat their heads off," you may buy the best you can want for 
fifty dollars, and his feed costs thirty cents a day. As the horse 
and the doctor are seldom necessities of one and the same man, 
you may rather find it an economy — apothecary and all. 

In that " majority" I have spoken of above, there are, (as in 
all majorities,) some voters of not much consequence individually, 
but still worth keeping an eye upon. Briefly to name one or 
two: — There are so few invalids who are invariably and con- 
scientiously untemptable by those deadly domestic enemies, sweet- 
meats, pastry and gravies, that the usual civilities at a meal are 
very like being politely assisted to the grave. The care and 
nurture of the skin is a matter worth some study ; for it is 
capable not only of being negatively healthy, but positively lux- 
urious in its action and sensations — as every well-groomed horse 
knows better than most men. The American liver has a hard 
struggle against the greasy cookery of our happy country. The 
impoverished blood of the invalid sometimes requires that "glass 
of wine for the stomach's sake" recommended by the Apostle. 
Just sleep enough and just clothing enough are important adjust- 
ments, requiring more thought and care than are usually given 
to them. For a little philosophy in your habitual posture as you 
sit. in your chair, your lungs woula be very much obliged to you. 
An analysis of the air we live and sleep in, would be well worth 
looking into occasionally. And there are two things that turn 
sour in a man, without constant and sufficient occupation upon 
something beside the domestic circle — the temper and the ambi- 
tion. * * 

Thus much, of my reply to our clerical* fellow-sufferer, may 
interest you, dear invalid reader. Of the medicine of " Out-doors 
at Idlewild" — the mingled salubrity of the climate of mountain 
and river around us — I should have said more to one unanchored 
in a home and a parish. From one who writes so frankly and 
sensibly as he, we must hope to hear again, however, and, with 
another opportunity, I may again ask for invalid indulgence, 
and return to the theme. 

In a future number I purpose giving an illustration of the 
truthfulness, in the main, of the statements made above, showing 
in a more remarkable manner what may be accomplished by 
medical advice, without medicine, when the patient is willing to 
get well without medicine. 

I wish here to take exception to the clergyman's language — 
" By the advice of physicians here and in New York, I spent 
two winters at the South * * * * but got no essential benefit 



Common JSense. 27 

* * * neglecting further medical advice, I bought, two years 
since, a pleasant site for a country residence ***** but I 
don't get well." There is a want of courtesy in the manner in 
which his medical advisers are spoken of, which is unbecoming 
a clergyman, and especially so, if that advice was gratuitous, as 
is most probably the case. After discarding physicians and pre- 
scribing for himself for two years, it seems, from his own admis- 
sion, that he is not well. Nor would any man ever get well by 
pursuing a course so irrational and absurd as that which this 
clergyman adopted. It is, however, an illustration of the futility 
of simply going to the sunny South to get rid of a cough, and 
how much may be done by remaining in the North and pursuing 
a proper course, under medical advice, as in the case of the 
gentleman to whom the clergyman wrote. 



COMMON SENSE. 

A number of articles have appeared in the New York Daily 
Times, of a sanitary character, which merit public attention ; 
and, among others, one on Common Sense : '< 

"If common sense were an article to be bought in the market, 
doubtless there would be a great demand for it; or if not, it 
would be well for the corporation to make an appropriation from 
the public moneys to buy up a lot, from which the needy might 
draw without any charge. It is about as essential as Croton 
water to our daily comfort, but there are a great many elegant 
looking houses into wjiich it has not yet been introduced. The 
very low-born, the totally ignorant, who find it difficult to distin- 
guish between the suggestions of conscience, the promptings of 
common sense, and the false lights of superstition, which they 
mistake for knowledge, are only pitiable. But those who were 
born to an inheritance of common sense, and have wasted it, 
deserve our reprobation and contempt. 

" If half the sensible people in the world had common sense, it 
would be better; but, unfortunately, most men's judgments slide 
in between their prejudices and their education, like windows in 
badly-fitting sashes ; when you attempt to bring them to the 
position they were made to take, they give first on this side and 
then on that, and particularly happy you may feel yourself if 
you can bring them into position without putting out a light. 

"What sensible man would think of surrendering all his reli- 
gious opinions into the hands of his spiritual, adviser ? Yet men 
reputed sensible do it — take for granted what is told them, if it 
suits, and trust their most precious interests in the hands of those 
to whom they would not willingly commit the keeping of their daily 



28 Hall's Journal of Health. 

accounts. Poor policy it is, of course, since those who get to 
Heaven must each drive his own team ; there is no rail-car that 
stops at different points on the route, and picks up all who have 
bought their tickets of any particular agent. 

"The human body is a very delicately-constructed machine. 
Yet as the City Hall clock, which everybody pronounces an 
excellent one, took the liberty to stop, a few days since, when a 
boy^ushed his chair up against the * compensator ;' so the human 
mechanism will not move true and steady, if ignorant men are 
allowed to play with 'the works.' Seeing that there is not room 
for the finest cambric needle to lie, without producing mischief, 
anywhere within the several solid feet that constitute the body 
of a man, common sense would satisfy an appreciative person 
that he cannot accommodate within his living tissues a pound of 
drugs, every grain of which penetrates farther than needles and 
blocks, or throws off the track, the wheels of every rolling globule 
of blood in his veins. 

"Common sense takes the stump, and labors to convince sensible 
people that when they are sick the thousandth part of a grain of 
any material, of which they have taken a drachm since dinner, 
and been neither better nor worse therefor, cannot materially 
modify their condition. Yet men who are good at making 
money, and who do not educate their children with specific 
reference to making fools of them, are stone deaf on the side 
that common sense whispers his admonitions; spend goodly sums 
on the quack who indulges them in the luxury of being cheated, 
and enjoy the high satisfaction of being wonderfully cured where 
nothing under the sun has ailed them. Common sense, of course, 
shakes off the dust of his feet, and leaves to his fate one whose 
phrenological developments would justify the suspicion of a mode- 
rate share of intelligence, when he makes phrenology ridiculous, 
and belies all the indications of physiognomy by imbibing bottle 
after bottle of Nervous Antidote, Cherry Bitters, Choice Caiho- 
licons or Renovating Resolvents, to cure ailments whose cha- 
racters differ in every respect from each other; just as if all 
diseases were like the vermin of all sorts that haunt old alms- 
house cellars, and all alike were best disposed of by being drowned 
out of their quarters. 

" But it seems to us as if common sense were particularly 
ashamed of those stout, stalwart bodies, in which strong minds, 
like engines of many horse-power, were originally set up, when, 
instead of trusting to their own powers, and heeding their own 
capacities, they give themselves up to the guidance of other 
men, in matters which they ought thoroughly to understand for 
themselves. When a good skipper is going through Hurl-Gate, 
he does very well to ask a pilot on board if he does not know the 
rocks ; but when he is fairly out on the Sound, with a fair wind 
and a clear night, when the compass is a good one, and he knows 



Common Sense. 29 

all the lights from Sandy's Point to Little Gull, he is weak and 
wasteful to be at the expense of a pilot's fees. So when a man 
is sailing among colics and pains of any sort, of which he does 
not*know the nature, he cannot do better than order on board a 
skilful physician, who has sounded every foot of the way, and 
knows when to give a fuller sheet, when to haul close, and when 
to put the craft square before the wind, and trust everything to 
his care, till the ripples are ail past and the waves chase each 
other, without any sudden breaks or declension, to right or left," 
as if a rock were just below. But for a full-grown man, who is 
well, to call in a doctor to know if he may eat this delicious fruit 
or that, may make this pleasure trip or that, may tarry within 
the bounds of the city till his business will permit his removing 
to the country, or must push at once into summer quarters, it is 
simply ridiculous, and common sense objects to being claimed by 
him as an acquaintance. 

" The Great Exhibition will open soon. Without a doubt, 
then there will be an increased amount of common sense in and 
about our streets ; for the appearance now is, that from every 
point the honest men, who have dwelt in country places and 
been conversant with growing fields, that rather favor the growth 
of robust sense, will come up in crowds. It would be no bad 
idea for citizens to cultivate their acquaintance, that the arts 
and tricks of city life may experience some healthful rasping 
from their rougher and more natural ways. Staying in the city, 
we grow affected and vain. It is to be hoped that strangers 
enough will come here to make our vanity and affectation shrink 
into a contemptible minority, and the common sense, which, by 
inheritance, ought to rule us, take heart, sally forth, conquer 
back his lost provinces, and hereafter have the first and last 
word in all our councils. 

" Ten o'clock. — But you, my dear fellow, ought to be a-bed. 
Have not you read Alcott, and Graham, and Franklin, and 
Sinclair ? Haven't you studied Hygiene, and attended a course 
of popular lectures on the subject ? Haven't you studied the 
rules of longevity ? Don't you know that every hour less than 
seven of sleep at night, is a day deducted from the sum total 
of your life? and that, from Dr. Johnson to Todd's Student's 
Manual, all the authorities agree that an hour of sleep before 
midnight is worth two after it?' 

"No! No! don't go to writing now. Don't raise the steam 
at this time of night. You would not let your housekeeper begin 
her baking now, neither should you set your brain to seething so 
unseasonably. It was a wise man — and a little time spent among 
our books would enable us to give his name — who allowed no 
serious book to engross his attention after his evening meal, and 
indulged himself in no severer labor than a game of romps with 
his children." 



m 



Halt's Journal of Health, 



LONGEVITY. 

The following table shows that men have attained a good old 
age, and there is no reason to suppose that these may not be the 
average ages of men and women, if modes of life were adopted, 
which would involve the fundamental principles, by which these 
men lived thus long, the great features being temperance and* 

MODERATE INDUSTRY I 

Dryden, 

Petrarch, . 

Lesage, 

Linnseas, . 

Locke, 

La Fontaine, . 

Rev. Dr. Wardlow, 

Handel, . 

Reaumer, 

Gallileo, . 

Swift, . 

Roger Bacon, . 

Corneille, 

Marmontel, 

Solon, . 

Thucydides, 

Anacreon, . 

Juvenal, . 

Kant, . 

Pindar, 

Young, 

Willard, . 

Sophocles, . 

Plato, 

Buffom 

Goethe, . 

Dr. Chas. Caldwell, 

Claude, . . * 

West, . . ■ . ■ 

Franklin, . 

Metastasio, . 

Herschell, 

Anacreon. . 

Newton, . 

Voltaire, 

Halley, . 

Simeon, 

Fabius. 



. 70 


Sophocles, . 


. 90 


70 


Livia, 


90 


. 70 


Eli, . 


. 90 


71 


Protagoras, 


90 


. 73 


Lewenhoeck, 


'. 91 


74 


Cato, . . 


91 


. 75 


Hans Sloane, 


. 93 


75 


Whiston, . 


95 


. 75 


Michael Angelo, . 


. 96 


78 


Titian, . 


96 


. 78 


Isocrates, 


. 98 


78 


Elisha, . 


100 


, 78 


Hervelias, . 


i 100 


79 


Fontenelle, 


100 


. 80 


Zeno, . 


. 100 


80 


Terentia, . 


103 


I 80 


Stender, 


: los 


80 


Helen Gray, 


105 


. 80 


Georgias, 


. 107 


80 


Thomas Garrick, 


108 


j 80 


Democritus. . 


. 109 


80 


Joseph, 


110 


. 80 


Joshua, 


. 110 


81 


A. Serush, 


111 


. 81 


Mittelstedt, . 


. 112 


82 


H. Thauper, . 


112 


; 82 


R. Glen, 


. 115 


82 


Moses, 


120 


: 82 


Sarah, . 


. 127 


84 


Ishmael, . 


137 


. 84 


Effingham, . 


. 144 


84 


Drakenberg, 


146 


. 85 


Jacob, . 


. 147 


85 


Thomas Parr, . 


153 


\ 85 


Epimenides, . 


. 157 


86 


Henry Jenkins, 


169> 


. 90 


Abraham, . 


. 175 


90 


Isaac, 


180 



Ventilation. 31 

Among the preceding names are found all the occupations of life, 
from the philosopher to the common day-laborer, selected from 
all nations, and of all ages, from the days of Abraham down to 
the present time, and if no nation, or age, or sex, or clime, or 
ordinary occupation necessarily prevents men from arriving at 
old age, that old age must be generally attainable, if the proper 
conditions are met. It is the design of this Journal to inculcate 
these conditions. To do it early, is of the highest importance, 
as it gives every advantage ; hence the special desire of the 
Editor that parents generally should have their children, at least 
those above fifteen years of age, become subscribers to this peri- 
odical. 

VENTILATION. 

v There is no daily paper in the country which labors more 
steadily, resolutely and fearlessly, for the general good of the 
masses, than the New York Daily Tribune. It is always on the 
side of humanity, always oh the side of the poor, who so much 
need an advocate. It recently contained an article on the sub- 
ject of Ventilation: 

"If our people only knew how many thousands of lives they 
are annually sacrificing, how many hundreds of thousands are 
now suffering from fevers and other maladies which have their 
origin in the inhaling of noxious air, the excitement and alarm 
on this subject would be unprecedented. They are poisoning 
themselves by wholesale, and two-thirds of them have no sus- 
picion of the fact. 

"Our dwellings are often charnel houses. The very first 
necessity of every living human being — pure air to breathe — is 
rarely regarded in their construction. The air actually inhaled 
steals in at crevices and crannies, felon-like, because it cannot 
be shut out. Only the defects of our Architecture prevent our 
dying of a vitiated, poisoned, mephitic atmosphere, from which 
the vital element has long since been exhausted. Most men, 
including architects, would seem ignorant of the fact that the 
atmosphere is a combination of different gases, only one of which 
is wholesome and life-giving, and that this is consumed in the 
lungs upon inhalation, leaving the residue to be expelled as a 
poison. The church, lecture-room, or other structure which is 
filled, or even half filled, with human beings, and its doors and 
windows closed, while no express provision has been made for 
its ventilation, very soon becomes a slaughter-pen, in which no 
rational being should tarry another minute. Few churches or 
other public edifices are sufficiently ventilated, while a large 



32 HalTs Journal of Health. 

majority of them are utterly unworthy of toleration, and ought 
to be closed by the public authorities until they shall have been 
rendered fit for their contemplated use, and no longer nurseries 
of disease and ante-chambers to the tomb. 

"Our manufactories are nearly all disgraceful to their owners 
and architects in regard to ventilation. They are often divided 
into rooms less than ten feet 4 high, each thickly stowed with 
human beings, who breathe and work and sweat in an atmos- 
phere overheated and filled with grease, wool or cotton waste, 
leather or cloth, and the poisonous refuse expelled from human 
lungs, which together are enough to incite a plague, and are in 
fact the primary cause of nearly all the fevers, dysenteries, con- 
sumptions, &c, by which so many graves are peopled. No fac- 
tory should be permitted to commence operations until it shall 
have been inspected by some competent public officer, and cer- 
tified to be thoroughly provided with ventilators — not windows, 
which may, indeed, be opened, but in a cold or stormy day very 
certainly will not be — but apertures for the ingress of fresh, and 
others for the egress of vitiated air, both out of the reach of 
ignorance, and defying the efforts of confirmed depravity of the 
senses to close them. 

"Our bedrooms are generally fit only to die in. The best are 
those of the intelligent and affluent, which are carefully venti- 
lated ; next to these come those of the cabins and ruder farm- 
houses, with an inch or two of vacancy between the chimney 
and the roof, and with cracks on every side, through which the 
stars may be seen. The ceiled and plastered bedrooms, wherein 
too many of the middle class are lodged, with no other apertures 
for the ingress or egress of air but the door and windows, are 
horrible. Nine-tenths of their occupants rarely open a window 
unless compelled by excessive heat, and very few are careful 
even to leave the door ajar. To sleep in a tight six-by-ten bed- 
room, with no aperture admitting air, is to court the ravages of 
pestilence, and invoke the speedy advent of death. 

" Our railroad cars and steamboat berths are atrociously devoid 
of ventilation. A journey is taken far more comfortably and 
expeditiously now than it was thirty years ago, but with far 
greater risk and harm to health. There are probably ten thou- 
sand passenger cars now running in the United States, whereof 
not more than one hundred are decently supplied with fresh air. 
Most of these, wherein forty or fifty persons are expected to sit 
all day and doze all night, ought to be indicted as fit only for 
coffins. The men who make them, probably, know no better; 
but those who buy and use them have not even that poor excuse. 
They know that they are undermining constitutions and destroy- 
ing lives ; they know that ample means of arresting these fright- 
ful woes are at command ; yet they will not adopt them because 
they cost something. How long shall this be endured ?" 



Ignorance — Over-working. 33 

IGNORANCE. 

The following article shows the fatal result of taking a com- 
mon and simple medicine on one's own responsibility. Thou- 
sands of persons, especially in cities, in order to avoid doing with 
physicians, as it is termed, will purchase a patent medicine and 
take five times as much physic in a week as a scientific practi- 
tioner would have administered in a month— the labels often 
running " from one to two table-spoons three or four times a day :" 

Death from an over-dose of salts. — Coroner O'Donnell 
yesterday held an inquest, at No. 325 Spring st, upon the body 
of Mary Flanagan, a native of Ireland, 62 years of age, who died 
suddenly, shortly after taking a quarter of a pound of Epsom 
salts. She had been unwell for some hours, when her daughter, 
Mrs. Catherine Sully, happened to come in, and recommended a 
dose of salts as a remedy. A quarter of a pound was immedi- 
ately procured and administered by the daughter to her mother, 
who died about an hour afterwards. One witness testified that, 
the quantity taken was sufficient for four doses for a person of 
the age of the deceased. A post-mortem examination of the 
body was made by a physician, who gave it as his opinion that 
death was caused by disease of the heart, aggravated by an over- 
dose of Epsom salts, and the jury rendered a verdict to that effect. 
The deceased had been in the country but four months. 



OVER-WORKING. 



Over effort of body or mind, especially if protracted, often 
induces incurable forms of disease, and should be avoided as any 
other cause of sickness and suffering. Young clergymen are 
particularly liable to this fault, and, before they are aware of it, 
they discover that a constitution which they believed impreg- 
nable is ruined, and the prospect of a long life before them of 
comparative inertia weighs upon the spirit like an immovable 
incubus. But the necessity of making a living in some wav soon 
becomes apparent, and one of the first thoughts is to teach school, 
or keep store, or go on a farm. Some, whose circumstances are 
easy, conclude hastily to abandon preaching, or wait and see if 
the injury will not repair itself. 

The following letter was addressed by me to a young clergy- 
man of an energetic temperament, who had written to me several 
times. It may be generally useful. The points touched upon 



34 HaWs Journal of Health. 

were in answer to suggestions of his own, and may be under- 
stood without giving his letter at length. He preached with 
great animation, "loud, and gesticulated violently, leading in the 
singing, and this two or three times a day sometimes." 

i New York, January 26th ? 1854. 

Dear Sir: — Yours is received. Over-exercise always injures, 
and if you have done it to " breaking down," then you have done 
yourself a great wrong, and you must exercise in moderation to 
repair it; it is much like a burnt finger or a frozen toe, the best 
repair is heat in a milder form, or cold in a milder form. You 
are "longing for action :" that is well ; then act away, in mode- 
ration ; work the body moderately, work the mind moderately, 
and you will almost certainly recuperate. "Working on a farm" 
will do you many times greater good than "going to the South" 
to feed and lounge about, and do nothing. I do not object to 
your working on a farm, but two things are requisite to you, as 
you have an active, vigorous mind. The work must be pecu- 
niarily remunerative, and it must be connected with some mental 
labor, such as preaching somewhere, every two or three days : 
then, while you are at work, you can be studying out your ser- 
mons, and perhaps they will be about as good sermons as you 
have ever made, if not better. 

You are "easily worried;" then you are not a philosopher. 
Take the world easy ; you will get through it soon enough. 
The wood-chopper does most who pulls off his coat and goes at 
it leisurely, and so will you, in the long run, in cutting down tall 
sinners. Do not "clerk on, and rant on," and stave away, as if 
you would drive men into the gospel pen, as butchers do sheep 
and pigs, by the more noise they make. Imagine yourself a 
Judge on the supreme bench in Washington, and speak with 
their dignity and deliberation and weight, especially as they speak 
for temporal, you for immortal interests. 

You have intimated that perhaps it would be better for you 
to "embark in trade of some kind for a year or two," until your 
health is fully re-established, and thus "wait." A young man 
with the world before him, at the threshold of professional life, 
cannot afford in these stirring times to " wait " for anything; he 
must force it up, attempt everything with energy and indomitable 
perseverance. If your health is not fully restored, you will do 



Air and Exercise. 35 

one of two things, go down from your great work, or settle down 
to be a common, plodding, sickly preacher. Ought you to do 
either? With youth, health, and a right heart, why may you 
not become an eminent and efficient leader in your church? 
Think of it. 



AIR AND EXERCISE. 

No remedy known to men has such a powerful and permanent 
influence in maintaining or regaining health as the judicious 
employment of cheerful, exertive exercise in the open air, and if 
properly attended to in a timely manner, it will cure a large 
majority of all curable diseases, and will sometimes succeed, 
when medicines have lost their power. 

If you have actual consumption, or are merely threatened 
with it; or if, from some of your relatives having died with it, 
you have unpleasant apprehensions of its lurking in your own 
body; or whether from a diseased liver or disordered stomach, 
or a dyspeptic condition of the system, the foundations of the 
dreadful disease are being laid in your own person; or whether 
by exposure, by over bodily exertion or mental labor, or wasting 
cares for the present, or anxieties for the future, or by hugging 
sharp-pointed memories of the past, or by intemperate living, in 
eating or drinking, or by unwise habits or practices in life, you 
have originated in your own person the ordinary precursors of 
consumption, such as hacking cough, pains in the breast, chilli- 
ness, wasting of flesh and strength, shortness of breath on exer- 
cise — under all these circumstances, a proper attention to air 
and exercise are indispensable aids — are among the principal, 
essential means of cure, and are never to be dispensed with ; 
confinement to the regulated temperature of a room in any lati- 
tude, is certain death, if persevered in; and if from any cause 
this air and exercise are not practicable to you, except to a 
limited extent, it is your misfortune ; your not being able to 
employ them, does not make them the less necessary, and they 
have no substitutes. (See page 78 of "Bronchitis and Kindred 
Diseases,' , by W. W. Hall, eighth edition, 1854, Redfield, pub- 
lisher, HO and 112 Nassau street, New York.) 

When the body is diseased, it is because it is full of diseased, 
decaying, dead and useless particles ; the object of exercise, as 
well as medicine, is to throw off these particles; medicine does 



36 HalTs Journal of Health, 

it more quickly, but exercise more safely and certainly, if there 
is time to wait for its effects. Every motion of the body, every 
bend of the arm, every crook of the finger, every feeling, every 
breath, every thought, is at the expense, the consumption, the 
throwing off, of a greater or less proportion of the material body ; 
all muscular motion implies friction, and where there is friction 
there must be loss. In proportion tnen as you exercise, you get 
rid of the old, useless or diseased particles of the body, and by 
eating substantial, plain, nourishing food, you supply new, health- 
ful, life-giving particles in their stead ; therefore every step you 
take tends to your restoration, provided that step be not taken 
in weariness or fatigue ; for then it prepares the way for a greater 
destruction of living particles, rather than a removal of the old. 
You will never fail to find, that whenever you overdo yourself 
in the way of exercise, you will always feel the worse after it. 
The exercise must be always adapted to the strength, and the 
rule is imperative under all circumstances, Stop short of Fa- 
tigue. This applies to mental as well as to bodily operations. 
But if you say, as many others have said, and died, "I can't 
help it," then you must take the consequences and responsibility. 
If you do not use the means of health, you cannot be cured. If 
you really and truly cannot use them, that inability does not alter 
the necessity of their observance nor the effect of their neglect. 
Take, if possible, an hour's active, cheerful, willing walk, thrice 
a day; this is many times better than three hours' continuous 
exercise. The noon walk should be before dinner. If you walk, 
or leave the house, before breakfast, eat first a cracker or crust 
of bread. Avoid, during warm weather, in the south and west, 
and in level or damp situations, the out-door air, including the 
hour about sunrise and sunset. There is no danger usually, 
even to invalids, in exercising in the night air, if it be sufficiently 
vigorous to keep off a feeling of chilliness. This should be the 
rule in all forms of out-door exercise, and is an infallible preven- 
tive, as far as my experience extends, against taking cold in any 
and all weathers, provided it be not continued to over exhaustion 
or decided fatigue. Such exercise never can give a cold, whether 
in rain, or sleet or snow, unless there be some great peculiarity 
in the constitution. It is the conduct after exercise which gives 
the cold ; it is the getting cool too quick, by standing or sitting 
still in a draft of air or open window or cold room. The only 



Air and Exercise. 37 

precaution needed is, to end the exercise in a room or tempera- 
ture uncomfortably warm when first entered, and there remain 
until rested, and no moisture is observed on the surface, (p. 317.) 

If working or walking cause actual fatigue, then horseback 
exercise is the next best for both sexes, but if not able, then ride 
in a close carriage, especially in cold weather, or when there is 
a damp raw wind blowing. You may, in the bitterest, coldest 
weather, secure for yourself the most favorable of all circum- 
stances for recovery — that is, a cool, dry, still atmosphere, by 
riding several hours a day in a close carriage, well and warmly 
clad, with your feet on bottles of hot water. The atmosphere of 
the carriage will not become impure but to a slight extent, as 
the cold fresh air is constantly coming in at every crevice at the 
sides and below, while the warm, used air rises to the top, and is 
expelled by the more powerful currents from without. 

It is a laborious business to spend hours every day in exer- 
cising, for the mere sake of the exercise ; therefore, if possible, 
devise means of employment which will combine utility with 
your exercise. The reader's ingenuity may devise methods of 
accomplishing this, adapted to his condition, and the circum- 
stances by which he is surrounded. Some trim, or bud, or graft 
fruit-trees, work in a garden, cultivate the vine, or flowers, or 
plough in fields free of stumps and stones, thus requiring no great 
effort, yet a steady one, which can be left off at any moment, 
and followed more or less energetically, so as to produce a very 
moderate degree of perspiration on the forehead, without fatigue ; 
others saw wood, visit the poor and unfortunate, drive cattle, 
collect accounts, obtain subscriptions, sell books, distribute tracts, 
ride on agencies. The great object is, useful, agreeable, profit- 
able employment, in the open air, for several hours every day, 
rain or shine, hot or cold ; and whoever has the determination 
and energy sufficient to accomplish this, will seldom fail to delight 
himself and his friends with speedy, permanent and most encour- 
aging results; and be assured, that these alone are the persons 
who do or can rationally expect to succeed in effectually and 
permanently warding off the disease when seriously threatened, 
or in arresting its progress permanently, when wholly unex- 
pected, by themselves, their friends, or their physicians. 

While exercise is important in working off the old, useless, 
decayed, dead particles from the system, it is equally advanta- 



38 Hall's Journal of Health. 

geous in keeping the body warm, by driving the blood to the 
skin, and keeping it soft and moist'; for persons who have a dry, 
harsh, cold skin, are never well. But pure air is as important as 
exercise, because the food we eat never becomes blood, until it 
meets in the lungs the air we breathe ; if then we do not take in 
enough air, or what we do take in is impure, the blood will be 
imperfect and impure, and, in proportion, unfit to nourish, 
strengthen and vivify the body. And as in threatened consump- 
tion the lungs work more or less imperfectly, and consume less 
air than the syslem requires, so much the more need that the air 
which is consumed should be of the purest kind possible. There- 
fore, every hour spent out of doors in the pure an; fatigue and 
chilliness being absent, adds that much to the certainty of your 
recovery. Thus you see that, while exercise works the old dis- 
eased particles from your body, pure air puts the finishing stroke 
of perfection* to the new particles which are to take their place, 
and the whole body, in proportion, becomes new and fresh, and 
healthful and young. And whatever advice is given you in 
other printed or written papers, it is designed as an aid to bring 
about these things in a shorter time and easier way. This aid 
is needed in most cases, because, unfortunately, the disease has 
been neglected or mistreated so long, that nature has lost the 
power, to a great extent, of helping herself, and medicine must 
be taken, or the patient perish. 

There are two dangers in taking exercise, that of overdoing it, 
and of getting cool too quick afterwards. Therefore observe the 
following rules : 

If you ride and walk on any one occasion, do the riding first* 
then the walk will warm you up ; but riding after a walk, you 
get chilled before you know it. 

At the end of a ride or walk, do not, for a single moment, sit 
or stand still anywhere out of doors, nor on damp places, nor on 
stone or iron seats. Never end a walk or ride in a new building, 
or in a room which has been closed for some days, or has no fire 
in it, especially in winter. Walk quickly, cheerfully, with the 
chin on or above a horizontal line. Make no other effort to 
walk straight, except thus to elevate your chin. In other words, 
hold up your head. Breathe habitually with your mouth closed, 
in damp or cold weather; and in going into the out-door air, 



Air and Exercise. 39 

close it before you leave the house, and keep it closed until you 
get warm, especially after speaking or singing. 

Embrace every opportunity of running up a pair of stairs, or 
up a hill, with the lips closed ; a dozen times a day, if possible, 
A rapid run of fifty or a hundred yards and back, three or four 
times a day, with the mouth closed, will be of inestimable advan 
tage. The reasons you can study out at your leisure. 

But simple as these things are, never attempt them without the 
special advice of an experienced physician, for in certain forms 
of heart affections, as every practitioner well knows, as also in 
one or two other ailments, such exercises would, in some cases, 
cause certain and speedy death. 

It is of high importance to the healthy who wish to keep so, 
and to the sick who are in search of so great a happiness as that 
of being sound and well again, to breathe habitually with the 
iips closed in cold weather, in going from a warmer to a cooler, 
or from a cooler to a warmer atmosphere, the injury is perhaps 
equally great either way. Close the mouth before leaving a 
concert room, or church, or other warm apartment, and keep it 
resolutely closed until you have walked far and fast enough to 
have hastened the circulation of the blood, and made it more 
full, as well as active. 

In going into a warm apartment, from the cold out-door air, 
the same direction is of not less importance; nor should you go 
at once to the fire ; a delay of two or three minutes is sufficient 
in this case. The object, in both cases, is the same, to prevent 
a sudden transition from heat to cold, or the contrary. Such 
sudden transitions give pain to the solid tooth, or discomfort, 
when made to a single square inch of the skin ; and when it is 
remembered that the air passages are among the most delicate 
structures of the body, and that the lungs, if spread out on a 
wall, would cover a surface ten times larger than the whole skin 
would do, the importance of the subject must strongly impress 
every reflecting mind. 

With the above precaution, you need not be afraid of out-door 
air, night or day, as long as you are in motion sufficient to keep 
off a feeling of chilliness ; hence, in cold weather, exercise on 
foot is preferable to riding. While walking in moderately cold 
weather, the hands should be covered with a thin pair of gloves, 
such as silk or thread, and woolen ones in mid-winter. If vou 



40 Hall's Journal of Health. 

have to ride in winter, endeavor to have clothing enough to 
prevent a feeling of chilliness, but be careful to wear a loose 
fitting boot or shoe ; never put on a new .pair, winter or summer, 
when starting on a journey, or coming to the city. In very cold 
or windy weather, ride in a close carriage. 



HORSEBACK EXERCISE. 

Riding on horseback is, perhaps, of all others, the most manly, 
elegant and efficient form of exercise. In the first place, it can- 
not be taken without being out of doors, then it enables you to 
breathe a larger amount of fresh air than if walking, because you 
pass through a greater space in less time, and consequently a 
greater number of layers, or rather sections of fresh air, come in 
contact with the nostrils, with less fatigue. Another advantage 
is, that all the muscles of the body are exercised in moderation, 
and, to a certain extent, equally so. And then again, while thus 
exercising, and while every step forward gives you a fresh draught 
of pure out-door air, the mind is entertained by every variety of 
objects, new things being constantly presented. The only thing 
to be guarded against is a feeling of chilliness ; this is essential, 
for every chill is an injury ; whether a man be sick or well, a 
chill must necessarily be succeeded by a fever, and fever is 
disease. 

Horseback exercise, to be highly beneficial, should be active, 
a " hand gallop" or a trot ; and, if practicable, a different road 
should be traveled every day, so that the mind may be diverted 
by novelties, and thus compelled away from bodily ailments. 

The English, as a nation, are a stout, robust, hearty race. 
The nobility have a long list of names who have lived to the age 
of seventy, eighty, and even ninety years, but horseback exercise 
with them is a national amusement ; many of them make a ride 
on horseback as much a matter of course as a daily dinner. Al- 
most the only gentleman seen on horseback in New Orleans is 
the English merchant, showing the power of a national habit and 
its influence abroad as well as at home. 

If parents could be made to comprehend the full advantages 
of a constant breathing of pure air to their children, and would 
be at pains to impress their young minds with its high impor- 
tance ; were they to pay more attention to their physical train- 
ing, requiring them to take active exercise, for hours every day» 



Going to the South. 41 

on foot and on horseback, there would be some probability that, 
notwithstanding the heats and impurities of a city atmosphere, 
those children would grow up in healthfulness, and live to a good 
old age, instead of paleing away, as they do, long before their 
prime, growing prematurely old, from a constitution blasted in 
the bud. 

It is owing, mainly, to their delight in out-door exercise, that 
the elevated classes in England reach a patriarchal age, notwith- 
standing their habits of high living, of late hours, of wine-drink- 
ing, and many other health-destroying agencies ; the deaths of 
their generals, their lords, their earls and their dukes, are chroni- 
cled, almost every week, at seventy, eighty, and ninety years; 
it is because they will be on horseback, the most elegant, rational 
and accomplished of all forms of mere exercise, both for sons 
and daughters. But the whole credit of longevity to these 
classes must not be given to their love of field-sports : it must 
be divided with the other not less characteristic traits of an 
English nobleman — he will take the world easy ; and could we 
as a people persuade ourselves to do the same thing habitually, 
it would add ten years to the average of human life, and save 
many a broken heart, and broken fortune, and broken consti- 
tution. 

GOING TO THE SOUTH. 

The colder the out-door air is, the purer it must be, and, there- 
fore, more healthful and invigorating ; not only is it more health- 
ful in consequence of its freedom from impurities, but also from 
the concentration of its life-giving property, because air is con- 
densed by cold; it is packed, as it were, more solid; so that, 
even supposing two cubic inches of air equally pure, one at the 
equator, the other at the poles, the one at the poles has a much 
larger amount of oxygen, the great life-giver and purifier of the 
blood. 

If, therefore, a man is really consumptive, a warmer climate 
will inevitably hasten his death ; and it is wonderful, that it con- 
tinues to be the stereotyped advice given by northern medical 
and non-medical men, without the slightest consideration of the 
ability of the patient to meet the expenses of such a journey ; 
and more, without any opportunity of personally observing, on 
the spot, whether such advice is for life or death. 



42 HaWs Journal of Health. 

WOULD A GLASS OF WINE HURT ME ? 

This is a question often proposed to me as a physician, the pa- 
tient honestly supposing that it would strengthen him. My uni- 
form reply is, 

Substantial, reliable strength is only to be derived from the 
perfect digestion of plain, nutritious food ; all else is transient, 
fictitious, and worse than useless, as it ultimately, and that within a 
few hours, always and inevitably makes them weaker than before. 

Better a thousand-fold let a man die of ordinary disease than 
risk making him a drunkard, in restoring him to health by the 
use of alcohol in any form, even if it could be done. 

The use of stimulating drinks, and they are used only because 
they do stimulate, are wholly pernicious to the young, even when 
of the purest and best of their kind, but immeasurably more de- 
structive when of the kind referred to in the January number of 
" The Prohibitionist/' published monthly, at fifty cents a year, at 
Albany, N. Y., under the head of "A Death-Bed Revelation." 

" A large Wine Dealer residing in London recently, on his 
death-bed, being in great distress of mind, acknowledged to his 
friends that his agony was occasioned by the nature of the busi- 
ness he had followed for years. He stated that it had been his 
habit to purchase all the sour wines he could, and by making 
use of sugar of lead, and other deleterious substances, restore 
the wine to a palatable taste. He said he did not doubt he had 
been the means of destroying hundreds of lives, as he had from 
time to time noticed the injurious effects of his mixtures on those 
who drank them. He had seen instances of this kind where the 
unconscious victims of his cupidity, after wasting and declining 
for years, despite the best medical advice, went to their graves, 
poisoned by the Adulterated Wines he had sold them. 

This man died rich, but alas, what legacy did he leave for his 
children ! Wealth gotten by deceit, and that not of a harmless, 
but fatal nature." 

From an extended and varied observation of twenty-five years, 
I have arrived at the stereotype advice to all who consult me as 
to my opinion of the value of the daily use of a small amount 
of pure wines, or cordials, or brandies, that — 

Any man who once drinks a drop of " liquor," may die in 
the gutter ; he who tastes it never, never can. 



How to Sleep, 43 

PATENT MEDICINE. 

The following certificate to the efficacy of Patent Pills is 
taken from the Phil. Mercury. 

I, John Lubberlie, was supposed to be in the last stage of con- 
sumption in the year '48, suffering at the same time under a 
severe attack of rheumatism, liver-complaint, gravel, dropsy and 
cholera morbus. Simultaneously, also, I took yellow fever and 
small-pox. The latter assuming the chronic form of scrofula, 
completely destroyed my lungs, liver, spinal marrow, nervous 
system, and the entire contents of my cranium. I got so low, 
that I did not know my brother-in-law, when he came to borrow 
some money. For three months I swallowed nothing but twenty 
packages of Kunklehausen's pills which effected an immediate 
cure in two weeks. Sworn and subscribed to, &c. 

P. S. — My late uncle, Bacchus Pottinger, was afflicted so long 
with the gout, (contracted by living too much on bear's meat 
and alligator's eggs,) that his life became a burden to him. He 
took only four boxes of said pills, and life was a burden to him 
no longer. 

HOW TO SLEEP. 

Sound, connected, early, refreshing sleep, is as essential to 
health as our daily food. There is no merit in simply getting up 
early. The full amount of sleep requisite for the wants of the 
system should be obtained, even if it requires till noon. I go to 
bed at nine o'clock the year round, and 1 stay there until I feel 
rested ; but I do not go to sleep again after I have once awaked 
of myself, after daylight. I remain in bed until the feeling of 
tiredness goes off, if there is any, and I get up when I feel like it. 
I do not sleep in the day-time ; it is a pernicious practice, and 
will diminish the soundness of repose at night. Dr. Hol- 
yoke, after he was a hundred years old, said, " I have always 
taken care to have a full proportion of sleep, which, I suppose, 
has contributed to my longevity." The want of sufficient sleep 
is a frequent cause of insanity. To obtain good sleep, the mind 
should be in a sober, quiet frame for several hours before bed- 
time. I think people require one hour's more sleep in winter 
than in summer. In connection with this subject, the North 
British Review illustrates the importance of sufficient sleep on a 
parallel with the natural history of the Sabbath : — " The Creator 
has given us a natural restorative — sleep; and a moral restora- 



44 Hall's Journal of Health. 

tive — Sabbath keeping ; and it is ruin to dispense with either. 
Under the pressure of high excitement, individuals have passed 
weeks together with little sleep or none ; but when the process is 
long continued, the over-driven powers rebel, and fever, delirium 
and death come on. Nor can the natural amount be systemati- 
cally curtailed without corresponding mischief. The Sabbath 
does not arrive like sleep. The day of rest does not steal over 
us like the hour of slumber. It does not entrance us almost, 
whether we will or not ; but, addressing us as intelligent beings, 
our Creator assures us that we need it, and bids us notice its 
return, and court its renovation. And if, going in the face of 
the Creator's kindness, we force ourselves to work all days alike, 
it is not long till we pay the forfeit. The mental worker — the 
man of business, or the man of letters — finds his ideas coming 
tuibid and slow; the equipoise of his faculties is upset, he grows 
moody, fitful and capricious ; and, with his mental elasticity 
broken, should any disaster occur, he subsides into habitual 
melancholy, or in self-destruction speeds his guilty exit from a 
gloomy world. And the manual worker — the artisan, the engi- 
neer — toiling on from day to day, and week to week, the bright 
intuition of his eyes gets blunted ; and, forgetful of their cunning, 
his fingers no longer perform their feats of twinkling agility, nor 
by a plastic and tuneful touch, mold dead matter, or wield me- 
chanic power; but mingling his life's blood in his daily drudgery, 
his locks are prematurely gray, his genial humor sours, and 
slaving it till he has become a morose or reckless man, for 
any extra effort, or any blink of balmy feelings, he must stand 
indebted to opium or alcohol." 

A sleeping-room should be large and airy, the higher from the 
ground the better, even in the country ; it should contain but 
very little furniture, no curtains or clothing of any description 
should be hung up in it, nor should it contain, for a moment, any 
vegetables or fruit, or flowers, or standing liquids of any kind ; 
nor should there be any carpet on the floor, except a small strip 
at the side of the bed, so that in getting out of bed a shock may 
not be imparted by the warm feet coming in contact with the 
cold floor. The fire-place should be always left open during the 
day, for several hours ; the windows and doors should be left 
open while the sun is shining, but the windows should be closed 
an hour or more before sundown. As soon as a person is dressed 



How to Sleep, 45 

in the morning, he should leave his chamber ; the bedding should 
be hung on chairs and allowed to air for several hours. 

On going to bed, a window should be hoisted several inches at 
bottom, and, if practicable, be let down as much at top, that, 
while the heavy fresh air comes in below, the light and foul air 
may pass out above. As a general rule, it is far best to sleep in 
rooms where no fire has been burning since breakfast, but there 
should be bed-clothing enough to keep from feeling chilly. If it 
is bitter cold weather, with high winds, it may be better to build 
a moderate fire about dark, but not to let it go entirely out before 
morning. If there is any fire at all in a sleeping- room, it should 
not be allowed to go out altogether. 

A person should sleep in one garment, a coarse cotton shirt, 
and no more, without a button, or pin, or string about him. No 
one, who pretends to common cleanliness, should sleep in a gar- 
ment worn during the day, nor wear during the day a garment 
in which he has slept; any garment worn should have six or 
eight hours' airing every twenty-four hours. 

No sleeping-room should be less than eight feet high, nor 
should it contain, for each person sleeping in it, less than one 
hundred and fifty feet superficial measure, or about twelve feet 
square. 

To show what a bearing a small deficiency in the action of 
the lungs has on the health, I present the following calculation, 
applied to a night's sleep of eight hours : — A person in good health 
and of medium size will, \% that eight hours' sleep, breathe nine 
hundred gallons of air ; but if one-fifth of his lungs are inopera- 
tive, he consumes in the same time one hundred and eighty 
gallons less, and in the course of twenty-four hours, seven hun- 
dred gallons less than he ought to do. No wonder then that, 
when the lungs begin to work less freely than they ought to do, 
the face so soon begins to pale, the appetite fails, the strength 
declines, the flesh fades, and the victim dies. Not only are con- 
sumptions traceable to this habitual deficiency of respiration, but 
rheumatism, colds, chills, ague, bilious, yellow and putrid fevers, 
suppressions, whites, dyspepsia, and the like. So that, in every 
view of the case, any method which secures the prompt detec- 
tion of this insufficient breathing, and rectifies it without delay, 
should merit and demand the immediate investigation of every 
lover of the health and happiness of mankind. See next number. 



46 Halls Journal of Health. 

THE ILLUSTRATED HYDROPATHIC QUARTERLY 
REVIEW. — A new Professional Magazine, devoted to Medical 
Reform, embracing articles by the best writers, on Anatomy, 
Physiology, Pathology, Surgery, Therapeutics, Midwifery, etc. ; 
Reports of remarkable cases in general Practice, Criticisms on 
the Theory and Practice of the various opposing systems of 
Medical Science, Reviews of New Publications of all schools of 
Medicine, Reports of the progress of Health Reform in all its 
aspects, etc., etc., with appropriate Illustrations. 

No. 2 now ready. Containing 

The Movement-Cures. Illustrated. By R. T. Trail, M. D. 

Philosophy of Colds. By G. H. Taylor, M. D. 

Hysteria. By Joel Shew, M. D. Illustrated. 

Dyspepsia. By James C. Jackson, M. D. 

The Hunger-Cure. By E. A Kittredge, M. D. 

Water-Crises. By S. O. Gleason, M. D. 

Modus Operandi of Medicines. By R. T, Trail, M. D. 

Colds and Relapses. By Levi Reuben, M. D. 

Reports. Dyspeptic Phthisic, Bronchitis, Spasms of the Stom- 
ach, Pleurisy, Spinal Distortion, Enteritis, Ice in Traumatic 
Tetanus, Uterine Tumor, The Flux in Mississippi, Statistics of 
Aneurism, Measles. 

Criticisms; Malpractice. Mistakes of Apothecaries, Adul- 
teration of Drugs. 

Reviews. Hygienic Treatment of Consumption. 

Miscellany. Upwards of Twenty Illustrations. 

Terms : $2 a year. Published by Fowlers & Wells, No. 
131 Nassau Street, New York. 



THE SCALPEL. — A Journal of Health, adapted to popular 
and professional reading, and the exposure of Quackery. Edited 
by Edward H. Dixon, M. D., New York. 

A Quarterly of sixty-four pages, white paper, large and beau- 
tiful type. One dollar a year, Single Numbers twenty-five cents. 
Agencies — No. 2 Astor House, Tribune Buildings, Redding & 
Co., Boston, Peterson, Philadelphia, and 85 Fleet St., London. 



SMALL-POX and Varioloid are at all times more or less 
prevalent in New York. There is an editorial paper in the last 
number of Dixon's Scalpel, which ought to be read by every fam- 
ily in the city. Single numbers sold at No. 2 Astor House, at 
twenty-five cents each. 



Notices — To Correspondents, etc. 47 

DC/ 3 The old and enterprising Publishing House of Phillips, 
Sampson & Co., of Boston, have located a branch in Park Place, 
New York, conducted by Mr. Derby, who will furnish the publi- 
cations named on the second page of cover, as also all the other 
issues of that house. 



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DCP All written communications to be addressed to 

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One specimen number will be also sent to a number of clergy- 
men, for it originated in a desire to promote their good, and the 
Editor will endeavor to conduct it in such a manner, that any 
pains they take to procure subscribers, especially from among 
the young men and young women of their congregations, will be 
compensated in the permanent healthfulness of those who are to 
rake their places when their own labor is done, and they have 
gone up to their reward. 

The Journal will be sent also to some of the public men in the 
country, whose health and length of life are believed to be neces- 
sary to the highest interests of the communities in which they re- 
side. The postage on all specimen numbers will be prepaid at the 
New York Post Office, and it is specially requested, to preserve 



48 



Halls Journal of Health. 



the Editor from loss, that the specimen number be returned, when 
not taken, to address of "Hall's Journal of Health, New York." 
A PREMIUM of twenty-five dollars will be paid to any sub- 
scriber who will write, from his own experience, the best descrip- 
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CONTENTS OF JANUARY NUMBER. 



Page 

Editor's Address 1 

Subjects to be Treated 5 

Eating and. Drinking 6 

Tea and Coffee 6 

Use of Milk 7 

Dr. Nott's Munificence 8 

The food we Eat 11 

How to attain Old Age 12 

Too white Flour 13 

Traveling for Health 14 



Page 

Wearing the Beard 15 

Invalids and Exertive Exercise 16 

Heart Disease 17 

Consumption and the South 18 

Book Notices 22 

" The Independent" 22 

The Home Journal 22 

The American Medical Monthly. . . .23 

To Correspondents 23 

A Premium 24 



CONTENTS OF FEBRUARY NUMBER. 



Page 

Invalids and Exertive Exercise 25 

Common Sense 27 

Longevity 30 

Ventilation 31 

Ignorance, fatal effects of 33 

Over- working 33 

Air and Exercise 36 



Page 

Horseback Exercise 40 

Going to the South 41 

Would a glass of Wine hurt me ?. . .42 

How to Sleep 43 

To Correspondents 47 

A Premium 48 



H~p The "Journal" will be sent one year to any established 
newspaper or periodical which will notice its appearance, and 
copy the contents of this month's number — provided such publi- 
cation is sent, with the article scored, to address of 

"Hall's Journal of Health, New York." 



[O^Pe 1 * 801 ^ to whom this number is sent, post paid, will please 
consider it an intimation that the editor desires them to become 
subscribers. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 

VOL. I.] MARCH, 1854. [NO. III. 



S?I-RO-ME-TBOL-0-GY, 

Pronounced with the accent on the antipenult, or fourth 
syllable, teaches the measurement of the breath, and, by a little 
license, the lungs themselves, as the breath is contained in the 
lungs. If a man has all his lungs within him, in full operation, 
it is impossible for him to have consumption, whatever may be 
his symptoms, because consumption is a destruction of a portion 
of the lungs, and when that is the case they can no more have 
the full amount of breath or air than a gallon measure can hold 
a gallon after its size has been diminished by having a portion 
of the top cut off or removed. 

It becomes then of great importance to accomplish two 
things, — 

First, to measure accurately, and with as much certainty 
as you would measure wheat by a standard and authentic bushel 
measure, the amount of air contained in the lungs. 

Second, to ascertain what amount of air the lungs^ought to 
contain in full and perfect health. 

The chemist has no difficulty in measuring out to you a 
cubic foot of gas. The gas which lights our "dwellings and 
which burns in the streets of cities, when the moon don't shine, 
is capable of being accurately measured, and so is the air we 
breathe, with equal simplicity and certainty even to the fraction 
of a cubic inch. 

Take a common tub or barrel, of any height, say two feet, 
and fill it with water ; get a tin cup of equal length, and of such 
a circumference that each inch in length should contain ten 
cubic inches of air or water, turn this tin cup bottom upward 
in the barrel of water, make a hole in the bottom of the tin 
cup, insert a quill or other tube into this hole, take a full breath 
and then blow out all the breath you can at a single expiration 



50 Hall's Journal of Health. "*" 

through this quill, the air thus expired gets between the surface 
of the water and the bottom of the tin cup, and causes the tin 
cup to rise ; if it rises an inch then you have emptied from 
your lungs into the cup ten cubic inches of air ; if you cause the 
cup to rise twenty inches, then your lungs have measured out 
two hundred cubic inches of air, and by dividing the cup into 
tenths of inches, you will be able to ascertain the contents of 
the lungs to a single cubic inch. 

This is a lung measurer of the simplest form ; it must be 
so arranged with a pulley on each side of the cup, each pulley 
having a weight of half the weight of the cup, so as to steady 
the cup when it rises, and keep it at any point, as lamps are 
sometimes suspended in public buildings. 

Being able then to measure the amount of air the lungs do 
hold, down to an inch or even a fraction of an inch if desired, 
the next point to know is how much air ought a man's lungs 
contain when he is in perfect health, for if a man in sound 
health can expire or measure out two hundred cubic inches of 
air, it is easy to see that if his lungs are half gone he can give 
out but one hundred cubic inches, and so of any other propor- 
tion large or small, and the grand practical conclusion is that 
when a man can breathe out the full quantity, all his lungs 
must be within him, and the presence of consumption is an 
utter impossibility in that man ; and even if this was the 
only point to be learned, what a glorious truth it must be to 
the man who was apprehensive of his being consumptive, that 
such a thing is simply an impossibility, demonstrably so by- 
figures and by sight. He can see it for himself without the 
necessity of leaning doubtfully, so doubtfully, sometimes, on 
the judgment, or expressed opinion of his physician. 

To find out how much air a healthy man's lungs should 
hold, we must act precisely as we would in determining the 
quantity of any thing else ; we must experiment, observe, and 
judge. We have decided long ago on the average weight of 
men, their average amount of blood, the average weight of 
the brain, and surely there ought to be some method of de- 
termining the average amount of a man's lungs. But this last 
would not be sufficiently accurate, to make it safely practical ; 
we must be able to say to this man, your lungs if sound and 
well will hold so much and to another so much, for the amount 



Spirometrology. 51 

of breath is as various as the amount of brain. A large head 
has a large amount of brain of some kind or other, and so a 
large chest must have a large quantity of lungs to fill it ; these 
are general truths only. If a man six foot high, and known to 
be in perfect health, will give out from his lungs at one expi- 
ration two hundred and sixty-two cubic inches of air, that is 
a fact to begin with. 

If a thousand healthy six-footers, or ten thousand do not 
fail in one single instance to give out as much, then we may 
conclude that any other man as tall, who gives out as much, 
is also healthy as to his lungs, and at length the facts be- 
come so cumulative that we feel safe in saying that any man, 
six feet high, who can breathe out at one single effort two hun- 
dred and sixty-two cubic inches of air, that man must have all 
his lungs within him, and that they are working fully and well. 

But if in pursuing these investigations, in the same manner, 
as to healthful men five feet high, we observe that in any num- 
ber of thousands, not one single one ever fails to give one less 
than one hundred and sixty-six inches, and that any other num- 
ber of thousands, five feet seven inches high, and in acknow- 
ledged perfect health, never fail in one solitary instance to give 
out two hundred and twenty-two cubic inches of air, then a 
thinking man begins to surmise that the amount of lungs a man 
in health has, bears some proportion to his height ; this is 
found to be the actual fact of the case. And without 
being tedious I will give the result, that for every inch that a 
man is taller, above a certain height, he gives out eight more 
cubic inches of air, if he is in sound health, as to his lungs. 

Let the reader bear in mind that these are the general prin- 
ciples — circumstances modify them— but I do not want to com- 
plicate the subject by stating those modifications at present. 
I wish the reader first to make one clear simple truth his own, 
by thinking of it and talking about it, when occasion offers, for 
a month, then I may say more. 

But, for the sake of making a clear, distinct impression, let us 
recapitulate : 

1. The amount of air which a man's lungs can expire at one 
effort can be accurately and uniformly measured, down 
to the fraction of a cubic inch. 



52 Halls Journal of Health. 

2. The amount of air which a healthy man's lungs hold is 

ascertained by cumulative observations. 

3. That the amount thus contained is proportioned to the 

man's height. 

4. That that proportion is eight cubic inches of air for every 

additional inch of height above a certain standard. 

With these four facts, now admitted as such, inferences may 
be drawn of great interest in connection with other observations, 
which any reader who takes the trouble may verify. 

Observation 1st. — I have never known a man who was in 
admitted consumption, and whose subsequent death and post- 
mortem confirmed the fact, capable of measuring his full 
standard. 

Observation 2d. — In numerously repeated instances, persons 
have been pronounced to have undisputed consumption, 
and as such were abandoned to die, but on measurement they 
have reached their full standard, enabling me to say they had 
not consumption, and their return to good health, and their 
continuance in it for years after, and to this day, is an abiding 
proof of the correctness of my decision. 

Observation 3d. — No persons have come under my care, who 
died of consumption within a year, who, at the time of examina- 
tion reached their full lung measurement. 

Observation 4th. — Therefore, any man who readies his stand- 
ard, has reason to believe that he cannot die of consumption 
within a year, an assurance which, in many cases, may be of 
exceeding value. 

Observation 5th. — As a man with healthy lungs always 
reaches his full standard, and as it is impossible for a consump- 
tive man to measure his 'full standard, then it may be safely 
concluded that a man cannot die of consumption while he gives 
his healthy measure, and also that he who cannot measure full 
measure full, is in danger, and should not rest a single day, 
until he can measure to the full. 

When persons are under medical treatment for deficient lung 
measurement, accompanied with the ordinary symptoms of com- 
mon consumption, they improve from week to week in propor- 
tion as they measure out more and more air from the lungs : on 
the other hand, when they measure less and less from time to 
time, they inevitably die. With this view of the case, the 



Spirometrology. ~ . 53 

reader will perceive that as a general rule a man can tell for 
himself, as well as his physician, whether he is getting well or 
not, and, as an illustration, an article is copied verbatim from 
the eighth edition of " Bronchitis and Kindred Diseases," Red- 
field publisher, page 361, on 

"the mathematical measurement of the lungs as a 
sign of consumption. 

u The lungs contain air ; and their object is to receive, hold, 
and expel air ; a certain amount of this air is necessary to the 
health of any individual, but that amount must vary in propor- 
tion to the size and age of a person, as much as the healthful 
amount of blood is proportionate to the size and age. 

11 It is known how much air a man's lungs, in perfect and full 
healthful operation, should hold, by measuring it as we would 
measure water, by transferring it from a vessel whose capacity 
was not known into one whose capacity was known. If, then, 
I find that every man of thousands, who is in perfect health, 
emits a certain amount of air from his lungs, I conclude that 
any other man, under similar circumstances, who gives from his 
lungs an equal amount of air, must be in good health, as far as 
his lungs are concerned, and every year accumulates its addi- 
tional proofs of the same great fact, and when it is known that 
the lungs work fully and well, an immense burden is at once 
removed from the mind of the physician, as well as patient, for 
he has less to do — the patient has less to dread. 

" All that the Spirometer does, (or Breath-Measurer, which is 
its literal signification,) is to measure the amount of air con- 
tained in any man's lungs wilh mathematical certainty and pre- 
cision, down to the fraction of a single cubic inch. Thus far 
the patient can see, as well as the physician, what is his actual 
measure, and by comparing it with what it ought to be in 
health, he can have some idea of what he has to do, and of his 
present condition. 

"We all must know that if a man's lungs in health should 
hold three hundred cubic inches, they would, if half gone, cer- 
tainly not measure over one hundred and fifty, and so of any 
other proportion, down to an inch. 

" The two important uses to be made of this most invalu- 
able principle are — 

First. If a man can only expire his full healthful quota of 



54 HalFs Journal of Health. 

air, he most assuredly cannot have actual consumption, what- 
ever else may be the matter with him, and the knowledge of 
this one fact alone, arrived at by such unmistakable evidence, 
is of incomputable worth to any invalid, not only relieving 
him of the t weight of a million mill-stones, but in affording 
him an important means of restoration — hopefulness, for we 
almost all instinctively feel, if it is not consumption there is 
at least a chance of life ; but if it is consumption there is no 
hope. 

" Second. The next important practical deduction is of a 
two-fold character. 

"If the lungs do not give out their full healthful amount of 
air, it is because they are actually affected, or are threatened. 
The instrument does not tell this, it must be determined by 
the mature judgment of the experienced- physician. 

u If the lungs be in a consumptive decay, the pulse and 
auscultation, with the data already afforded by measurement, 
will detect this state of things, with a degree of certainty which 
is most admirable ; and this certainty is made doubly sure, if 
being under treatment a short time, his lungs measure less week 
after week, for then he is certainly dying by inches. 

" But it does not follow, because a man does not measure to 
his full standard, that he is consumptive ; it only shows the one 
thing, that he is defective as to the action and capacity of his 
lungs, that deficiency may be the result of decay, or debility, or 
from the lungs being crowded w r ith phlegm or other fluids ; if 
the deficiency is not from decay, proper treatment will diminish 
that deficiency from week to week, because the treatment in- 
vites back the action of the lungs. Thus it is that the gradual 
increase in the capacity of the lungs to hold air, when that 
capacity, by any cause, has been diminished, is demonstrative 
of a return towards health. 

" On the other hand as persons are declining, the measure- 
ment decreases week by week, until there is scarce breath 
enough to enable them to cross the room, and soon they step 
into the grave. 

" A WEIGHTY CONSIDERATION. 

11 Common consumption comes on by slow degrees, and I have 
never known a case that was not preceded, for months, by an 



Spirometrology. 55 

inability of the lungs to measure their full standard. I con- 
sider it wholly impossible for a man to have actual consump- 
tion, until he has not been able for months to measure the full 
amount of air. This deficit in the measurement of the lungs 
never fails to exist in any case of clearly defined consump- 
tion, and inasmuch as it always precedes consumption, its exist- 
ence for some months in succession ought to be considered a 
symptom of consumption in its early stages, and a course of 
treatment should be adopted which would annihilate that deficit 
at the earliest possible moment. 

"To show how certainly this deficit of lung capacity, or lung 
action is removed, when it exists not as an effect of a decay of 
the lungs, but as an effect of imperfect action, I give here a few 
eases. 

" C. W. F., aged 17, an only son of a wealthy family, was 
placed under my care May 26, 1852. Thin in flesh, pain in 
side, sore throat, tightness across the breast, short breath, diffi- 
cult to fetch a long breath, troublesome running and sniffling of 
the nose, a weak back, with other indications of a weakly con- 
stitution. The measurement of his lungs should have been two 
hundred and twenty-five cubic inches ; their actual capacity 
was two hundred. 

Breathing. Lung Measure. 
. 16 /. . 200 
. 16 . . 206 
. 16 . . 216 





Date. 




Pulse. 


Weight. 


" May, 


1825, 


26, 


. 72 . 


103 


June 




2, 


. 72 . 


103 






9, 


. 72 . 


103i 






24, 


. 72 . 


107 


July 




19, 


. 88 . 


104 






23, 


. 82 . 


103 


August 


7, 


. 78 . 


105 






24, 


. 76 . 


107* 


Sept. 




29, 


. 72 . 


11H, 


Nov., 


1853, 


«, 


. 72 . 


121* 



16 . 


. 238 


20 . 


. 216 


18 . 


. 216 


15 . 


. 230 


16 . 


. 238 


16 . 


. 250 


16 . 


. 252 



" The parents of this case, particularly the mother, visited 
me at different times, expressing the deepest solicitude, and ex- 
hibiting an abiding impression that their child, upon whom so 
many hopes were hung, was certainly going into a] decline, 
especially as he had grown up rapidly, and was a slim, narrow- 
breasted child. 



56 Hairs Journal of Health. 

" The reader will perceive with what admirable promptness 
the lungs answered to the means used for their development, in 
the very first fortnight, and with that increase of action a cor- 
responding increase in flesh, so that in four months, and they 
embracing the hottest of the year, when most persons lose both 
flesh and strength, he had gained eight and a half pounds, while 
the capacity of his lungs for receiving air had increased one- 
fifth, that is, fifty cubic inches, and at the end of a year, when 
he called as a friend, was still gaining in flesh, and strength, and 
vigor, with no indication, apparent or covert, of any disease 
whatever. 

" What untold treasure would these parents have given, when 
their child was first brought to me for examination, to have 
known that the very next year their son would have been one 
of the most hearty, healthy, manly-looking young men of his 
age in New York ; and yet there can be no doubt that he would 
have dwindled away, like a flower prematurely withered, had 
his case been neglected, in the vain hope of his ' growing out 

of it r 

"The reader will notice, that on the 13th of July, every 
symptom became unfavorable ; his weight diminished, his breath- 
ing was more rapid, and his lung-measurement declined largely, 
— the reason is, that he left the city in June, and spent some 
weeks at Newport arid Saratoga, with his parents, intermitting 
all remedial means ; but, as soon as he returned to New York, 
and gave diligent attention to what was required of him, his 
symptoms began at once to abate, and he steadily improved 
to his recovery. ' The Springs' have proved the grave of many 
young people with consumptive symptoms, and older consump- 
tives generally get worse there. The high feeding, or get what 
you can system of diet at watering places, fashionable hotels* 
and boarding-houses, their Lilliputian, one-windowed rooms, 
from one to ' five-pair back,' the midnight clatter along inter- 
minable passages, the tardy, or no answer, to bell-call, the look 
out from your chamber window over some stable, side-alley, or 
neighbor's back yard ; these, with the coldness, and utter want 
of sympathy at such places, would soon make a well man sick, 
and will kill instead of cure, the consumptive. They want, 
instead of these, the free, fresh mountain air, the plain sub- 
stantial food of the country farm-house, the gallop along the 



Clerical Letter. 57 

highways, the climbing over the hills by day, and the nightly 
reunions with family and kindred and friends. And yet the 
million stereotype this mistake, against all reason and com- 
mon sense. Only now and then is one found to choose the 
better way, against troops of remonstrants and opposers, who 
never had experience, who never think for themselves, — and 
that is the brave man who gets well, especially when he is 
determined to do so. 

: ' Some years ago I published a compact octavo of a hundred 
pages, on ' Throat Ail, Bronchitis and Consumption, their 
Causes, Symptoms and Cure,' giving various illustrations in 
both cases, with the treatment adopted, but like pretty much 
all who publish on their own account, copies enough were not 
sold to pay for the paper, consequently they are yet to be had, 
mailed post-paid to any part of the United States, for one dollar, 
sent to the Editor's address." 



CLERICAL LETTER. 

The following communication from a former patient is well 
worthy of lay perusal, and is full of instruction to clergymen. 
It is a beacon hung out as a warning and a guide to theological 
students, and happy they who read it early and well. The 
writer has labored long and hard in the cause to which he has 
devoted himself, and his name is widely known in this and 
foreign lands. 

One subject is touched, whose importance none but a physi- 
cian can fully estimate, as a cause of clerical disease ; it has so 
often forced itself upon my attention in seeing its bearing on the 
health and convalescence of clergymen that I have many times 
earnestly desired to have the ears of the whole Christian Church 
for an hour, in order to wake up their attention to 

ADEaUATE MINISTERIAL SUPPORT. 

There are unavoidable troubles in the ministerial calling, suf- 
ficient of themselves to keep a conscientious clergyman almost 
always in a state of painful anxiety. I need not tell them what 
these troubles are, both within themselves and without; but 
when to all these is added the unnecessary trouble of a scanty 
salary, irregularly paid, seldom fully so, with wife and children 
at home as dear to them as life itself, whose wants must be met, 



58 HalVs Journal of Health. 

and yet every source of meeting them cut off, except by the one 
channel, often compelled to meet these wants by credit, and then 
the subsequent torture to a sensitive mind of possible failure to 
meet the engagement, the weakening of his influence among 
those to whom he preaches, if " the preacher promised to pay, 
and didn't do it,' 1 considered almost in the light of a crime, 
when, if the same thing were done by a man in ordinary busi- 
ness, it would be thought nothing of, and if done by a rich 
man, would not even be mentioned, for fear of giving offence, 
these are things hard — hard to bear, and yet it is a burden 
which Christian men and tender-hearted women in every section 
of the Church are daily imposing by the simple sin of inatten- 
tion. They, in multitudes of instances, take it for granted that 
their minister is well cared for, and would gladly pay a fourth 
or a fifth of his salary themselves rather than allow them to 
labor under such burdens. Church-member, make it your duty 
this hour to see how it is with your minister. 

" Feb. 15, 1854. 

My Dear Sir, — In consequence of my absence from home, 
the first number of your "Journal of Health" was not received 
until to-day. I had before had no intimations of its existence. 
Immediately upon its reception, I sat down to read it, and read 
it through with interest and profit. It will give me much plea- 
sure to receive and read it regularly, from month to month, and 
also to embrace every suitable opportunity for recommending it 
to others. If it can be the means of promoting a practical 
acquaintance with the philosophy of living, I shall rejoice. It 
seems to me there is a deplorable, and almost universal igno- 
rance on this subject. And as I look back upon the past, and 
consider my own deficiency in this respect, I am tempted to 
wish that 1 might live my life over again. I commenced my 
professional career fifteen years ago, under the most flattering 
circumstances. Several very eligible situations were open to 
me, and I had a bright prospect of extensive usefulness. But all 
those prospects were soon clouded, and disease seemed to put, 
one after another, my expectations and resolutions to flight. 

" It was not, however, wholly owing to my ignorance of the 
laws of living, that I was prostrated. I am sorry to add, — 
what a great multitude of my profession could also do, — that 
not a little of the sad work of physical ruin, was done by the 



Curious Epitaph. 59 

people to whom I ministered. I had no personal enemies; but 
the ceaseless troubles among themselves, and still more, the en- 
tirely inadequate pecuniary support they gave me, and the 
consequent excitement and anxiety of mind, were enough, when 
long continued, to break down the strongest. It seems to me, 
my dear sir, that, if you can effectually rouse the public mind, 
in your Journal or elsewhere, upon this most fruitful source of 
the numerous break-downs among ministers, you will accom- 
plish a very great and a very important work. An extensive 
acquaintance with ministers throughout New England enables 
me to speak what I know on this subject. I speak here of 
country ministers ; in the cities there are, so far as I know, 
more correct and adequate notions on the subject. We 
ministers open our hearts to each other about it in secret, 
but it is very seldom that one can be induced, especially if he 
loves his people, and earnestly desires to do them good, to dis- 
close, even to a physician, all that bears upon his case as an 
invalid. While I fully assent to what you say of the laws of 
health, and know that ignorance of them is the cause of untold 
suffering among ministers, I also know that the treatment they 
receive, in the matter of worldly support, and steadfast, con- 
siderate, sympathizing moral aid, from those they seek to 
benefit and save, is doing more to cut short their usefulness, 
happiness and life, than all other agencies combined. Would 
not your Journal be the appropriate medium of an occasional 
communication on this subject? 

" Excuse my prolixity. When I commenced writing, I had not 
the slightest intention of saying anything in this strain. I de- 
signed merely to express my interest in the Journal, and to ask 
that a copy may be sent me. 

" I am happy to say that I am still better, though tried by the 
inclemency and frequent changes of the weather. My little 
boy also continues better. I enclose one dollar for the Jour- 
nal, to be directed to this place. 

"Yours, truly." 

Curious Epitaph. — In a country grave-yard in New Jersey 
there is a plain stone erected over the grave of a beautiful young 
lady, with only this inscription upon it : 

" Julia Adams, died of thin shoes, April 17, 1839, aged 19." 



60 Hall's Journal of Health. 

TO RICH CHRISTIAN MEN. f% 

The object of this article is to induce you to send — five — ten 
or a hundred dollars a piece, to enable us to furnish the Journal 
to theological students and clergymen for one year ; it will be 
economy to the Church of more than money can buy, the health 
and life of your ministers. The following are the considerations 
offered : — 

As a very general rule when a man gets sick it is his own 
fault, the result of either ignorance or presumption. 

No minister has a right to do a thing which has destroyed the 
health of others. This Journal will give facts, from time to 
time, which will show how health has been lost ; and forewarned 
is to be forearmed. 

A clergyman becomes more valuable to the Church every 
additional year of his life, from his increased experience, wisdom, 
personal forbearance and kindliness toward all his race, up to 
the full age of fourscore years and over. But scarcely a week 
passes without bringing to our knowledge the name of some 
eminent or useful preacher, who has given up his charge on 
account of ill-health, some of them at the early age of thirty 
years. 

It is no uncommon thing to hear of young men, " the hope of 
the Church,' , leaving the " seminary" on account of ill health. 

Multitudes of instances have occurred where young men of 
unusual promise have entered the 'ministry, only to die at the 
threshold. All over the land are clergymen, who have gone 
down from their great work on account of ill-health, and are 
making a painful and precarious living by keeping store, teach- 
ing school, working on a farm, or worse still, existing on in 
heart-eating idleness, because they can find nothing they " can 
turn their hands to," while their children are growing up in neg- 
lect, and want, and pinching poverty. Who can measure the 
depth of that heart-gnawing which an educated and refined 9 
father must endure, who contemplates the sad sight from month 
to month and — hopelessly. 

It possesses high advantages for ministers to get sick in the 
city, a substitute is secured, salary is continued, and a purse of 
a thousand or two is made up to defray a year's expense abroad, 
but such is not the happy lot of the country clergyman. His 



To Rich Christian Men. 61 

salary at most, when regularly, and promptly, and fully paid, is 
barely enough to meet the actual necessities of his family. 
When he becomes disabled, he has nothing laid up for a rainy 
day, and as he cannot perform his duties, his salary is as certainly 
stopped, as the wages of a day laborer on a ditch or a railroad ; 
and then comes the want, the fearful struggle, and the terrible 
crushing-up of hope and ambition, literally terrible ! — how ter- 
rible none can so well know as the physician, to whom these 
tales are told so often by the strong man in tears. The Editor's 
office and correspondence can bear witness to many scenes like 
these, and he has been led thereby to attempt a preventive, — 
and that is, the publication of this Journal, which shall instruct 
young gentlemen at the " Seminary" and clergymen " in the 
field" how such disasters are brought about, and knowing them 
rightly, that is practically, is to avoid them : thus — 

I once knew a clergyman of some fifty-five years, of singularly 
retiring manners ; he was a worker, and he had a great mind ; 
he commanded the best pulpits in the State, and he had no supe- 
rior there. On one occasion he preached with his usual earnest- 
ness in a warm room in cool weather, and perspired freely ; it 
was in a country church, at night. After the services he went 
home with one of the members, and was soon shown to the 
a prophet's chamber ;" he discovered the sheets were a little 
damp, that the room and bedding seemed to have been unused 
for some time; there was a rawness in the atmosphere of this 
apartment which was exceedingly unpleasant, but not wishing 
to give trouble he retired ; the perspiration w 7 as immediately 
checked, he became thoroughly chilled, and died the next day in 
unutterable agony, his last words were, " I can't bear this pain 
long." Can any clergyman read this, and place himself in damp 
sheets within an hour after preaching a sermon with energy 
enough to dampen his inner garments by the perspiration from 
his person ? Such a man thus instructed would bear the curse 
of a suicide. 

Another clergyman, second to none in this wide land, rises at 
four every morning the year round, and from the perfect dark- 
ness of six or eight hours' sleep exposes the eyes to the glare of 
artificial light on a white page, and perseveres in it, against the 
advice of his physician. The result is an impairment of the 
sight, a cessation from all ministerial labor, a useless journey 



62 HaWs Journal of Health. 

abroad, the giving up of his Church, with that abiding depres- 
sion, that deep despondency which a good man feels, who is 
thus told before the heat and burden of the day is past, that 
his work is done. Some three years have thus passed away, 
and whether he will ever be restored, time only can tell. Has 
any sane man, after learning this fact, any right to suppose 
that his eyes are so much better than others, that they can en- 
dure such use with impunity ? Not one man in a thousand 
can thus use them. Any man of common sense ought to 
have known, without the experiment, that such a course could 
not be otherwise than pernicious, but it is notorious that clergy- 
men have not common sense. Somehow or other, they often 
become possessed with the idea that however any specified prac- 
tice or thing may injure others, it would not injure them, and 
thus practically claim an exemption from the common laws of 
mortality. Is that right ? What is a miracle ? It is the sus- 
pension of a natural law for some special object. Has any 
creature a right to demand of his Maker the suspension of 
any of his laws, for his accommodation, that he may do silly 
things with impunity ? I think not. This Journal, properly 
conducted, will be calculated to remedy these evils, and thus 
save millions of money to the Church ; for when one clergyman 
leaves the ranks, another must be educated, at an expense of 
at least three thousand dollars, to take his place, and when he 
does, he is nothing but a raw recruit, and alas, but too often, 
in consequence of inexperience, flounders, and falls into a life- 
long inefficiency. 

Money has been sent to me by practical Christian men, unso- 
licited, to pay for the Journal for their minister, and that circum- 
stance has suggested this, article, which is closed with the single 
statement, that twenty per cent will be allowed on any money 
sent to me for the above purposes, — that is to say, for every 
hundred dollars, or other amount in proportion, one hundred and 
twenty Journals will be sent one year, to as many specified 
addresses; and if none are specified, it will be sent to Clergy- 
men in alphabetical order of the denomination of the donor. 

Christian men, think of this. As soon as the publisher of the 
Journal is paid, the Editor will do more than any of you in this 
direction, he not being dependent on the Journal, by any means, 
for a living. It originated in a desire to preserve the health of 



An Offer to Clergymen. 63 

theological students and clergymen, and was intended to be 
edited in the odds and ends of time, which rising at five o'clock 
the year round would give from another calling ; not indeed to 
read or write by candle light morning or evening, for this he 
has not done for twenty-four years, but to do other necessary 
things, which do not require any special strain on the eyes, 
such as attending lectures, sawing wood, mechanical contriv- 
ances, and above all romping and playing with the children, 
Nelly, and Molly, and little Bob, which by the way is the most 
delightfully glorious form of exercise imaginable, delightful to 
myself and them now and mournfully pleasing to them, the 
reminiscence, in after years when I have passed away. 

Let me warn the reader here, in a separate paragraph, which 
will more than pay him for reading this article, never to take 
a step, for the mere sake of exercise. To walk a mile to a 
post and then turn round and walk back again, must be the 
most tiresome of all tiring jobs. I speak from conjecture. I do 
not now recollect ever to have tried it. The reader might try it 
once, it may be a lesson, the memory of which would last through 
life, and be an inducement so to arrange things before hand, 
that exercise might be connected with something agreeable 
and useful, — that is the kind which tells on the health, as 
no other can, to the hundredth part of the extent. 



AN OFFER TO CLERGYMEN. 

This Journal originated in a desire to promote the interests, 
the happiness, and well-being of clergymen, and they are in turn 
hereby called upon to do something to extend its circulation, if 
they approve of its professed object. The Editor never so 
thoroughly works with a will as when he knows himself paid for 
it ; he does not profess to work for any one without pay. A free 
liberal compensation is a great quickener of both physical and* 
mental capabilities ; it is human nature, hence he has always 
insisted on, and paid, the highest charges for medical attention 
to the members of his family when absent, or otherwise ; know- 
ing it to be the most efficient method of securing prompt, willing, 
and undivided attention in subsequent emergencies. He knows 
that it is customary among regularly educated practitioners of 
the old school, not to charge one another or clergymen. He 



64 HaWs Journal of Health. 

does not profess this to be his practice. He is satisfied from a 
long and wide observation, that it is better both for practitioner 
and patient, that there should be a quid pro quo; the patient 
thus retains his independence, which should always be held as 
sacred as the birth-right used to be, and to sell it for a mess of 
pottage or — physic, is as unmanly, especially when the pottage 
never fails to afford comfort and present relief, while the 
physic sometimes does. 

Therefore, the Editor makes the offer, that any who will send 
four dollars, will have Jive copies mailed to any desired address ; 
—or, 

Any one sending three dollars will have three copies sent, with 
a copy, post-paid., of " Bronchitis and Kindred Diseases," eighth 
edition, 12mo., 376 pages, 1854. (See Table of Contents on 
Cover ;) — or, 

Any person sending twenty dollars, will have thirty copies 
sent to any desired address. 

The Editor thinks, that whatever is done to promote the cir- 
culation of this Journal, will be a public good, for the time 
has come when the study of the health must become an essential 
branch of primary education ; every year increases the neces- 
sity. Our fathers and mothers are still hale and hearty, at 
sixty, seventy, or eighty years of age, and yet they never 
bothered themselves about the liver and stomach, and digestion, 
and brown bread and baths, and hair brushes ; they lived 
in blissful ignorance of the locality of the liver, " lights," or 
any thing else than the stomach ; the whereabouts of " that 
animal," they are regularly and pleasureably reminded of, 
three times a-day ; but not so with us, their degenerate sons, 
whose houses are cumbered with double sashes to keep all the 
pure air out, while every pains is taken to keep the foul air in ; 
with patent shower baths to chill us to death ; with hot air fur- 
.naces to stew us with their stifling, humid heat ; with carpets 
to hide dust and dirt, to harbor dampness and noxious gases; 
and lazy loafing rocking-chairs, to insure three crooks in every 
spine ; and cushioned ottomans, sofas, lounges, fauteuilles, vis- 
a-vis, and a great many other French things, to engender 
constipations, piles, fistulas, and lingering death. They indeed 
lived in log houses, and sat by roaring wood fires, feasted on 
plain " hog and homminy," used burnt bread-crust for coffee, 



.4.71 Offer to Clergymen. 65 

drank " verb teas" instead of " store tea," wove flax and 
linsey-woolsey, and manufactured what they wore, in the loom- 
house, which was considered as indispensable an appendage to 
a dwelling, as a kitchen ; they went to bed a little after "candle 
light," and rose at the "crack of day," working steady in the 
open air from " morning to night," beginning their "Sabbath" 
at Saturday sundown, walking across the fields " to meeting" 
on Sunday morning, taking a light lunch at noon, under the 
shady trees, in the church-yard, not so engorging themselves with 
a rich Sunday dinner of extra invitingness, as to render them so 
insufferably stupid and sleepy during the whole of the afternoon, 
as to cause it to be made " fashionable" to have no " preaching" 
in the afternoon, but to snore it out at home, in blissful security 
of its ever being known by the interruption of comers-in, be- 
cause it isn't pious " to visit on Sundays." 

Persons who have lived thus, regularly, industriously, tem- 
perately, religiously, can well afford to be ignorant of the laws 
of health, and the precautions necessary to preserve it to mo- 
dern livers, for to those who live naturally, nature is a self- 
regulator, her instincts are a guide and a safeguard as to 
health and disease. But men, whose whole lives are artificial, 
must study how to preserve the health under such artificial 
circumstances, or the race will die out, and nothing else can 
prevent it except intermarriage among hardier tribes — but where 
are they to come from ? — civilization is deteriorating the phy- 
sique of the nations across the waters, as well as here. Be 
assured, reader, that the only remedy for the physical salvation 
of man is to secure a practical intelligence as to the laws of his 
being, and such is the designed tendency of this Journal. 

CARPETS 

Are scarcely known in the West Indies, and not one room in a 
hundred in Paris has a carpet. 

The floors of Parisian dwellings are made of brick, usually 
square, and are cleaned with brickdust and water, and are then 
rubbed until a mirror-like polish is obtained. See the lower hall 
of the Prescott House in Broadway. 



66 Halls Journal of Health. 

SMALL POX— VACCINATION— VARIOLOID. 

For the week ending Feb. 11, 1854, in New York city, fifty- 
seven persons died of Small Pox, making two hundred and forty- 
five deaths, 'or nearly six deaths a day from that terrible disease 
since the 1st of January last. Vaccination is the only protec- 
tion, except that of having it in the natural way. Vaccination 
is performed at all the Dispensaries, free of charge. I earnestly 
advise the permanent residents of New York to apply to some 
well known, long established, and reputable physician, whose 
duty it is to have always on hand fresh vaccine virus, taken by 
them from patients known to themselves personally to be young, 
healthful, and of sound constitution and blood, — otherwise Vac- 
cination cannot be relied on as a preventive against Small Pox. 

What is Vaccination ? What is Varioloid ? How often 
ought Vaccination to be repeated ? How may I know for my- 
self whether Vaccination has indisputably taken ? A satisfac- 
tory answer may be had by purchasing the February number of 
Dixon's ''Scalpel," for 25 cents, from Dewitt and Davenport, 
Tribune Buildings, New York ; Peterson, Philadelphia , Reading 
& Co., Boston. There are two other admirable editorial articles 
in this same number, which are of vital interest to the whole 
community — What is a Catarrh or common Cold ? What is 
Dyspepsia ? 

WHEN DOES VACCINATION TAKE ? 

On the seventh or eighth day after the " operation," we see a 
brown centre, of an oval shape, surrounded by pearl colored 
dots; outside of these is a reddish appearance, fading away into 
the natural color of the skin ; after the vesicle has passed away, 
which is in seven or eight days more, a perfect vaccine crust or 
scab presents itself in the place of the vesicle, so that it cannot 
be certainly told whether a vaccination has " taken" until the 
fourteenth or fifteenth day. When the pearly dots do not appear 
then it has not taken, and the person is either unprotected, or a 
previous vaccination has not run out. If after three trials no 
pearly dots appear around any sore which may present itself, 
then we may feel assured that the person remains fully protected. 



HOMINY. 

It is surprising how little is known of this nutritious healthy 
food, and what an excellent substitute it is for potatoes during 
the continuation of the disease among them, which renders some 



Hominy. 67 

that are fair to the eye, unfit for food, and all exceedingly dear. 
As*we write, our hostess informs us that potatoes, hominy, and 
white beans are all of the same price — $2 50 a bushel, and rice 
but a little dearer. If a man can afford to eat fried gold for 
breakfast, boiled bank notes for dinner, and roasted dollars for 
supper, he can afford to eat potatoes cooked in the same way, 
and not otherwise, at present prices. In point of economy as 
human food, one bushel of beans or hominy is equal to ten of 
potatoes. Hominy, too, is a dish almost as universally liked as 
potatoes, and at the South, about as freely eaten, while at the 
North it is seldom seen. In fact, it is an unknown food, except 
to a few persons in cities. By hominy we do not mean a sort 
of coarse meal, but grains of white corn, from which the hull 
and chit, or eye has been removed, by moistening and pounding 
in a wooden mortar, leaving the grains almost whole, and com- 
posed of little else but starch. It has often been said, not one 
cook in ten knows how to boil a potato. We may add another 
cypher when speaking of the very simple process of cooking 
hominy. We give the formula from our own experience, and 
instructions received in a land where "hog and hominy" are 
well understood. — Wash slightly in cold water, and soak twelve 
hours in tepid, soft water, then boil slowly from three to six 
hours in the same water, with plenty more added from time to 
time, with great care to prevent burning. Do not salt while 
cooking, as that or hard water will harden the corn. So it will 
peas or beans, green or dry, and rice also. When done, add 
butter and salt ; or a better way is to let each season to suit 
the taste. It may be eaten with meat in lieu of vegetables, or 
with sugar or syrup. It is good hot or cold, and the more fre- 
quently it is warmed over, like the old-fashioned pot of 

" Bean-porridge hot, or bean-porridge cold, 
Bean porridge best at nine days old." 

So is hominy — it is good always, and very wholesome, and like 
tomatoes, only requires to be eaten once or twice to fix the taste 
in its favor. 

Hominy Breakfast Cakes. — Mash the cold hominy with a 
rolling-pin, and add a little flour and milk batter, so as to make 
the whole into little cakes in the hand, or it may be put upon 
the griddle with a spoon. Bake brown, eat hot, and declare you 
never ate anything better of the batter cake kind. 



68 Hall's Journal of Health. 

Hominy and Milk, hot or cold, is as much better than mush 
and milk, as that is better than oat-meal porridge. 

Hominy Pudding. — Prepare as for batter cakes. Add one 
egg to each pint, some whole cinnamon, sugar to suit the taste, 
and a few raisins, and bake like rice pudding. A iittle butter 
or chopped suet may be added. Serve hot or cold, with or with- 
out sauce. 

Hominy and Beans. — Mix equal parts of cold baked beans 
and hominy together, and heat up, and you will have an excel- 
lent dish. — The Plow. 



NOTICES OF OUR JOURNAL. 

We have received the first number of this publication, designed 
to aid the people to jjrevent disease, by proper attention to 
food, sleep, exercise, dress, &c. It will have a special reference 
to clergymen and theological Students, and as the author has for 
many years devoted his attention particularly to diseases of the 
throat and lungs, we doubt not his Journal will contain many 
valuable suggestions to this class. We have ourselves derived 
great benefit from pursuing the judicious advice given us by 
Dr. Hall about a year ago. — Baltimore True Union* 

Hall's Journal of Health. — Dr. W. W. Hall, of New York, 
has commenced a monthly magazine with the above title. He 
is a physician of high standing, and has been particularly suc- 
cessful in treating diseases of the throat. The contents of the 
first number are : Editor's Address ; Subjects to be Treated ; 
Eating and Drinking; Tea and Coffee; Use of Milk; Dr. 
Nott's Munificence ; the Food we Eat ; How to attain Old Age ; 
Too White Flour ; Travelling for Health; Wearing the Beard, 
&c. — Cincinnati Christ. Herald. 

" Hall's Journal of Health," is the title of a neat, well 
written and better edited monthly, which comes to us from New 
York. It is edited by Dr W. W. Hall, a physician of varied 
practice, both in the South and North. This Journal will supply 
a want that is felt in many family circles, viz. — some plain, 
practical treatise which shall tell us " how to take care of health." 
This reminds us of what Colton says on this subject, " how hap- 
pens it that all men envy us our wealth, but that no man envies 
us our health? The reason perhaps is that, it is very seldom 
that we can lose our wealth without some one being the better 



Notices of our Journal. 69 

for it, by gaining that which we have lost ; but no one is jealous 
of*tis on account of our health, because if we were to lose that, 
this would be a. loss that betters no one." The " Journal of 
Health" before us seems to be written in a style adapted to all 
readers. — West Jersey man. 

We have received a copy of " Dr. Hall's Journal of Health" 
and have examined the No. before us. We are favorably im- 
pressed with the lucid style in which his arguments are advanced, 
and think that by its general perusal a change upon the health 
and destinies of man might be wrought. There is great room 
for the improvement of the habits of the present generation, and 
until a change in this respect is made, disease of every type will 
predominate. We commend the article of "Criticus" below, 
who has had opportunity of discussing the merits of the work 
and will take pleasure in exhibiting a copy of it to all who may 
call at our office. 

"It is the only Journal of its kind in Europe or in America. 
It strikes at a principle of reform not before Contemplated by 
Medical men — ' the prevention and cure of disease without 
medicine.' The idea at first seems to be a novel one, but we 
readily admit its plausibility. Dr. Hall is a regular graduate of 
the old school. It seems that he intends to communicate his 
knowledge not to the medical world, but to all mankind. The 
pages of the 'Health Journal 1 will be devoted to this object, 
showing that Nature is recuperative, and capable herself of 
managing disease. 

' ; We notice in the Home Journal several extracts from the 
Book lately issued by Dr. Hall, and think his extensive practice 
and scientific investigation commands our attention on the points 
above. 

"A celebrated divine now living of orthodox Calvinistic faith, 
remarked to a class of pupils, that when the period of the Mil- 
lennium came, the lives of the living would be young when 
they died at an hundred years of age. 

"'How can that be?' replied the inquisitive. * Why, sir, 
the reason is this, that the human constitution will be more 
perfectly understood, and its contingencies more naturally at- 
tended to.' " — Ckatt Jour. 

" This new Monthly is designed to instruct the community at 
large, but more especially Students and Professional Men in the 



70 HalVs Journal of Health. 



laws of health, that by the observance of these they may 
forestall disease. The Editor, Dr. Hall, of this city, has fted 
much experience in diseases of the throat and lungs, and his 
remarks on the causes of these will have a special value." — 
New York Independent. 

u Hall's Journal of Health" assumes the principle, that 
"health is a duty." Dr. Hall does not give recipes, unprofes- 
sional, nor will he give a series of prosy lectures on physiology 
and hygiene, such as nobody will read. Dr. Hall, you are right, 
but the asini multitudinum will not profit. Teach the art of 
destroying life and they will build you a monument, but incul- 
cate the art and duty of prolonging it, and they will tear down 
their houses to hurl brickbats at you. We are no candidate 
for martyrdom, yet we believe that almost all persons are 
suicides or are murdered. 

" To those who want a good common-sense Journal of Health, 
without whims and technicalities, we recommend this Maga- 
zine." — Syracuse Daily Journal. 



NEW SHOES MADE EASY. 

The luxury of an " old shoe" is universally appreciated. 
Any one so fortunate as to be able to prefer comfort to looks, 
parts with an old boot or shoe with great reluctance. The 
money cost of a new pair may be of no consequence, but the 
suffering which they will in all probability occasion for days, 
if not weeks, cannot be lightly regarded. Corns are the 
necessary result of a tight shoe, giving discomfort, pain, and 
sometimes torture for the remainder of life. Every physician 
knows that corns improperly tampered with, sometimes destroy 
life, the sufferings from them in such cases being often terrible — 
literally, terrible. 

The Editor, for some years past, has had no trouble in having 
a new boot or shoe made to feel easy and comfortable, not 
only for the first week or two, but from the time they are 
first put on, until they are worn out : and, for the sake of 
" toes" proposes the expedient for trial, thinking that it may 
work as well with others as it has always done with himself. — 
Before going to have your measure taken, or to select a pair 
already made, put on two pair of thick woollen socks. 

The expedient is simple, easily tried, and has given to the 
Editor results, really delightful. 



Notices of Boohs, Periodicals, fyc. 71 

NOTICES OF BOOKS, PERIODICALS, &c. 

THE NEW YORK MEDICAL GAZETTE AND 
JOURNAL OF HEALTH, Edited by D. Meredith Reese, 
M.D., LL.D., published monthly, at two dollars a year, 44 pages, 
8vo., 852, Broadway. — Dr. Reese is a veteran in the profession, 
of large experience, extensive research and learning, and of 
great practical ability ; among the subjects treated in the March 
number, are Homoeopathy and Orthodoxy, in answer to an ar- 
ticle in Putnam's Magazine. Theology of Homoeopathy ; Parisian 
Correspondence, which is an article of very considerable inter- 
est and value ; Medical Phantoms ; Medical Legislation in Al- 
bany ; New York Opthalmic Hospital ; Reviews ; Notices, &c. 



THE HORTICULTURAL REVIEW AND BOTANI- 
CAL MAGAZINE, conducted by John A. Warder, MD„ and 
Jamer W. Ward, Esq., published monthly, by H. W. Derby, 
Cincinnati. Three dollars a year; each number 8vo, of 100 
pages, double columns. Exchange Newspapers and Periodicals 
are requested to direct to M Derby's Review, Cincinnati, Ohio." 

The February number alone, contains an amount of useful 
information far exceeding in value a whole year's subscription. 



ARTHUR'S HOME GAZETTE : Philadelphia, Monthly, 
$1.25 a year ; one of the very few monthlies of its kind, which 
may be safely admitted into all families. 



All written communications to be addressed, post paid, to 
"Dr. W. W. Hall, New York." 

All orders, exchanges, and books lor notice or review, must 
be addressed simply to 

" Hall's Journal of Health, New York," 
or, if within the city, to the office of the Editor, 37 Irving Place, 
New York, near Union Square, until May 1st next, and there- 
after, at his private residence, 42 Irving Place. 

A PREMIUM of twenty-five dollars will be paid to any sub- 
scriber who will write, from his own experience, the best descrip- 
tion of How I lost my Health, to contain about eight hundred 
words, on or before the first day of July next. A sealed 
envelope should accompany the m'anuscript, containing the full 
name and address of the author, none of which will be broken, 
except that of the successful one ; these envelopes will be returned 
by mail, unopened and prepaid, to each one who desires it. The 
manuscripts will be retained, unless called for. 



T2 



Halts Journal of Health. 



CONTENTS OF JANUARY NUMBER. 



Page 

Editor's Address. 1 

Subjects lo he Treated 5 

Eating and Drinking 6 

Tea and Coffee 6 

Use of Milk 7 

Dr. Nott's Munificence 8 

The food we Eat 11 

How to attain Old Age 12 

Too white Flour 13 

Traveling for Health 14 



Pane 

Wearing the Beard 15 

Invalids and Exertive Exercise 16 

Heart Disease 17 

Consumption aud the South 18 

Book Notices 22 

"The Independent" 22 

The Home Journal 22 

The American Medical Monthly 23 

To Correspondents 23 

A Premium 24 



CONTENTS OF FEBRUARY NUMBER. 



Page 

Invalids and Exertive Exercise 25 

Common Sense 27 

Longevity 30 



Ventilation 

Ignorance, fatal effects of. 

Over-working 

Air and Exercise 



Page 

Horseback Exercise 40 

Going to the South: 41 

Would a "lass of Wine hurt me ?. . .42 

How to Sleep •. .43 

To Correspondents 47 

A Premium 48 



CONTENTS OF MARCH NUMBER. 



Page. 

Spirometrology 49 

Clerical Letter 57 

Cui ions Epitaph 59 

To Rich Christian Men 60 

An Offer to Clergymen 63 



Page. 
Small Pox — Vaccination — Varioloid, 66 

When does Vaccination take ? 66 

Hominy, 68 

Notices of Our Journal ........... .70 

New Shoes made Easy 71 



'DCP The "Journal" will be sent one year to any established 
newspaper or periodica] which will notice its appearance, and 
copy the contents of this month's number — provided such publi- 
cation is sent, with the article scored, to address of 

"Hall's Journal of Health, New York." 



P.S. To allow time for Subscriptions to b'e sent -in, the next 
number of the Journal will not be issued until the twentieth of 
May ; this will be a double number. Thereafter it is designed 
that the Journal shall appear the middle of each month. 

Among other things the next number will contain a full answer 
to the following questions : — What is Bronchitis ? How do per- 
sons get Bronchitis ? What are its symptoms ? What is the 
difference between Bronchitis and Consumption ? What is the 
difference between Bronchitis and Throat-Ail, or Clergymen's 
Sore Throat? How do persons get Throat Ail ? What is its 
peculiar symptom, present in all cases, absent in none ? 

ECr 9 Persons to whom this number is sent, post paid, will please 
consider it an intimation that the editor desires them to become 
subscribers. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 

VOL. I.] APRIL, 1854. [NO. IV. 



THE LUNGS 

Of a common man contain about one hundred and seventy mil- 
lions of little bladders, or air cells, or little holes of different sizes, 
as in a sponge, and if these were cut open, and spread out, they 
would cover a space thirty times greater than the man's skin 
would ; over one side of this vast surface the blood is spread out, 
by means of very small blood vessels ; on the other side the air is 
diffused, and the substance of these little bladders is so thin, that 
the blood and air, in effect, come in contact, and the result of this 
contact is purification, heat and life ; and death is the result, if 
this contact is prevented for three minutes ; the reader will feel, 
therefore, how great is the necessity for a constant and full sup- 
ply of pure air to the lungs. Hence the reason that those who 
live out of doors the most, live the longest, other things being 
equal. Of the 120,000 who die every year in England and 
Wales of Consumption, the greater number is among in-door 
laborers. This is the reason too, why the families of the rich 
in cities, soon become extinct ; in summer they stay in the house 
to keep out of the sun, and in the winter to keep out of the cold ; 
their faces are pale, their skin is flabby, and their limbs are 
weak ; a young girl is put out of breath if she runs across the 
street ; and seldom a day passes without a complaint of a head- 
ache or bad cold, or chilliness, or want of appetite, while the old 
father and mother of sixty winters or more, who lived in log 
cabins, cutting wood, hoeing corn, building fences, mauling rails, 
feeding cattle, spinning flax, weaving jeans in the old loom house 
during the day, and knitting socks in the chimney corner at 
night, going to bed a little after dark, and getting up to work 
before day, they scarcely know what an ache or a pain is, can 
eat heartily three times a-day, and are sound asleep in five 
minutes aftei the head reaches the pillow, and what is perhaps 



74 Hall's Journal of Health. 

better, are always forbearing, good natured, cheerful, hospitable 
and kind, while their city progeny are poor, helpless, fretful, 
complaining invalids ; heirs to millions they may possibly live to 
inherit for a brief period, but never can enjoy. 

A tall man will take in at a full breath nine pints of air, while 
in ordinary breathing he takes in one pint, or forty cubic inches. 
If he be all at once deprived of this whole 40 inches, he will die 
in three minutes, and if death results from a total deprivation, 
an injury to health and life must take place in proportion as the 
amount breathed is less than forty inches; for example, of a 
hundred letter-pressmen, working in a room having less than 
500 cubic feet of air to breathe, thirteen per cent had spitting of 
blood induced ; while as many men having more than 600 feet, 
gave only four per cent of spitting blood ; showing that, that 
most fatal symptom of Consumption is brought on in proportion 
as men breathe less pure air than health requires ; the effect 
being the same whether there are not lungs to receive it, or 
whether there be not the air to be received. 

It is with food as w'th air ; a person soon dies if wholly de- 
prived of either, but will gradually and a long time linger, if not 
quite enough is given for the wants of the system * and all are 
familiar with the fact, that consumptives gradually die as the 
lungs, by decay, become less and less able to receive the due 
amount of air. 



BRANDY AND THROAT DISEASE. 

In several instances persons have applied to me who had been 
advised to take brandy freely for a throat affection. None but 
an ignorant man or a drunkard wouid give such advice ; it is 
warranted by no one principle in medicine, reason, or common 
sense. The throat is inflamed, the brandy inflames the whole 
body, and the throat affection, being less urgent from its being 
scattered over a smaller surface, is less felt, and the excitement of 
the liquor gives a general feeling of wellness, until the system 
becomes accustomed to the stimulus, and then the throat, body 
and the man, all the more speedily go to ruin together. 

I have in my mind, while writing these lines, the melancholy- 
history of two young men, one from Kentucky and the other 
from Missouri, who were advised to drink brandy freely, three 



Health of Cities. 



75 



times a day, for a throat complaint ; one of them, within a year, 
became a confirmed drunkard and lost his property, and will 
leave an interesting family in want within another year. The 
other was one of the most high-minded, honorable young men 
I have lately known ; he was the only son of a widow, and she 
was rich ; within six months he became a regular toper, lost his 
business, spent all his money, and left secretly for California, 
many thousands of dollars in debt. 



HEALTH OF CITIES. 

The health of large cities is becoming to be regarded more 
and more as a subject of highest importance. There is a great 
difference between them ; in some cities one person out of every 
25 dies annually, while in others there is only one death to every 
50 persons. The following table exhibits several cities, in com- 
parison, both European and American, showing in each how 
many inhabitants are lost by death every year : 



Portland . . 1 in 62 New York . . 1 in 37 Nice and 
Philadelphia 1 in 45 St. Petersburg.! in 37 Palermo 



Glasgow 
Manchester 
Geneva. . . 
Boston . . . 
London. . . 



1 in 44 Charleston. . 1 in 36 Madrid. 
1 in 44 Baltimore . . 1 in 35 Naples . 
1 in 43 Leghorn . . 1 in 35 Brussels 
1 in 41 Berlin .... 1 in 34 Rome . 
1 in 40 Paris&Lyons.l in 32 



1 in 31 
1 in 29 
1 in 28 
1 in 26 
1 in 25 



The following is a comparison of six cities of the United S 
for one week, ending Saturday. June 21, 1851 : 

Deaths. Population. 

. 138,788 . 



Boston . . 


. 76 


New York . 


. 330 


Philadelphia. 


. 150 


Baltimore . 


. 82 


Charleston . 


. 17 


Savannah . 


. 12 



517,849 

450,000 

169,825 

48,014 

14,500 



Proportion. 

1 in 1,826 
1 in 1,569 
1 in 3.000 
1 in 2,061 
1 in 3,584 
1 in 1,203 



76 HaWs Journal of Health. 

SIR ASTLEY COOPER'S BATH. 

Sir Astley Cooper was the most eminent surgeon of his time, 
and he lived to a good old age, and although he wore silk stock- 
ings in the depth of an English winter, he seldom took cold, 
which exemption he attributed mainly to his morning bath, 
which he describes as follows : 

" Immediately on rising from bed, and having all previously 
ready, take off your night dress, then take up from your earthen 
pan of two gallons of water a towel, quite wet but not dropping; 
begin at your head, rubbing hair and face, and neck and ears 
well ; then wrap yourself behind and before, from neck to chest, 
your arms, and every portion of your body. Remand your 
towel into the pan, charge it afresh with water, and repeat once 
all I have mentioned, excepting the head, unless that be in a 
heated state, when you may do so, and with advantage. Three 
minutes will now have elapsed. Throw your towel into the 
pan, and then proceed with two coarse long towels, to scrub your 
head, and face, and body, front and rear, when four minutes 
will have you in a glow ; then wash and hard rub your feet, 
brush your hair, and complete your toilette ; and trust me that 
this will give new zest to your existence. A mile of walking 
may be added with advantage." 

Women and those who are delicate, and who are easily 
chilled, may modify Sir Astley's mode by adopting that which is 
described in the following language of a lady to a lady : 

a lady's bath. 
" You only want a basin of water, a towel, a rag, and five 
minutes time. When you get up in the morning pin a petticoat 
very loosely at the waist, draw your arms out of the sleeves of 
your chemise, and let it drop to your waist. Take your rag, 
well wetted, and slap your head and shoulders, rub your arms 
and chest, and throw handfuls of water around your ears and 
back of the neck. Then throw your towel across your back 
and ' saw ' it dry. Rub fast until you are quite dry. Put on 
your chemise sleeves, draw on a night gown, to keep from 
chilling, while you tuck your skirts up under one arm, until you 
wash and dry one limb ; drop that side and do the other likewise, 
and be sure that the small of the back and side's get their full 



Observations on Bathing. 77 



to' 



share of rubbing. This done, sit down, dip one foot ir, the basin, 
rub and dry it, put on your stocking and shoe, and then wash 
the other." 

When needed, I am in the habit of advising the following, 
which, as a general rule, I think preferable to all others, because 
it is easily performed, costs nothing, and is practicable wherever 
there is a rag and a pint of cold water ; it leaves no ground of 
excuse for not performing it, and consequently there is no 
obstacle to its general employment. 

It is my opinion, founded on observation, that a daily bath, 
to one in good health, is not only not beneficial, but is injurious, 
while it deprives a man of a valuable prophylactic when he is 
really sick. A man who is well, should let himself alone ! 
I know very well there is a kind of furor in certain quarters 
about cold baths, and shower baths. It is often described as a 
delightful operation, and its healthfulness painted in glowing 
language. But is it true ? It is wonderful how a community 
will sometimes take up a plausible idea, and run away with it, 
never stopping to investigate its propriety, its truthfulness, or its 
safety. 

A daily bath, shower or otherwise, is a modern invention, de- 
vised to sell bath-tubs. I personally have known but two men, 
who acknowledged to a daily shower bath, literally a shower-bath 
every day. One of them died years ago of chronic diarrhoea, 
the other was a hydropathist, a great stout raw-boned six footer. 
I sat at the same table with him for many months ; he was always 
bathing, and was always sick, he would frequently souse himself 
in cold water head and ears, two or three times a day. Does 
any reader of mine know any old man who has been a daily 
cold water bather all his days, or even for any five years of his 
life ? Did Preisnitz, who gloried in cold water, live to be an old 
man? Does the observant reader know any man, dead or alive, 
who practiced a daily cold water bath for three consecutive 
years, and who enjoyed any remarkable good health, and who 
did not have good health before he began ? Have we any 
written record of any nation, whose inhabitants practised as a 
general thing daily cold water bathings ? These are inquiries 
which every reflecting man ought to make, and when they are 
answered, to conduct himself accordingly. 

When a man is not well, bathing of some kind is advisable 

3* 



78 Hall's Journal of Health. 

under certain circumstances, but it should not be continued too 
long; as soon as he is well he ought to stop. Once or twice a 
week persons may advantageously perform the following, if in 
good health, for the sake of personal cleanliness; if ailing, 
oftener : 

TOWEL BATH. 

As a general rule, the best method is to dip a coarse cloth or 
a coarse linen or tow or hempen glove in cold water, squeeze it 
so that the water shall not dribble about, lay it flat on the hand, 
and with, breast projecting and mouth closed, begin over the 
breast, on getting out of bed in the morning, and rub fast and 
hard, gradually extending it all over the body, as far as you can 
reach in every direction. This operation should be performed 
within ten minutes in summer, and within three or four in win- 
ter. Keep on the stockings, and when done, dress quickly, and 
go to the fire, if in cool weather, or take some exercise, active 
enough to make you feel comfortably warm. 



KEEPING THE TEETH CLEAN. 

At a meeting of the American Academy, Dec. 1849, a paper 
was read by Dr. H. 1. Bowditch, on the animal and vegetable 
parasites infesting the Teeth, with the effects of different agents 
in causing their removal and destruction. Microscopical ex- 
aminations had been made of the matter on the teeth and gums 
of more than forty individuals, selected from all classes of so- 
ciety, in every variety of bodily condition ; and in nearly every 
case animal and vegetable parasites in great numbers had been 
discovered. — Of the animal parasites there were three Or four 
species, and of the vegetable, one or two. In fact, the only per- 
sons whose mouths were found to be completely free from them, 
cleansed their teeth four times daily, using soap once. One or 
two of these individuals also passed a thread between the teeth 
to cleanse them more effectually. In all cases the number of 
the parasites was greater in proportion to the neglect of cleanliness. 
The effect of the application of various agents was also 
noticed. Tobacco juice and smoke did not impair their vitality 
in the least. The same was also true of the chlorine tooth- wash, 
of pulverized bark, of soda, ammonia, and various other popular 
detergents. The application of soap, however, appeared to 



Benefit of Action, etc. 79 

destroy them instantly, We may hence infer that this is the 
best and most proper specific for cleansing the teeth. In all 
cases where it has been tried, it receives unqualified commenda- 
tion. It may also be proper to add, that none but the purest 
white soap, free from all discoloration, should be used. — Ameri- 
can Annual of Scientific Discovery. 



Benefit of Action. — So far from complete inaction being 
perfect enjoyment, there are few greater sufferings than that 
which the total absence of occupation generally induces. Count 
Caylies, the celebrated French antiquary, spent much time in 
engraving the plates which illustrated his valuable work. When 
his friends asked him why he worked so hard at such an almost 
mechanical occupation, he said — " Je grave pour ne pas me 
pendre" — I engrave lest I should hang myself. When Napoleon 
was slowly withering away, from disease and ennui together, on 
the rock of St. Helena, it was told him that one of his old friends, 
an ex-colonel in the Italian army, was dead. " What disease 
killed him ?" asked Napoleon. " That of having nothing to do," 
it was answered. "Enough," said Napoleon, "even had he 
been an emperor." 

Anointing with oil. — Professor Simpson, of Edinburg, has 
been the means of bringing to light a curious corroboration of 
the sanitary value of the ancient practice of anointing with oil. 
It appears that the learned professor, when recently visiting the 
manufacturing town of Galashiels, was casually informed that 
the workers in the wool-mill in that place were exempt from the 
attacks of consumption and scrofula. On inquiring of the medical 
men in the vicinity, the truth of the statement was confirmed, 
and it was then deemed expedient to pursue investigations on a 
broader scale. Communications were accordingly sent to physi- 
cians residing in Dunfermline, Alloa, Tillicoultry, Inverness, and 
other districts where the wool-mills are in operation; and in the 
case of all it was ascertained that similar immunity was enjoyed 
from the fatal diseases mentioned. It further appeared that, in 
some of the localities, scarlatina had been added to the list ; and, 
also, that employment in the mills not only preserved health, but 
children of delicate constitutions were sent to be wool workers, 
for the express purpose of acquiring strength — a result in almost 
every instance attained. 



80 



HalVs Journal of Health. 



LONGEVITY OF LITERARY WOMEN. 

The following examples show that devotion to literary duties 
is not necessarily destructive to the health and lives of women : 



Name. 


Died. 


Age. 


Name. Died. 


Age. 


Mrs. Hofland . . 


1844 


. 74 


Miss Birney . . 1840 


. 88 


Jane Porter . . 


'50 


. 74 


Hannah Moore . '33 


. 88 


Mrs. Chapone . . 


'01 


. 75 


Joanna Bailey . '51 


. 89 


Mrs. Sherwood . 


'51 


. 77 


Mrs. Carter . . '06 


. 90 


B. Maria Roche . 


'45 


. 80 


Jane West ... '52 


. 93 


Mrs. Barbauld . . 


'25 


. 82 


Hon.Mrs.Monkton '40 


. 94 


Mrs. Piozzi . . 


'21 


. 82 


Harriet Lee . . '51 


. 95 


Mrs. Edgeworth . 


'49 


. 82 


Mrs. Garrick . . — 


. 97 


Mrs. Amelia Opie 


'53 


. 85 


CarolineL.Herschell '46 


. 98 



MODERN LONGEVITY. 

The following are the names of persons who have died 
within a few weeks past : 

Name. 

Capt. A. Partridge 
Thomas Gascoigne 
W. W. Groesbeck 
Thomas Banks . 
Joseph Trotter . 
Thomas Gould . 
Hon. John Gebhard 
Charles Vezin 
Dr. Samuel Carter 
Samuel Brooks . 
William Wilson . 
John Armstrong . 
Jacob Dunton 
Ann Mather 
Sarah Ward 
William Gardner 
Archibald Davidson 
Maj. Sam. Rosseter 
Rev. William Jay 
Mary T. Dickinson 
C. C. Watson . 
Thomas H. Perkins 
Rev. David Compost 
Abraham Teshune 
Andrew Davis . 
Rachel Campbell 



Place. 


Age 


Connecticut 


. 70 




. 70 
. 70 


New York 


Virginia . 


. 70 


Philadelphia 


. 71 


Illinois 


. 71 


New York 


. 72 


Philadelphia 


. 73 


Brooklyn . 


. 75 


Philadelphia 


. 75 


■ 


. 75 


Indiana*; . 


. 77 


Philadelphia 


. 80 


Pennsylvania 


. 80 


Sing Sing 


. 81 


England . 


. 83 


New York 


. • . 83 




. 85 

. 85 


England . 


Philadelphia 


. 85 


Philadelphia 


. 87 


Massachusetts . 


. 89 


New York 


. 90 


New York 


. 94 


New York 


. 93 


Pennsylvania . 


. 96 



Modern Longevity. 81 

It is worthy of remark, that in every instance of long life 
given above, of names collected in half-an hour from a bundle of 
newspapers lying on the floor, the subject was either a man of 
acknowledged piety or was possessed of high and honorable busi- 
ness capacities ; thus offering the premium of a good old age, to 
all those who choose to live a life of piety and active honorable 
enterprise and industry. And in view of the following examples 
of effective working old age, ought not every young clergyman 
who is prematurely disabled, to investigate the cause, and instead 
of laying it on the Lord, and calling it a mysterious dispensation 
of Providence, begin to fear lest the fault lie at his own door, 
in unwarranted indigencies or unwise habits of life. 

#*##*# jj r y an Oven, in his work "On the Decline of 
Life in Health and Disease," comes to the conclusion that a 
hundred years and upwards, even considerably upwards, is the 
term which man ought, by care and prudence, to attain. 

The Old Colony Memorial (of Plymouth) says — "Dr. James 
Kendall, of this place, preached to his people last Sabbath, from 
the text — ' Having therefore obtained help of God, I continue 
unto this day,' &c. Dr. Kendall is in his eighty-sixth year, and 
was settled over his people in the year 1800 — making a ministry 
of fifty-four years." 

Death of Rev. William Jay, England. — The last steamer 
brought the intelligence of the death of this venerable man, who 
departed this life at Bath, Dec. 27th, 1853, in the 85th year of 
his age. He was the author of the " Morning and Evening 
Exercises," which bear his name, and which has profited so 
many thousands of Christians. He commenced preaching at 
the age of sixteen, at Surrey Chapel, but his regular ministry 
was confined to Bath, and was never interrupted until he re- 
signed a short time since. He' ha? gone to his grave like a 
shock of corn, fully ripe. Few men have lived to accomplish 
so much good, or to leave behind them a name so honored and 
precious. 

The venerable Rev. David Comfort departed this life on the 
28th ult., in the 90th year of his age, and the fifty-fourth of his 
ministry, fifty of which were spent as the pastor of one flock, 
that of Kingston, N. J. 

Rev. Father JNott, of Franklin, Connecticut, died within a 



82 Hall's Journal of Health. 

year or two aged eighty-five years, and up to the age of eighty 
years performed his pastoral duties with ability and energy, with 
a mind active and wakeful to the last. 



FRIENDS OF THEOLOGICAL SEMINARIES, 

Tens of thousands of dollars are expended every year in sus- 
taining the Seminaries which prepare young men for the Minis- 
try, and tens of thousands besides in maintaining some of those 
young men who are not able to support themselves. It is 
well known that many a dollar thus expended has been 
earned by the manual labor of the pious and humble poor, 
whose pittance, small as it is, is bestowed at a sacrifice of 
personal convenience and comfort in some instances, and little 
children are taught to deny themselves some of the common 
eatables of life that the worth of them may be thrown in the 
treasury of the Church. Is it right ? — Is it right ? — IS IT 
RIGHT ? ye Secretaries of beneficiary treasuries, that this money 
shall be expended in fitting young men for the Ministry, when 
no pains are taken to maintain and secure that good health 
which is essential to their efficiency ? Is one single lecture read 
to these young men, during the whole three years' course of 
theological study, which instructs them how to preserve health, 
the high duty of thus preserving it, — of the criminality of its 
neglect ? Deacons, Elders, Vestrymen, Priests, Rectors, Bishops 
of the Church, think of it, simply think of it, and answer me — as 
't wise ? — Is it right ? The most practicable method which 
suggests itself to my mind at this time, and perhaps the most 
economical, is the following : — 

Let the friends of any particular Seminary send me the money 
necessary to pay for fifty, or «a hundred, or more copies of the 
Journal. I will obtain an alphabetical list of all the Students in 
the Seminary designated, and if money enough is not sent to 
pay for a copy for each, the monthly numbers may be sent to 
them in rotation, and out of each valuable information may be 
obtained, which does not appear in books accessible to them. 
The one article in the February number on " Air and Exercise" 
cannot be carried out by any sedentary man, not an actual in- 
valid, without giving him a degree of strength and vigor, 
bodily and mental, to which he has hitherto been a stranger. 



Bribery, New Brunswick, and Tobacco. 83 

I feel no hesitation in making these statements, because I 
know that the subject is an important one, that it has been long 
neglected, and by that neglect the Church suffers every year in 
the premature loss of many among its best men. I know that 
the evil can be remedied to a considerable extent, and no time 
is more suitable than the " NOW ;" when the relative number 
of theological students in almost every branch of the Church 
is decreasing, and has been for several years, while the daily 
tide of foreign immigration is rolling in its hundreds, and some- 
times its thousands, multitudes of whom are steeped in the 
foulest, darkest poison of the baldest infidelity. Let them 
come, but invite them to you by kindliness, and when you have 
thus made them love you as a brother, be prepared to win them 
over to the better way, by teachers who have steady heads and 
sound hearts, in sound, vigorous, and healthful bodies, for such 
are the men to preach the truth with a will, and with a 
power too, to which the poor, pale, wan, dyspeptic youth must 
for ever be a stranger. Can a dyspeptic man, or a chronic 
invalid be trusted to preach the truth always ? I think not. 
The supposition is a contradiction, it is a flat absurdity. A 
sound mind in a sound body, is as true now, as in the davs of 
the Latins. 



BRIBERY, NEW BRUNSWICK AND TOBACCO. 

It is stated that a gentleman offers fifty dollars worth of books, 
to any theological Student in the Seminary at New Brunswick, 
New Jersey, who will immediately abstain from the use of 
tobacco in all its forms, and promise to do so for life. I venture 
to say that the young man who can only be hired from a vice is 
a most unfit clerical material. If the use of tobacco is not mis- 
chievous, it is wrong to hire a fellow-creature to abstain from a 
harmless gratification : if its use is hurtful, destroying health, 
constitution, mind and body, which, by the way, is its demon- 
strable tendency, then, any noble minded young man will 
abandon its use, because of its pernicious tendency, and will 
scorn to receive pay for doing what is right. Many who use 
tobacco, think that it does them no injury, and some contend 
that it is a benefit. So does the drunkard. A conscientious 
man will not rest a practice on a bare impression, especially 
when that impression is contrary to the convictions of older and 



84 Hall's Journal of Health. 

wiser men, whose observations and studies have Deen directed 
to the point in question for years together. Under such circum- 
stances, the thorough investigation of the subject becomes an 
imperative duty, and no brave heart will be repelled from that 
investigation, from the fear that a change of his convictions will 
deprive him of a vast amount of animal gratification. 

A wiser, and more practical philanthropist, has originated a 
far more efficient plan for promoting the disuse of tobacco. 
He offered three prizes for three " Essays on Tobacco," as 
follows : — 

1. Tobacco, its History, Nature, and Effects, with Facts and 

Figures for Tobacco Users. 

2. The Evils of Tobacco, as they affect Body, Mind, and 

Morals. 

3. Tobacco Diseases, with a Remedy for the Habit. 

The prizes were awarded to R. T. Trail, M.D., for the first ; 
to Rev. Dwight Baldwin, for the second ; to Joel Shew, M.D., 
for the third. These Essays have been published by Fowlers and 
Wells, 131, Nassau-street, New York, in neat tract form, of 
some twenty 12mo. pages each. Let these three tracts be 
placed on the desk of every theological Student in the United 
States, and let benevolent Christian men forward any amount 
of money they may feel authorized to do, and the Editor of this 
Journal will, for his part, give personal attention towards having 
the thing accomplished at once. I think that no man of any 
mental calibre, unblinded by a habit of animal gratification, 
can possibly read these tracts and not put his foot on the ground 
and say instantly, " By the help of God, I'll never use it again." 



FATUITY OF OLD AGE. 



It is scarcely possible to conceive of a more terrible calamity 
than to be old and have no mind, not even the intelligence 
to know your own child ! Mumblings and mutterings, cease- 
less and incoherent. To have no understanding beyond that of 
the animal, — to eat, and drink, and sleep, — dead to yourself, 
and more than dead to all your kindred. It may come by 
degrees, it may come like the lightning's flash. It was told 
me once of one of the greatest clerical minds in America, 
that in the midst of a discourse, in which the whole congre- 



Fatuity of Old Age. 85 

gation was wrapt with an intensity of attention, scarcely to be 
paralleled, for his was a giant mind among giants, he suddenly 
placed his hand upon his forehead, and bowing it forward, ex- 
claimed, "God, as with a sponge, has blotted out my mind." 

This fatuity is called in medical language, mollities cerebri, — 
softening of the brain. It is hopelessly incurable. M'Duffie and 
" Tom Moore" thus perished. It may be instructive to the 
general reader to know who are most liable to this terrible 
calamity. The great general cause of fatuity is a want of 
proper proportion of physical and mental exercise. The class 
which furnishes the largest number of such unfortunates, is that 
which thinks much and works but little, such as Clergymen, 
lawyers, poets, married people who have no children, married 
people who do not keep house but board out and have nothing 
to do, but live on their income. One of the greatest curses that 
can fall upon a man in this life is to be old and to be able to live 
without doing any thing, and thus living. If any woman reader 
of mine, over fifty, wishes to avoid fatuity, let her be careful not 
to place herself in a situation which will release her from the 
cares and duties of housekeeping. No man can say that he 
will not die fatuitous, despite of his iron constitution, who 
studies a great deal and devotes but little time to daily exercise; 
the only safeguard any student after fifty has against it is, that 
from youth to the hour of his death he shall spend several hours 
every day in active bodily employment out of doors. Remember 
the only certain, the only infallible preventive of fatuity is daily 
physical exercise from early life. 

A recent letter writer says, " Glorious old Christopher North 
lies there in Scotland with the hand of death on him, and the 
cold, solemn shadow of the grave stealing over him. What 
merry bouts of wit w T e have had with him, and what ambrosial 
nights we have spent together ! But the song is ended, the 
laughter is hushed, and the lord of the feast takes his departure. 
He has run his career, and that magnificent presence of his is 
now a wreck. The mountain that we used to look up to with 
such expectancy, is cold and dark, and will emit no more flashes 
of wit, or passion, or pathos. Wilson is one of those spirits who 
start in the race with the loftiest aspirations and boldest prog- 
nostications, armed at every point, and mighty to overcome. 
They loom upon us with such. large proportions, and such a flush 



86 Hall's Journal of Health. 

of glory clings about them, they seem like the early gods, loom- 
ing upon us through the dawnlight of time. But somehow, they 
do not reach the goal of our prophecy. The flower of their 
promise dies out, but the fruit does not follow. The wondrous 
impression of their powers which they produce upon their im- 
mediate circle of friends and admirers does not get stamped 
upon the world, and the public reputation" of Christopher North 
bears no comparison to that estimate of his genius entertained 
by his lovers and worshipers. They are apt to speak of what 
he might have done, we have to judge of what he has actually 
accomplished. They stand on the summit of their admiration, 
and speak of a land of promise we cannot see, and their report 
to us seems exaggerated. John Wilson has lived his life, rather 
than written it. Richly endowed, he has lavished his precious 
gifts in so many ways, rather than concentrate them in one, and 
no man can be the perfect master in all. 



PHYSICAL CULTIVATION. 

All must admit that the bodily habits and occupations of the 
young have a material influence on their physical development. 
Contrast the printer with the blacksmith, the tailor with the 
hunter, the working farmer with the student. If near relations 
marry each other for a very few generations, the invariable 
result is bodily deformity and mental imbecility, and if persevered 
in, the very race and name die out. This is one of the impor- 
tant causes of the decline and fall of nations ; it is a law of 
nature whose infraction is visited with punishment — signal — 
infallible. The practical remedy is opposite marriages, the city 
should marry the country, the south the north ; the sea-shore 
should marry the interior, the plain should wed the mountain- 
top ; districts should marry wide asunder. This may be the 
reason that the Patriarchs were sent far from home to marry. 
It is very certain that the cultivation of the physical man with 
a view to its more perfect developement, on rational principles, 
would elevate the race bodily, mentally, morally. A vigorous 
body rightly educated gives a vigorous intellect, and give this 
intellect bible teaching, and it becomes the highest type of a 
Christian — the Christian from principle, the only man in the 



How to Sit. 87 

wide universe who can be depended on. The following article 
is a step forward : — 

" Baby Exhibition. — The Committee of the Southern Central 
Agricultural Association have been authorized to offer the fol 
lowing premiums, to be awarded at the next fair in Augusta, 
Ga., January, 1854. 

" 1st Premium : Silver Pitcher, $50 for the handsomest and 

finest babe two years old. 
V 2d Premium : Silver Pitcher, $25 for the handsomest and 

finest babe one year old. 
a 3d Premium : Silver Goblet, $10 for the handsomest and 

finest babe six months old. 
li The children to be clothed in domestic fabrics ; the pre- 
miums awarded under the direction of the Executive Committee." 



HOW TO SIT. 



All consumptive people, and all afflicted with spinal deformities, 
sit habitually crooked, in one or more curves of the body. There 
was a time in all these when the body had its natural erectness, 
when there was the first departure on the road to death. The 
make of our chairs, especially that great barbarism, the unwieldy 
and disease-engendering rocking chair, favors these diseases, and 
undoubtedly, in some instances, leads to bodily habits which 
originate the ailments just named, to say nothing of piles, fistula, 
and the like. The painful or sore feeling which many are 
troubled with incessantly for years, at the extremity of the back- 
bone, is the result of sitting in such a position that it rests upon 
the seat of the chair, at a point several inches forward of the 
chair back. A physiological chair, one which shall promote the 
health and preserve the human form erect and manly as our 
Maker made it, should have the back straight, at right-angles 
with the seat, the seat itself not being over eight inches deep. A 
chair of this kind will do more towards correcting the lounging 
habits of our youth than multitudes of parental lecturings, for 
then if they are seated at all they must sit erect, otherwise there 
is no seat-hold. 

In partial connection with this subject, Dr. Potter said, in a 
recent address at Albany, on 



88 HalVs Journal of Health, 

AMERICAN MANNERS. 

" I am a little afraid that a great many people in this country 
are rather too prone to undervalue this part of education. Cer- 
tainly we have no admiration for anything finical or affected in 
manners. We do not want the manners of a village dancing 
school. But genuine good breeding, genteel manners, ease, 
modesty and propriety of bearing, we do exceedingly value. 
When shall we cease to be described as a spitting nation ? as a 
lounging people ? When shall we cease to be known by our 
slovenly speech, by our sitting with our feet higher than our 
heads ? Daring an excursion of several months in Europe last 
year, I met hundreds of English at home, and on the continent 
in every situation. I never saw one spit. 1 cannot remember 
that I ever saw any one, however fatigued, lounging or sitting 
in any unbecoming manner. So long as the State shall feel 
itself obliged to provide " spittoons" for its legislative halls — 
so long as the directors of our railroads shall find occasion to 
put inside of their carriages printed requests to the passengers 
to "use the spittoons and not the floor, and not to put their 
feet upon the seats" — so long as we shall continue to fill our 
conversation and our political harangues with the slang of the 
fish market, let us not be surprised, nor angry, if foreigners 
sometimes make themselves witty at our expense. And in the 
mean time let all those who are intrusted with the care of the 
young, use their utmost efforts to correct these national bar- 
barisms, and to form the manners of the rising generation after 
a model more elevated and more refined." 



How to Get Up Early. — Place a basin of cold water by the 
side of your bed ; when you first awake in the morning, dip 
your hands in the basin and wet your brow, and sleep will not 
again seal you in its treacherous embrace. 

This is the advice given by an aged man, who had been in 
the habit of rising early during a long life. By attending to 
this advice, you may learn to rise every morning at jive 
o'clock. The Editor has found it to be a better plan to go to bed 
at one regular hour. Leave your bed the moment you awake 
of yourself, after daylight ; nature will thus regulate the sleep to 
the exact amount required by the system. 



Letter from a Sick- Room, 89 



LETTER FROM A SICK ROOM. 

" When I tell you, gentlemen, that I am a poor sick girl, 
propped up in my easy chair, scribbling to you, no doubt you 
will marvel that I make this exertion, when I can probably say 
so little to interest either you or your readers. True enough ! 
But as I declare my object to be a simple desire to thank you 
for that Budget of Goodies, received weekly, I trust you will 
pardon my boldness. No matter what the weather maybe! 
Does the wind blow? Or the storm come pelting upon my case- 
ment ? Does my ninth bottle of "Cod Liver Oil" stand staring 
me in the face? Does " Croton " and "Mustard" nip and 
bite ? Or do sad thoughts steal into my heart, and my little 
chamber seem dark and solitary ? All these evils are forgotten 
when I hear a light tap upon the door, and " Josey" enters 
bearing the Home Journal, and the " Dr.'s compliments, Miss,'* 
and " hopes you are quite comfortable." Down goes the " oil !" 
and away scamper "dark clouds" and "sad thoughts!" while my 
soul enjoys refreshing draughts from your columns. I like every- 
thing you say, but especially the hints you drop now and then 
about those young city ladies who frequent gay scenes, dressing 
in the most extravagant and ridiculous manner imaginable! 
Poor silly creatures ! But who can blame them, while their 
simple old a mammas" encourage them in such foolishness ! They 
surely ought to know better ; for were they honestly to consult 
their own situation, physically and mentally, they could but 
acknowledge that an aching heart and body must be the result, 
if not premature death. But where, in the name of health and 
common sense, are the fathers and brothers of these little simple- 
tons ? If their mothers are not to be depended upon, why do 
not those who secretly confess the revolting impression a half- 
dressed, dissipated, sickly female produces upon their minds, — I 
say, why do they not forbid such wickedness ? Why do they 
not refuse to accompany, or permit them to go to scenes of 
amusements or elsewhere, unless comfortably and decently at- 
tired ? Ah ! Echo answers — " Why" !!! You will, perhaps, 
deem my remarks somewhat severe, but as I sit here in my 
* easy-chair," my thoughts wander back to past follies and im- 
prudencies, which 1 would give worlds to recall ! " Thin shoes," 



90 Hall's Journal of Health. 

and "damp feet," repeated " coughs" and "colds," flit before 
me ! Warnings came, and passed unheeded, and in bitterness 
am I reaping the reward of such negligence ! Excluded from 
the world, and often even from personal interviews with dear 
friends, as excitement and over-talking soon place me upon my 
sofa, and I lose all I seemed to have gained. " Consumption !" 
(that fell destroyer,) seems hovering near, and I may well fear 
him, for already has he robbed us of many dear ones. Once we 
numbered seven, but now, alas ! three are resting in yonder little 
enclosure. While the dark-eyed " Lizzie" reposes in her native 
New England, the "first-born" loving and true-hearted " Mary," 
sleeps far away in the "sunny South." But Death did not stop 
here ! One other ! noble and near of kin ! bound to our affec- 
tions by cords that never can be broken, left our home one 
bright summer day, full of hope, and promising speedy return. 
But the faithful " Missionary" in a far-distant island of the Pa- 
cific, soothed his dying couch, and received his parting sigh ! 
Never shall Iforget that morning the sad news reached us that 
another loved one had gone down to the grave ! By the last 
steamer, had been received letters of happy anticipations, bid- 
ding us look forward a few short months, when he would return, 
and with him a fair bride, whose happiness it should be to sup- 
ply, as far as possible, the blank left in our hearts by past sorrow. 
With joy we penned answers full of love and welcome ! A few 
hours later, a black-sealed missive w T as handed us, and we learned 
that a "miniature," a "lock of hair," and a few "withered 
flowers" plucked from his grave, were all we had to look upon of 
my once-loved brother. A year has passed since then, and now 
my turn has come to suffer, and perhaps die, ere the rose shall 
blossom again. One object binds me strongly to earth ! A dear 
old father still lingers with me, trembling upon the verge of 
eternity, as though unwilling to leave me quite alone ! He is so 
gentle, so kind ; and his eye follows me as tenderly as that of a 
fond mother, and seems to say, " I live but for you," while my 
poor heart echoes back, "/but for you, dear father!" And 
now, dear sirs, I must close this "epistle from my easy-chair." 
Once more let me thank you for your delightful paper, and 
through you, my good physician, by whose politeness I receive 
it, and who displays not a little shrewdness in his prescription 



The Joking Clergyman. 91 

of the Home Journal, in place of useless concoctions and dis- 
gustingly crammed pill boxes ! Yours, truly, 

Louise. 

The above letter is taken from the " Home Journal" printed 
weekly in New York, for two dollars a year, a paper which few 
subscribers cease to take, as long as it is possible to spare the 
subscription price, beautiful in its mechanical execution, re- 
gular in its appearance, sparkling, varied, and always interesting. 

Was that " poor sick girl's" condition a necessity, or the 
result of a neglected physical education ? 

Louise ! is your mother's bible near ? it will give enduring 
comfort. 



THE JOKING CLERGYMAN. 

Rev. Dr. Byles was the most original compound of religion 
and mirth, conspicuous in the latter part of the last century in 
New England. With a good heart, a mind of stable principles, 
and a decent reverence for his holy office, he nevertheless pos- 
sessed a buoyant and genial flow of spirits, constantly running 
over with puns or witty conceits. He maintained his connec- 
tion with the Hollis street church for forty-three years. He was 
a hale yet aged man when the Revolutionary war began, and in 
his political predilections leaned towards the royal side. 

In May, 1777, it was deemed necessary to arrest him as a 
Tory. He was condemned to be placed on board a guard ship 
and sent to England. Subsequently the sentence was changed 
to confinement in his house. A. sentinel was kept before his 
door day and night, whom he was wont to call his observ-a-tory. 
At the last, the vigilance of the board of war relaxed, and the 
sentinel disappeared ; after a while he was replaced, and after a 
little removed altogether. The Doctor used pleasantly to re- 
mark that he had been "guarded, regarded and disregarded." 
Once the Doctor tried to have the sentinel let him go after some 
milk for his family ; but he was firm, and would not ; he then 
argued the case with the honest but simple fellow, and actually 
induced him to go after the milk while he, the Doctor, kept 
guard over himself ! The neighbors were filled with wonder- 
ment to see their pastor walking in measured strides before his 



.92 Hall's Journal of Health. 

own door with the sentinel's gun at his shoulder, and when the 
story got abroad, it furnished food for town gossip and merri- 
ment for several days. 

The Doctor had rather a shrewish wife ; so one day he called 
at the old distillery that used to stand on Lincoln street, and 
accosted the proprietor thus : 

" Do you still ?" 

a That is my business/' replied Mr. Hill, the proprietor. 

" Well, then," said the Doctor, '* 1 should like to have you 
go and still my wife." 

He served rather an ungallant trick upon this same good lady 
at another time. He had some curiosities, which people oc- 
casionally called to see. One day two ladies called. Mrs. B. 
was " in the suds," and begged her husband to shut her in a 
closet while he exhibited his curiosities. He did so. After ex- 
hibiting everything else he said, " Now, ladies, I have reserved 
my greatest curiosity to the last," and opening the door he ex- 
hibited Mrs. B. to the ladies. 

There was an unseemly "slough of despond " before his door, 
in the shape of a quagmire, which he had repeatedly urged the 
town authorities to remove. At last two of the town officers in 
a carriage got fairly stuck in it. They whipped the horse, they 
hawed and geed, but they could not get out. Dr. Byles saw 
them from his window. He stepped out in the street — u I am 
delighted, gentlemen,'' said he rubbing his hands with glee, '' to 
see you stirring in this matter at last !" The sore in the ground 
was healed soon after. 

Going along the street one day he found himself in a great 
crowd near the old North Church. 

u What is the matter?" inquired he of a bystander. 

" Why, sir, there is a man going to fly from the steeple." 

" Poh! poh !" said he, "do you all come here to see a man 
fly ? Why, I have seen a horse-fly." 

A learned lady of Boston despatched a note to him on the 
Great Dark Day, (May 19, 1780,) in the following style : 

" Dear Doctor, — How do you account for this darkness ?" 

His reply was — 

" Dear Madam, — I am as much in the dark as you are. 

Reader ! study now, to have a healthful old age, and then, if 
good, you can afford to be mirthful, like the brave old Dominie. 



The American Climate. 93 

THE AMERICAN CLIMATE. 

" To the Editor of the New York ' Tribune.' 

" Sir : — Having read an article in ' The Tribune' on the 
American climate, in which it is stated that an English Review 
and M. Deser have pronounced our climate unfavorable to 
physical vigor, I must beg permission to say a word on the 
subject. 

" All portions of the earth have their own climate, made 
from a combination of causes, of which the proximity of wa- 
ter is one of the chief. In Western Europe the climate is 
what we see from its vicinity to the ocean on the frequency 
of westerly winds, in carrying the moisture landward; for it 
is a fact well known to seamen that westerly winds prevail 
on the ocean, especially on the Pacific, from its greater extent 
probably, all but constantly above the region of the trade winds, 
say from 25 to 30 deg., as easterly winds do within those paral- 
lels. These westerly winds carry evaporation from our At- 
lantic coast, instead of bringing it to us, as in Europe. The 
fact that different countries fall on the same isothermal lines 
has little to do with their humidity. Ireland and England lie 
over against Labrador ; France corresponds with Canada and 
New England ; Spain and Morocco with our Middle and 
Southern States. Just go over the Pacific, and you will find 
at Vancouver's Island, and the country about Nootka Sound, 
the same climate as in England and Holland, except what 
may be occasioned by the country back being high land, 
mstead of low, like Holland. And is not the climate of Cali- 
forni much like that of Spain ? It is, or should by this time 
be known, that these prevalent west winds north of 30 deg., 
give mildness of climate to the west sides of both continents, 
and that in the Eastern part of Europe the air is dry, and 
the summer and winter temperature more variable. Why, 
even here in Michigan, the open waters of Lake Michigan, 
in extreme winter weather, when westerly winds prevail, as 
they usually do, give us 10 deg. over Wisconsin and Northern 
Illinois. 

" I was raised in New Hampshire, but have resided in 
Oregon, and have observed that the moisture naturally de- 



94 HalVs Journal of Health. 

pends on the proximity of water, the course of the winds 
and the extent and elevation of the land, varying according 
as the thousands of locations vary as to surrounding objects, 
In Tartary and other parts of Central Asia, you find the 
climate of Utah, Nebraska and New Mexico, while the United 
States are not unlike China. All these circumstances modify 
the human and other animals the world over. The extremes 
of our winters and summers I suppose have more to do in 
forming the American character, than the dryness of the air ; 
for in New England, with the sterile soil and severe winters, 
activity is necessary to existence, as it were, and the activity 
and industry thus induced have become habitual and consti- 
tutional. It may be with our extreme activity we may not 
last so long or be so fat as the more phlegmatic Europeans, 
though we should be compared with the French and Spaniards 
as to location, and not with the inhabitants of the British Islands 
and Northern Germany. 

" Your obedient servant, 
" Grand Rapids, Mich., Jan. 20, 1854." " J. B." 



PITCHING INTO NICODEMUS. 

A celebrated character of the State of New York, holding 
a high post in the law, was lately taken ill and confined to his 
bed for several days. His wife proposed to read for him to 
which he readily assented. 

" My dear, what shall I read ?" 

" Oh, I don't care much what, anything you please. 

" But have you no choice ?" 

" None in the world, love ; please yourself.'' 

" Shall I read a chapter or two out of the Scriptures ? 

'' Oh, yes, that'll do very well." 

" But what part of the Scripture shall I read r* 

" Any part you like, love." 

" But, you must have some choice, some little preference ; we 
all have that." 

" No, I have none in the world ; read any part you like best." 

" But I would rather please you, dear, and you surely have a 
preference." . . 

" Well, well, dear ; if you will please me, then, pilch intc 
Nicodemus." 



Going to the South. 



GOING TO THE SOUTH. 

Having been alone in the following opinions, I feel not a 
little gratified in inserting here a letter, written some time ago, for 
that ably conducted paper, the New York Observer, by one who 
seems to have formed his opinions from what he saw, and to have 
taken a common sense view of the subject, not being himself a 
physician. It often happens, that the most important discove- 
ries are made by persons not naturally in the line of them. 

"New Orleans, March 21, 1851. 

" The climate of New Orleans, owing to the position of the 
city, and particularly during the winter months, is damp and 
exceedingly variable, the same weather seldom remaining un- 
changed in winter for more than three days. Since the 12th 
of December, the thermometer has not fallen below the freezing 
point, but the range above that has often been very great within 
a few hours. Indeed, I have never known more sudden or greater 
changes in any climate, than I have experienced here. I speak 
of the climate simply to discharge a duty, in saying that this is 
not the place for invalids to resort to in quest of health during 
the winter months, and particularly for those who are suffering 
from pulmonary disease. Some classes of invalids may be bene- 
fited by a residence here, and those whose lungs are but slightly 
affected, are frequently relieved, or entirely restored, by spending 
a winter in New Orleans ; but where disease of this nature has 
become serious, and particularly in its more advanced stages, 
the climate of this region has a decided tendency to precipitate 
a fatal termination. I have known many, who came here with 
the hope of having a radical cure effected, whose disease has 
been aggravated by the change, and in some cases death has 
hurried them to the tomb precipitately. The climate is not only 
damp, but relaxing to the system, and there is such a tendency 
to diarrhoea, particularly in the use of the river water, that con- 
sumptive persons, having this latter tendency already fastened 
upon them by disease, are liable to run immediately down. In 
this opinion of the influence of this climate upon those who are 
suffering from pulmonary complaints, particularly from the con- 
sumption, I am confirmed by the views of many of the ablest 



96 HalVs Journal of Health. 

dhysicians resident here, and I feel, that I am but performing an 
act of humanity in expressing it. 

" In my sojourn here, I have met with so many sad cases oi 
those who are sick and suffering, far away not only from the 
endearments, but also from the comforts of home, that I am 
more and more confirmed in the opinion that I have long enter- 
tained, that it is far better, as a general thing, for advanced 
invalids to remain at home, than to wander away, and be sick, 
and perhaps to die among strangers. Many are the couches by 
which I have stood this winter, in the discharge of ministerial 
duty, when the patients have sighed with bitter tears for a 
mother's heart, and a sister's hand to be near them, and where 
the only request of an earthly nature they have desired me to 
make in prayer for them, has been, that they might live to reach 
home. I have always admired, from my heart, the beauty of the 
Eastern salutation, ' May you die among your kindred? but I 
have never known so much of its beauty as now. It is true, 
heaven is as near to one place as another, and if we are prepared 
to enter it through the grace of our Redeemer, when once the 
last scene is o'er, it matters little to one who is gone, where, or 
in what circumstances, the last agony was endured ; but there 
is much suffering before this hour arrives, and it leaves a lasting 
and bitter regret in the hearts of surviving friends, that they were 
able to do nothing to cheer the last hours of those who have been 
tenderly beloved. Unless there is a very strong ground to hope 
for actual restoration by a change of climate, I would advise any 
actually suffering invalid to remain at home. It has comforts, 
and palliatives, and anodynes, which are not to be found among 
strangers, in the most genial clime on earth. Eusebius." 



Indestructible Wood. — Multitudes of human lives, and mil- 
lions of treasure could be saved every year if our houses could 
be rendered fire-proof; there is no necessary obstacle to this, 
if, as is stated, the Chihoe tree in Mexico, becomes petrified in 
a very few years after it is cut, whether left in the air, or 
buried. It is a very fine grained wood, and is easily worked 
in a green state. If houses were built of it while in a green 
state, they would in a few years become as indestructible as 
if built wholly of iron or stone. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 

VOL. L] MAY, 1854. [NO. V. 

SHAVING THE BEARD. 

(From " The Boston Medical and Surgical Journal) 

The more I reflect upon the mysteries of neurology and animal 
chemistry, the more confident I am that, while we are the least 
suspecting it, trifling errors in our daily life are producing im- 
portant effects upon our corporeal systems ; and I declare it as 
my deliberate conviction, that the habit, which may almost be 
styled American, of using the razor upon the face, is sufficient to 
cause a large proportion of the lamentable evils which affect the 
human race in this country. 

It appears by experiment that the beard, if shaved, grows four 
to five times faster than if unshorn. In this calculation, an item 
is omitted which it is difficult to estimate, i. e., the stimulus 
given the beard, by the first application of the razor in adoles- 
cence, the experiments being made upon beards after they have 
acquired an unnaturally rapid growth. The effect of this early 
stimulus may be fairly counted at double the natural growth ; 
then reckoning the difference in size and weight of the fibre, 
which is treble, and we find the frightful truth to be, that we 
raise thirty times the natural quantity of beard ! Thus it is 
evident that the true beard is exhausted at a very early age* 
after which the system is forced to supply a substitute. Now 
nature will not submit with impunity to extraordinary demands 
upon her vigor, and that which requires her to produce in a life- 
time thirty times as much beard as she was first inclined to, 
must certainly be considered as such. She is fatigued in pro- 
portion to the effort, let the particular kind be what it may ; al- 
though her recuperative powers are great, she insists upon 
having repose, even when working at a rate chosen by her- 
self. If that repose is denied her, she takes her revenge by 
breaking down the mechanism. Who then, can estimate the 



98 HalVs Journal of Health, 

revenge she will take for being compelled to labor without rest 
under an uncompromising task-master ? 

2d. The chemical laboratory of man furnishes in just propor- 
lion the ingredients required to deposite in suitable quantity the 
bones, skin, hair, nails, &c, and it is obvious that a superstrain- 
ing of those chemical elements which enter into the composition 
of the beard must deprive of their just due all the other tissues 
which are wholly or in part composed of the same elements. 
Such injustice to other structures they must inevitably feel, and 
the entire system must suffer from a disturbance of the balance 
of power requisite to a healthy action of its various parts. 

3d. The proper calorification of the body is one of the most 
essential conditions of its healthy action ; and the non-conduct- 
ing properties of the beard ought to be a caution against trifling 
with so powerful an agent, more especially when one considers" 
its intimate connection with the calorific organs of the brain 
and with the respiratory organs. The popular notion, that, as 
women are beardless, men may be or not as they please, is 
founded in misapprehension. A man and a woman form one 
specimen of the genus homo, and from a physiological point of 
view must be considered one and the same. The absence of 
beard in the woman is countervailed by some other differ- 
ences in her constitution, which it would be needless to point 
out even if we knew them. It suffices to know that nature 
is perfect in her work. 

4th. The errors of the father shall be visited upon the child- 
ren unto the third and fourth generation, the tree being known 
by its fruit, for a corrupt tree cannot bring forth good fruit ; 
which, simplified, is, <k like begets like/ > No person who feels the 
force of this law in all its fulness, can expect to transmit to 
his posterity vigorous pulmonary organs, if he has done the 
best he could to ruin his own. Daughters and sons are by 
nature equally their father's heirs, and if consumption of the 
respiratory organs spares more men than women, the out-door 
exercise of men must in part account for the difference. 

The mania which has ever possessed man for disfiguring him- 
self is astonishing. Not satisfied with God's most perfect handi- 
work, different tribes and nations variously undertake to beauvify 
it, thus fairly making themselves laughing stocks for each other * 
but it is to be hoped that the " pioneers of civilization will come 



Dr. Partington. 99 

out from the category of those who tattoo the skin, flatten the 
skull, shave the crown, taper the waist, stint the feet, circum- 
cise, and slit their ears and noses. 

It is with difficulty that old habits are renounced, even when 
one is convinced that life can be prolonged and made happier 
thereby ; but it is a question for young men seriously to con- 
sider, whether, on starting in life, they will addict themselves 
to a habit which at once wastes the time, sours the temper, is 
against nature, and, consequently, involves their health, and 
that of their offspring. 

Nature has made her terms with us how we may enjoy our 
daily existence and lengthen out our lives ; these terms are — 
to know her laws and not infringe them. 



CACHINNATE VEHEMENTLY. 

The Editor has found the above to be a necessary prescrip- 
tion in some instances ; the material therefor having to be 
looked up by the patient : it may sometimes occur, however, 
that the ingredients necessary to produce the effect, are not in 
any market within the patient's reach. Sometimes, however, 
in fact not unfrequently, a remedy, which acts admirably on 
number one, has no effect at all on number two, while on num- 
ber three it aggravates all the symptoms which were intended 
to be removed, so that the article here given, is not offered as 
infallible. In case, however, of over action, the best antidote 
is extremely simple, for the patient has only to try and shut 
his mouth, or take a teaspoonful of green persimmon. 



DR. PARTINGTON. 



" Mrs. Partington" is an original creation ; and the true one 
can be detected from her numerous imitators in a moment. 
The Rev. Sidney Smith first introduced this notable lady to the 
public, but The Boston Post is the only journal which records 
her original sayings and doings, which are only excelled — if, 
indeed, they are excelled at all — by Mrs. Lavinia Ramsbottom, 
the illustrious protege* of the witty Theodore Hook. Here 
are two of her late " utterances," which are quite as good, in 



100 RalVs Journal of Health. 

their way, as anything in Madame Kamsbottom's letters from 
Eome or Paris : 

" Diseases is very various — very. The Doctor tells me that 
poor old Mrs. Haze has got two buckles upon her lungs ! It's 
dreadful to think of — 'tis really. The diseases is so various ! 
One day we hear of people's dying of l hermitage of the lungs,' 
another of c brown creatures ;' here they tell us of the { ele- 
mentary canal' being out of order, and there about the ' tear 
of the throat ;' hear we hear of the ' newrology in the head,' 
and there of an ' embargo' in the back. On one side of us we 
hear of a man getting killed by getting a piece of beef in his 
' sarcofagus,' and there another kills himself by c deskevering 
his jocular vein.' Things change so that I don't know how to 
subscribe for anything now-a-days. New names and i ros- 
trums' take the place of the old, and I might as well throw 
my old yerb bag away." 



TOBACCO— ITS USE— AND END. 

Some years ago a youth, aged sixteen, while at college, had a 
severe tooth-ache ; his grandmother gave him a piece of tobacco 
to put in his mouth to remove the pain ; it did so, and from that 
time he chewed it, for nine or ten years, almost incessantly. 
While at college, and during a three years' course in a theolo- 
gical seminary, he applied himself closely, paid no attention to 
the rules of health, took little or no exercise, and soon after he 
was settled as a clergyman, he became dyspectic, and during 
warm weather suffered greatly from depression of spirits and 
mental lassitude, which seemed to incapacitate him for the 
proper discharge of ministerial duty ; and as this duty had to be 
performed, he began to use brandy and water to dispel the lassi- 
tude, but only on occasions of making a public effort at first ; 
in three or four years, he felt that the use of spirits of some kind 
was a daily necessity. If omitted for a single day, he could not 
bring his mind to bear on any subject. About this time he 
began to find that he could not calculate with certainty upon 
the effects of the stimulus as to time or amount ; occasionally it 
almost overpowered him, and as irretrievable disgrace would 
have been the result, he substituted laudanum, some twenty 
drops, thrice a day, or often enough to keep up a uniform sensa* 



Tobacco — its Uses — and End. 101 

tion. Whenever the stimulus was about exhausted, he would 
begin to gape ; this was the signal for a new supply. After a 
while, laudanum was not strong enough, and he began to take 
the pure opium, the amount being increased from time to time, 
until he found himself taking half-an-ounce a week, which is 
two hundred and forty grains, or nearly thirty-five grains a day, 
equivalent to three or four tablespoonsf ul of laudanum, which is 
thirty times more than a dose for a full-grown man. " At this 
time," he writes, " I became greatly disordered in body, not 
merely through the opium, but also through the baneful habits 
connected therewith. I sat at my books and papers, day after 
day, from breakfast until past midnight, in a hot study filled 
with smoke from a cigar, kept perpetually alight. I suffered 
martyrdom from costiveness, often going nearly a week without 
a passage. Sometimes, too, I got into a physical state which 
opium would not stimulate, and then I was compelled to employ 
alcohol ! But alcohol, acting upon opium-drugged nerves, is 
exceedingly apt to produce maniacal intoxication." At this 
juncture, he made an effort to break up these habits. For ten 
days and nights he was not conscious of one moment of sleep ; 
he was half delirious for several days ; the blood in his veins 
felt like boiling water, and rushed with such fury to the head as 
to make him feel as if it would split open. For a whole year he 
was as feeble as a child, " a walking depository of aches and 
distressing sensations ;" he then quitted his profession and retired 
to the country to study law ; he was attacked with neuralgia in 
the head and face — this at length became unendurable, and he 
was advised to take morphine and quinine, which,fixed the habit 
of using opium as firmly as ever. For two years he made no 
decided effort to escape from his habits, when he applied for ad- 
mission into an asylum, and for eighteen months never felt well, 
free from pain " for one remembered day." Troubles came, 
and he returned to the use of his opiate, and continued for two 
years, when he found himself using sixty grains of sulphate of 
morphine, that is, nearly nine grains a day, or thirty-six times 
more than a common dose for a strong man, enough to destroy 
life in a few hours. He now took charge of a country parish, 
where he remained for two years, but found it impossible to 
perform his official duties, mentally or physically, without the 
aid of a quarter of an ounce of morphine, and sometimes more, 



102 HalVs Journal of Health. 

a week, which is equal to some seven hundred grains of opium, 
or sixty drops to a dram or teaspoonful, equaling ten tablespoons- 
f ul of laudanum a day, or twenty-four hundred drops ; and when 
it is remembered that half a drop of laudanum is considered a 
dose for a young infant, the reader may have some idea of the 
magnitude of the daily portion. He is now striving to do with 
from half an ounce to an ounce of opium a week, averaging 
some five tablespoons of laudanum a day. Time only can tell 
the end of this strife — most probably it will be the gutter and 
the grave. 

Will any young man, especially any aspirant for the ministry, 
after reading this statement of actual facts, dare allow the first, 
or another particle of tobacco, or any other mere stimulant, 
ever pass his lips ? You are commanded to pray every day, 
" lead us not into temptation ;" can you thus pray as often as 
the morning comes, that you shall not be abandoned to the 
power of temptation, and yet that very day, perhaps that very 
hour, first expose and then yield yourself to it % If so, then it 
well becomes you to investigate anew, " what manner of spirit 
ye are of." 

The Editor feels that any comment on the history just given 
would but weaken it, and he yields the young reader to the 
power of fact and conscience. 



LETTER FEOM A CLERGYMAN. 

"Springfield, March 21, 1854. 
" Dear Sir, — I received your request to communicate, for the 
public, in your Journal, some account of the measures I ham 
pursued to preserve such an amount of health, as the facts 
stated in my forty-fifth anniversary sermon indicate. You 
impose on me rather a delicate task, since I must say much of 
myself, if I say anything. I have always had an aversion to 
appear before the public, in a formal manner, and therefore have 
declined applications for sermons to be published. But if my 
experience will promote the interest or happiness of others, 
(especially of young men who design to preach the blessed 
Gospel,) I ought not to decline < serving my generation/ What 
I stated was strictly correct. I have not been detained from 



Letter from a Clergymcm. 103 

the sanctuary but one whole day and two half days, by indis- 
position, during my ministry ; the entire day's detention was 
not from sickness, but from a dangerous fall down a flight of 
stairs, which rendered it inconvenient for me to stand in the 
pulpit. I have not seen a day for more than fifty years, in which 
I might not have gone abroad, if it had been necessary ; no 
sickness has ever prevented me. As to the measures I have 
pursued, there has been nothing out of the common course. 
From early youth I have been strictly abstemious as to all strong 
drink. I have no recollection of ever having mixed a portion 
of alcohol for beverage. I never drank a glass of wine until I 
left College, at the age of 21 years. After that time I occa- 
sionally drank a glass when I mingled in the social circle, 
where it was temperately used. At no festival that I ever 
attended did I drink more than two glasses in the two or more 
hours of its continuance. I never had a fondness for wine, and 
have long since abandoned the use of it even at weddings. 
During my entire life I have never used stimulating drinks, so 
as to feel exhilarated by them in the slightest degree. I have 
never made use of tobacco in any of the forms in which many 
use it. I was settled, before I was 25, over one of the largest 
parishes in Massachusetts, and for a period of seven years I 
was the only minister of any denomination in the town, and 
was often called on to attend funerals in another small parish, 
about six miles distant. My own parish was spread over a 
territory of about seven miles square, and after about six 
years from my ordination, rapidly increased in population. I 
usually attended three religious meetings during the week, and 
preached twice on the Sabbath, and held a prayer and con- 
ference meeting in the evening. In one extensive and long 
continued revival, I attended and conducted a religious meet- 
ing every evening in a week, in different parts of my parish, 
for nine months, when the weather would permit. During my 
ministry, I have never been obliged to decline, when applied 
to, to attend a parochial duty. I have visited my people as^ 
much as I deemed necessary. In one year I kept an account, 
and found I had made nine hundred and ninety-six pastoral 
calls ; they could not be called visits, for in most cases I staid 
but a few minutes, but time enough to drop a word of exhor- 
tation, and manifest the interest I felt in the family, and when 



104: Hairs Journal of Health, 

called on, offered a prayer. I have always used a large amount 
of exercise, in walking, riding on the saddle, in the first part of 
my ministry, working in the garden, sawing wood, &c, such 
exercises as ministers generally use. I have lived as most 
ministers live ; generally on simple food, without many of those 
condiments which some use freely. I have been an early riser 
for the principal part of my ministerial life. My sleep has 
always been sweet, like that of the laboring man, and I think 
on an average would not exceed seven hours. About fifteen 
years since, in company with two other gentlemen, I walked ten 
miles in two and a half hours, and stopped nearly ten minutes 
to rest, and now, at the age of three score and ten, I can walk 
a single mile in fifteen minutes. I have written not far from 
twenty-five hundred sermons, many of which I have already 
committed to the flames, and most of the residue will share the 
same fate ere long. But alas ! my dear brother, I can say with 
truth, that I have been an unprofitable servant in the vineyard 
of my blessed master, and I rely only on His righteousness for 
acceptance on the day of judgment. You may make what use 
you please of this communication ; and publish such extracts 
as you may think proper. If it shall lead any of my younger 
brethren to take good care of their health, I shall rejoice. 
Ministers in these days need good health, for much is required 
of them. 

" I am, dear Sir, your friend and servant, 

"Samuel Osgood." 
"W. W.Hall, M. D." 

Mirth — is like a flash of lightning that breaks through the 
gloom of clouds, and glitters for a moment ; cheerfulness makes 
up a kind of daylight in the mind, and fills it with a steady and 
perpetual serenity. — Addison. 



THE AIR PASSAGES. 



The following sixteen pages are a verbatim monograph of the 
edition published several years ago, treating of some of the dis- 
eases which affect the throat and lungs. By using small type 
the whole is presented in one number of the Journal, otherwise 
it would require several entire numbers : — 



BRONCHITIS, AND KINDRED DISEASES. 

BY 

W W. HALL, A M., M. D., NEW YORK. 

There is no necessary reason why men should not generally live to 
the full age of three score years and ten, in health and comfort • that 
they do not do so, is because 

They consume too much food, and too little pure air ; 
They take too much medicine, and too little exercise : 

and when, by inattention to these things, they become diseased, tney 
die chiefly, not because such disease is necessarily fatal, but because 
the symptoms which nature designs to admonish of its presence, are 
disregarded, until too late for remedy. And in no class of ailments 
are delays so uniformly attended with fatal results, as in affections of 
the Throat and Lungs. However terrible may have been the ravages 
of the x\siatic Cholera in this country, I know of no locality, where, 
in the course of a single year, it destroyed ten per cent, of the population. 
Yet, taking England and the United States together, twenty per cent, of 
the mortality is every year from diseases of the lungs alone ; amid such 
a fearful fatality, no one dares say he shall certainly escape, while every 
one, without exception, will most assuredly suffer, either in his own per- 
son, or in that of some one near and dear to him, by this same universal 
scourge. ISTo man, then, can take up these pages, who is not interested 
to the extent of life and death, in the important inquiry, What can be done 
to mitigate this great evil ? It is not the object of this publication to 
answer that question ; but to act it out ; and the first great essential step 
thereto, is to impress upon the common mind, in language adapted to 
common readers, a proper understanding of the first symptoms of these 
ruthless diseases 



106 



Every reader of common intelligence and of the 
most ordinary observation, must know that countless 
numbers of people in every direction have been saved 
from certain death by having understood the premoni- 
tory symptoms of Cholera, and acting up to their knowl- 
edge. The. physician does not live, who, in the course 
of ordinary practice, cannot point to a little army of the 
prematurely dead who have paid the forfeit of their 
lives by ignorance or neglect of the early symptoms of 
Consumptive disease. Perhaps the reader's own heart 
is this instant smitten at the sad recollection of similar 
cases in his own sphere of observation. 

This book is not intended to recommend a medicinal 
preventive, or a patented cure for the diseases named 
on the title-page : it will afford no aid or comfort to 
those who hope, by its perusal, to save a doctor's fee, 
by a trifling tampering with their constitutions and their 
lives. Nor is it wished to make you believe, that if you 
come to me I will cure you. If you have symptoms of 
disease, 1 wish you to understand their nature first; 
and then to take advice from some regularly educated 
physician, who has done nothing to forfeit justly his 
honorable st Hiding among his brethren, by the recom- 
mendation of secret medicines, patented contrivances 
Br travelling lecturers for the cure of certain diseases. 
I may speak of persons in these pages, who had cer- 
tain symptoms, and coming to me, were permanently 
cured. You may have similar symptoms, and yet I may 
be able to do you no good. I have sometimes failed to 
cure persons who had no symptoms at all. In other 
cases, where but a single symptom of disease existed, 
and it, apparently, a very trivial one, the malady has 
steadily progressed to a fatal termination, in spite of 
every effort to the contrary. The object of these 
statements is to have it understood, that I make no en- 
gagement to cure any thing or any body. The first 
great purpose is to enable you to understand properly 
any symptoms which you may have that point towards 
disease of the lungs ; and when you have done so, to 
persuade you not to waste your time and money and 
health in blind efforts to remove them, by taking stuff, 
of which you know little, into a body of which you 
know less; but to go to a man of respectability and 
standing and experience — one in whem you have con- 
fidence, one who depends upon the practice of his pro- 
fession for a living; describe your symptoms, according 
to your ability, place your health and life in his hands, 
and be assured that thus you and millions of others 
will stand the highest chance of attaining a prosper- 
ous, cheerful, and green old age. The rule should be 
universal, and among all classes, not only never to take 
an atom of medicine for anything, but not to take any- 
thing as a medicine — not even a teaspoon of common 
■syrup or French brandy, or a cup of red pepper tea, 
unless by the previous advice of a physician ; because 
a spoonful of the purest, simplest syrup, taken several 
times a day, will eventually destroy the tone of the 
healthiest stomach : and yet any person almost would 
suppose that a little syrup "could do no harm, if it did 
no good." A tablespoon of good brandy, now and 
then, is simple enoush, and yet it has made a wreck 
and ruin of the health and happiness and hope of mul- 
titudes. If these simple, that is, well-known things, in 
their purity, are used to such results, it requires but 
little intelligence to understand that more speedy in- 
juries must follow their daily employment, morning, 
noon, and night, when they are sold in the shape of 
"syrups," and "bitters," and "tonics," with other in- 
gredients, however " simple'' 1 they, too, may be. 

The common-sense reader will consider these sen- 
timents reasonable and right, and think it a very laud- 
able desire to diffuse information among the people as 
to the symptoms of dangerous, insidious, and wide- 
spreading diseases ; but he will not be prepared for the 
information, that the publication of such a pamphlet as 
this will be considered " unprofessional" by some. But 
latitude must be allowed for difference of opinion ; else, 
all progress is at an end. Whoever lends a helping 
hand to the diffusion of useful knowledge, is, in pro- 
portion, the benefactor of his kind. Whether it be 
useful for man to know the nature and first symptoms 
of a disease which is destined to destroy one out of 
every six in the country, is a question which each one 
must decide for himself. I believe that such an effort 
is useful, and hereby act accordingly. Experienced 
physicians constantly feel, in reference to persons who 
evidently have Consumption, that it is too late, because 
the application had been too long delayed. The great 
leason why so many delay, is because they "did not 



think it was anything more than a slight cold" In 
other words, they were entirely ignorant of the differ- 
ence between the cough of a common cold and the 
cou»h of Consumption, and the general symptoms at- 
tendant on the two. It is not practicable for all to 
study medicine, nor is it to be expected that for every 
cough one has, he shall go to the expense of taking 
medical advice ; it therefore seems to me the dictate of 
humanity to make the necessary information more ac- 
cessible, and I know of no better way to accomplish 
this object than by the general distribution of a tract 
like this: and when I pretend to no new principle of 
cure, no specific, and no ability of success, beyond what 
an entire devotion to one disease may give any ordi- 
nary capacity, no further apology is necessary. 

THROAT-AIL, 

or Laryngitis, pronounced Lare-in-GEK-tis, is an affec- 
tion of the top of the windpipe, where the voice- 
making organs are, answering to the parts familiarly 
called " Adam's Apple." When these organs are dis- 
eased, the voice is impaired, or " there is something 
wrong about the swallow" 

BRONCHITIS, 

pronounced Bron-KKK : tis, is an affection of the branches 
of the windpipe, and in its first stages is called a com- 
mon cold. 

CONSUMPTION 
is an affection, not of the top' or roofhi the windpipe, 
for that is Throat- Ail; not of the body of the wind- 
pipe, for that is Croup ; not of the branches of the 
windpipe, for that is Bronchitis ; but it is an affection 
of the lungs themselves, which are millions of little 
air ceils or bladders, of various sizes, from that of a pea 
downwards, and are at the extremities of the branches 
of the windpipe, as the buds or leaves of a tree are at 
the extremity of its branches. 

WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF THROAT-AIL? 

The most universal symptom is an impairment of the 
voice, which is more or less hoarse or weak. If there is 
no actual want of clearness of the sounds, there is an in- 
stinctive clearing of the throat, by swallowing, hawking, 
orhemming;ora summoning up of strength to enunciate 
words. When this is continued for some time, there is 
a sensation of tiredness about the throat, a dull heavy 
aching, or general feeling of discomfort or uneasiness, 
coming on in the afternoon or evening. In the early 
part of the day, there is nothing of the kind percep- 
tible, as the voice-muscles have had time for rest and 
the recovery of their powers during the night. In the 
beginning of this disease, no inconvenience of this 
kind is felt, except some unusual effort has been made, 
such as speaking or singing in public; but as it pro- 
gresses, these symptoms manifest themselves every 
evening; then earlier and earlier in the day, until the 
voice is clear only for a short time soon in the morn- 
ing ; next, there is a constant hoarseness or huskiness 
frr>m week to month, when the case is most generally 
incurable, and the patient dies of the common symp- 
toms of Consumptive disease. 

In some cases, the patient expresses himself as hav- 
ing a sensation as if a piece of wool or blanket were 
in the throat, or an aching or sore feeling, running up 
the sides of the neck towards the ears. Some have a 
burning or raw sensation at the little hollow at the 
bottom of the neck ; others, about Adam's Apple ; while 
a third class speak of such a feeling or a pricking at a 
spot along the sides of the neck. Among others, the 
first symptoms are a dryness in the throat after speaking 
or singing, or while in a crowded room, or when waking 
up in the morning. Some feel as if there were some 
unusual thickness or a lumpy sensation in the throat, 
at the upper part, removed at once by swallowing it 
away; but soon it comes back again, giving precisely 
the feelings which some persons have after swallowing 
a pill. 

Sometimes, this frequent swallowing is most trouble- 
some after meals. Throat-Ail is not like many other 
diseases, often getting well of itself by being let alone. 
I do not believe that one case in ten ever does so, but 
on the contrary, gradually grows worse, until the voice 
is permanently husky or subdued ; and soon the swal- 
lowing of solids or fluids becomes painful, food or drink 
returns through the nose, causing a feeling of stran- 
gulation or great pain. When Throat-Ail symptom* 



107 



hare been allowed to progress to this stage, death is 
almost inevitable in a very few weeks. Now and then 
a case may be saved, but restoration here is almost in 
the nature of a miracle. 
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF BRONCHITIS ? 

Bronchitis is a bad cold, and the experience of every 
one teaches what its symptoms are. The medical 
name for a cold is Acute Bronchitis ; called acute, be- 
cause it comes on at once, and lasts but a short time — 
a week or two generally. The ailment that is com- 
monly denominated Bronchitis, is what physicians 
term Chronic Bronchitis ; called chronic, because it is 
a long time in coming on, and lasts for months and 
years instead of days and weeks. It is not like 
Throat-Ail, or Consumption, which have a great 
many symptoms, almost any one of which may be ab- 
sent, and still the case be one of Throat-Ail, 
or Consumption ; but Bronchitis has three symp- 
toms, every one of which are present every day, 
and together, and all the time, in all ages, sexes, con- 
stitutions, and temperaments. These three universal 
and essential symptoms are — 

1st. A feeling of fullness, or binding, or cord-like sen- 
sation about the breast. 

2d. A most harassing cough, liable to come on at any 
hour of the day or night. 

3d. A large expectoration of a tough, stringy, tena- 
cious, sticky, pearly or greyish-like substance, from a 
tablespoon to a pint or more a day. As the disease pro- 
gresses, this becomes darkish, greenish, or yellowish in 
appearance ; sometimes all three colors may be seen 
together, until at last it is Uniformly yellow, and comes 
up without much effort, in mouthfuls, that fall hea- 
vily, without saliva or mucus. When this is the case, 
death comes in a very few weeks or— days. 

WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF CONSUMP- 
TION? 

A gradual wasting of breath, flesh, and strength are 
the three symptoms, progressing steadily through days 
and weeks and months, which are never absent in any 
case of true, active, confirmed Consumptive disease 
that I have ever seen. A man may have a daily 
cough for fifty years, and not have Consumption. 
A woman may spit blood for a quarter of a cen- 
tury, and not have Consumption. A young lady 
may breathe forty times a minute, and have a 
poise of a hundred and forty beats a minute, day after 
day, for weeks and months together, and not have Con- 
sumption ; and men and women and young ladies may 
have pains in the breast, and sides, and shoulders, 
and flushes in the cheeks, and night sweats, and 
swollen ankles, and yet have not an atom of Con- 
stimptive decay in the lungs. But where there is a 
slow, steady, painless decline of flesh and strength and 
breath, extending through weeks and months of time, 
Consumption exists in all persons, ages, and climes, 
although at the same time sleep, bowels, appetite, 
spirits, may be represented as good. Such, at least, 
are the results of my own observation. 

The great, general, common symptoms of Consump- 
tion of the Lungs are night and morning cough, pains 
about the breast, easily tired in walking, except on 
level ground, shortness of breath on slight exercise, 
and general weakness. These are the symptoms of 
which Consumptive persons complain, and as they ap- 
proach the grave, these symptoms gradually increase. 

HOW DOES A PERSON GET THRO AT- AIL ? 

A woman walked in the Park, in early spring, until 
a little heated and tired ; then sat down on a cold 
stone. Next day, she had hoarseness and a raw burn- 
ing feeling in the throat, and died within the year. 

A man had suffered a great deal from sick headache ; 
he was advised to have cold water poured on the top of 
his head : he did so ; he had headache no more. The 
throat became affected; had frequent swallowing, 
clearing of throat, falling of palate, voice soon failed 
in singing, large red splotches on the back part of the 
throat, and white lumps at either side ; but the falling 
of the palate and interminable swallowing were the 
great symptoms, making and keepins him nervous, 
irritable, debilitated, and wretched. He was advised 
1o take off the uvula, but would not do it. Had the 
nitrate of silver applied constantly for three months. 
Tried homoeopathy. After suffering thus two years, 
he came to me, and on a subsequent visit, said, "It is 
WcnAerful, that for two years I have been troubled 



with this throat, and nothing would relieve it, and now 
it is removed in two days." That was four months 
ago. I saw him in the street yesterday. He said his 
throat gave him no more trouble ; that he had no more 
chilliness, and had never taken a cold since he came 
under my care, although formerly "it was the easiest 
thing in the world to take cold." 

A merchant (1002) slept in a steamboat state-room in 
December, with a glass broken out; woke up next 
morning with a hoarseness and sore throat; for several 
months did nothing, then applied to a physician. 
Counter-irritants were employed without any perma- 
nent effect. At the end of four years, he came to me 
with ''a sort of uneasy feeling about the throat, more 
at times than others ; not painful ; sometimes a little 
hoarseness, with frequent inclination to swallow, or 
clear the throat. At the little hollow at the bottom of 
the neck, just above the top of the breast-bone, there 
was a feeling of pressure, stricture, or enlargement- 
no pain, but an unpleasant sensation, sometimes worse 
than at others. It is absent for days at a time, and then 
lasts for several hours a day." This esse is under 
treatment. 

A Clergyman (1012) has a hoarse, cracked, weak 
voice, easily tired in speaking ; a raw sensation in the 
throat; and in swallowing has " a jish-bony feeling." 
He had become over-heated in a public address, and 
immediately after its close started to ride across a 
prairie in a damp, cold wind in February. Had to 
abandon preaching altogether, and become a schooi 
teacher." This gentleman wrote to me for advice, and 
having followed it closely for eighteen days, reported 
himself as almost entirely well. 

I greatly desire it to be remembered here, that in this, 
as in other cases of Throat-Ail, however perfectly a 
person may be cured, the disease will return as often 
as exposure to the causes of it in the first place is per- 
mitted to occur. No cure, however perfect, will allow 
a man to commit with impunity such a thoughtless 
and inexcusable act as above named, that of riding 
across a prairie in February, in a damp, cold wind, 
within a few minutes after having delivered an excited 
address in a warm room. None of us are made out of 
India rubber or iron, but of flesh and blood and a 
reasonable soul, subject to wise and benevolent con- 
ditions and restrictions ; and it is not to the discredit of 
physic or physicians, that being once cured, the disease 
should return as often as the indiscretion that origin 
ated it in the first instance is re-committed. 

Three weeks ago, one of our merchants came to me 
with a troublesome tickling in the throat. At first it 
was only a tickling ; but for some weeks the tickling 
compels a frequent clearing of the throat ; and with- 
out a cough, each clearing or hemming brings up 
half a teaspoon-fnl of yellow matter, with some sal- 
iva. On looking into his throat, the whole back part 
of it was red, with still redder splotches here and 
there— epiglottis almost scarlet. On inquiry, I found 
he had for years been a chewer of tobacco ; then 
began to smoke ; would day after day smoke after 
each meal, but especially after tea would cun^ume 
half a dozen cigars. In time, the other naturally con- 
sequent steps would have been taken — Consump- 
tion and the grave. Among other things, I advised 
him to abandon tobacco absolutely and at once, la 
two weeks he came again. Throat decidedly better ; 
in every respect better, except that he, in his own 
opinion, " had taken a little cold," and had a constant 
slight cough— not by any means a trifling symptom. 
Let the reader learn a valuable lesson from this case. 
This gentleman had the causes of cough before ; he 
found that smoking modified the tickling, and taking 
this as an indication of cure, he smoked more vigor- 
ously, and thus suppressed the cough, while the cause 
of it was still burrowing in the system and widening 
its ravages. It will require months of steady effort to 
arrest the progress of the disease, and he may consider 
himself fortunate— more so than in any mercantile 
speculation he ever made — if he gets well at all. If 
he does get well, an(f returns to the use of tobacco, the 
disease will as certainly return as that the same cause 
originated it, for the following reason, as was stated 
n the First Part ;— Throat-Ail is inflammation ; that 
is, too much heat in the parts. Tobacco smoke being 
warm, or even hot, is drawn directly back against the 
parts already too much heated, and very naturally in- 
creasing the heat, aggravates the disease. Again, any 
kind of smoke— that of common wood— is irritating, 
much more that of such a powerful poison as tobacco 



108 



— soothing, indeed, in its first transient effects, like 
many other poisons, but leaving behind it consequences 
more remote, but more destructive and enduring. 

A gentleman, just married, with a salary for his 
services as secretary to a Southern house, applied 
in me to be cured of a sore throat. He was per- 
manently hoarse ; swallowing food was often unen- 
durably painful, besides causing violent paroxysms 
of cough. He said he knew no cause for his com- 
plaint, except that he had smoked very freely. On in- 
quiry, [ found that for the last two years he had used, 
on an average, about "a dozen cigars every day ; per- 
haps more." He died in six weeks. 

In several instances, persons have applied to me who 
had been advised to take brandy freely for a throat 
aflection. Such advice is warranted by no one prin- 
ciple in medicine, reason, or common sense. Were I to 
give it, I should feel myself justly liable to the charge 
of being an ignorant man or a drunkard. The throat 
is inflamed ; inflammation is excitement; brandy and 
tobacco both excite, inflame the whole body ; that is 
why they are used at all. The throat partakes of its 
portion of the excitement, when the throat, body, and 
the man, all the more speedily go to ruin together. I 
have in my mind, while writing these lines, the me- 
lancholy history of two young men — one from Ken- 
tucky, the other from Missouri — who were advised " to 
drink brandy freely, three times a day, for throat com- 
plaint." One of these became a drunkard, and lost his 
property, and within another year he will leave an in- 
teresting family in penury, disgrace, and want. The 
other was one of the most high-minded, honorable 
young men I have lately known. He was the only son 
of a widow, and she was rich. He came to see me 
three or four times, and then stated that he had con- 
cluded to try the effects of a little brandy at each meal. 
A few weeks afterwards lie informed me, that as he 
was constantly improving, he thought that the brandy 
would certainly effect a cure. Wiihin seven months 
after his application to me, he had become a regular 
toper; that is, he had increased the original quantity 
allowed, of a tablespoon at each meal, to such an 
amount, that he was all the time under the influence 
of liquor. His business declined; he spent all his 
money ; and secretly left for California, many thousand 
dollars in debt, and soon after died. The person who 
advised him is also now a confirmed drunkard ; but in 
his wreck and ruin, still a great man. 

A gentleman from a distant State wrote to me some 
months ago for advice as to a throat affection. He is a 
lawyer of note already, and of still higher promise, not 
yet having reached the prime of life. By earnest 
efforts as a temperance advocate, in addition to being 
a popular pleader at the bar, his voice became impaired 
with coitgh, spitting of blood, matter expectoration, 
diarrhoea, debility, and general wasting. He was in- 
duced to drink brandy with iron, but soon left off the 
iron and took the brandy pure. The habit grew upon 
him; he sometimes stimulated to excess, according 
to his own acknowledgment; his friends thought 
there was no interval, and g:ive him up as a lost man 
to themselves, his family, and his country ; but in time 
the virulence of the disease rose above the stimulus of 
the brandy, and in occasional desperation he resorted 
to opium. He subsequently visited the water cure, 
gained in flesh and strength, and was hopeful of a 
speedy restoration ; but he took " an occasional cigar" 
— the dryness in the throat, hoarseness, pain or pres- 
sure, and soreness still remained ! He left the water 
cure, and in a few months wrote to me, having, in ad- 
dition to the above throat symptoms, a recent haemorr- 
hage, constipation, pains in the breast, nervousness, 
debility, variable appetite, and daily cough. Within 
two months, he has become an almost entirely new 
man, requiring no further advice. 

Further illustrations of the manner in which persons 
get Throat- Ail, may be more conveniently given in the 
letters of some who have applied to me, with the ad- 
ditional advantage of having the symptoms described 
in language not professional, consequently more gener- 
ally understood. 

A PRESBYTERIAN CLERGYMAN. 
(1059 ) " I have had for three years past a troublesome 
affection of the thorax, which manifests itself by fre- 
quent and prolonged hemming or clearing the throat, and 
swelling : both more frequent in damp weather, or after 
slight cold. General health very feeble, sleeplessness., 
Waste of flesh, low spirits. Visited a water cure, remaia- 



ed two months, but my hemming and swallowing were 
not a whit improved. Touching with the nitrate of silvei 
slightly makes the larynx sore. I have been always 
able to preach. It has never affected my voice until 
very recently. Two weeks ago I preached two long 
sermons, in a loud and excited voice, in one day 
During the last discourse my voice became hoarse, and 
my hemming has become very bad ; and there has been 
a slight break in my voice ever since. Hem, hem, hem, 
is the order of the day; clearing the throat is inces- 
sant, swallowing often, and a slight soreness of the 
larynx, particularly after a slight cold, or after several 
days' use of nitrate of silver, with a scarce percep- 
tible break in the voice. These are my principal symp- 
toms." 
This case is Under treatment. 

"' A LAWYER, 

(1016) " aged thirty-seven. Have been liable, for 
several years past, in the fall, winter, and spring, to 
severe attacks of fever, accompanied with great debil- 
ity, loss of flesh, appearing to myself and friends to 
be in the last stages of Consumption ; in fact, the dread 
of it has been an incubus on me, paralyzing my ener- 
gies and weighing down my spirits. In the summers, 
too, I have been subject to attacks of bilious fever ani 
bilious colic. A year ago, I attended court soon after 
one of these attacks, and exerted myself a great, dea!. 
My throat became very sore, and I had hemorrhage — 
two teaspoons of blood and matter. My health con- 
tinued feeble. I went last summer to a water cure, and 
regained my flesh and strength, but the weakness in 
my throat and occasional hoarseness continued all the 
time. Afterwards, by cold and exposure, I became 
worse, continued to have chills and fever and night 
sweats, accompanied by violent cough and soreness of 
the throat. I got worse ; was reduced to a perfect 
skeleton, and had another haemorrhage. Mucus would 
collect in the top o£ the throat, and was expectorated 
freely. I am still liable to colds. The seat of the dis- 
ease seems to be at the little hollow in front at the bot- 
tom of the neck, just above the top of the breast-bone. 
At my last bleeding, the pain seemed to be in the re- 
gion of Adam's-apple. The principal present symp- 
toms are soreness in throat, dryness, pain on pressing 
it, and hoarseness ; pulse from eighty to ninety in a 
minute ; irregular appetite. These symptoms, to- 
gether with my fear of Consumption, serve to keep me 
unhappy. I find myself constantly liable to attacks of 
cold, sneezing, running at the nose even in the summer 
time. My mother and sister have died of Consump- 
tion, as also two of my mother's sisters. Feet always 
cold ; daily cough." 

OPINION OF THE CASE. 

There is no Consumptive disease ■ it is impossible. 
No personal examination is needed to tell that. The 
foundation of all your ailments is a torpid liver and a 
weak stomach. If you are not cured, it will be your 
own fault. 

The treatment of this case was conducted by corres- 
pondence, as he lived six hundred miles away, and 
therefore I had not the opportunity of a personal exami- 
nation. Within a month he writes: — "I am gradually 
improving ; feet warm ; all pain has disappeared from 
the breast; appetite strong, regular, and good: pulse 
seventy-two; breathing eighteen; all cough has dis- 
appeared." At the end of two and a half months, no 
further advice was needed, as he wrote — " I have not 
written to you for a month, being absent on the circuit. 
I have not enjoyed better health for years than I have 
for the month. Weight increasing ; no uneasiness or 
pain about my breast ; pulse seventy-five ; less in the 
morning. The only trouble I have is costiveness, from 
being so confined in court, and being away from home 
deprived of my regular diet. We were two weeks 
holding court, last of November, in a miserable room, 
the court-house having been recently burned ; kept 
over-heated all the time. I made four orfive speeches, 
and suffered no inconvenience whatever. I have no 
cough." 

A CLERGYMAN 

(1024) called over two months ago, having had at first 
an ailment at the top of the throat, apparently above 
or near the palate. It soon descended to the region of 
Adam's-apple, and within a month it seemed to have 
located itself lower down the neck, giving a feeling as 



109 



lr there were an ulcer there, with a sense of fullness 
about the throat, hoarse after public speaking, lasting a 
day or two, with attacks every few weeks of distressing 
sick headache. As the disease seemed to be rapidly 
descending towards the lungs, a rigid, energetic treat- 
ment was proposed, and at the end of ten weeks he 
wr i tes _" I take pleasure in introducing my friend, 

^ to you. He has suffered many things, from many 

advisers, with small benefit. I have desired him to 
consult with you, hoping that he may have the same 
occasion to be grateful for the providence which leads 
him to you, which I feel that I myself have for that 
which guided me to your counsels. I suffer but little, 
very liftle from my throat, and confidently anticipate 
entire relief at no distant day, for all which I feel 
myself under great obligation both to your skill and to 
your kindness," &c. 

SICK HEADACHE 

is a distressing malady, as those who are subject to it 
know full well, bv sad experience. In this case, this 
troublesome affection had to be permanently removed 
before the throat ailment could be properly treated ; 
when that was done, the throat itself was compara- 
tively of easy management. 

A MERCHANT 

i'947) wrote to me from the South, complaining chiefly of 

Bad cough, sometimes giving a croupy sound ; 

Throat has a raw, choking, dry, rasping feeling ; 

Soon as he goes to sleep, there is a noise or motion, as 

if he were going to cough ; 
Startled in sleep, by mouth filling with phlegm ; 
Expectoration tough, white, and sticky ; darkish par- 
ticles sometimes ; 
Flashes or flushes pass over him sometimes ; 
Sick stomach sometimes, acid often, wind on stomach 

oppresses him greatly; 
A lumpy feeling in the throat ; 
On entering his house, sometimes falls asleep in his 

chair, almost instantly ; 
In walking home, at sundown, half a mile from his 

store, is completely exhausted ; 
Slightest thing brings on a cough; never eats without 

couching ; 
If he swallows honey, it stings the throat ; 
■Got a cold a month ago, which left the palate and throat 

very much inflamed ; 
Throat and tongue both sore ; 
A hooping, suffocative cough ; can hear the phlegm 

rattle iust before the cough begins; 
A dry, rough feeling from the little hollow at the bot- 
tom of the neck up to the top of the throat. 
One night after going to bed, began to cough, choke, 
suffocate ; could not get breath, jumped out of bed, 
ran accross the room, struggled, and at length got 
breath, but was perfectly exhausted ; could not speak 
for half an hour, without great difficulty. 
In addition to his own description of the case, his 
wife writes— "Ten o'clock at Night.— I am no physi- 
cian, nor physician's wife, but am his wife and nurse, 
and an anxious observer of his symptoms, and can see 
his throat inflamed behind the uvula. He says there is 
a lump somewhere, but he cannot tell where. Some- 
times he thinks it is in the little hollow at the bottom 
of the neck, sometimes just above, and sometimes in 
or about the swallow. A recent cold has aggravated 
his symptoms. His cough to-day has been very fre- 
quent and loose. He has emaciated rapidly within a 
month, and is now a good deal despondent. As for 
myself, I feel as one who sees some fair prospect sud- 
denly fading away. I had fondly hoped— oh ! how 
ardently! — that he might be restored. If a knowledge 
of the fact would give any additional interest to the 
case, I will only say T , he is one of the loveliest charac- 
ters on earth. None in this community has a larger 
share of the respect and confidence of their acquain- 
tance." 

The opinion sent, for I have not seen this case, was 
as follows: — "The whole breathing apparatus, from 
the top of the windpipe to the extremity of its branches, 
is diseased ; the lungs themselves are not at all affected 
by decay. Your whole constitution is diseased ; and 
yet there is good ground for hope of life and reason- 
able health." 

In three months this patient writes— " I am glad to 
Inform yo~ that I think I. am still improving in health 



and strength. My bowels are sometimes disordered 
by eating melons and fruits ; but I felt so much better 
that I thought I might indulge. Pulse sixty-five to 
seventy; an almost ravenous appetite." A month 
later he writes—" My health and strength are still im- 
proving; cough not very troublesome; increasing in 
flesh," &c. I believe this gentleman now enjoys good 
health. 

A LADY. 
(948) teacher of vocal music, writes — "There is a pecu- 
liar sensation in my throat for the last two months. 
Whenever I attempt to swallow, it feels as if some- 
thing were in the way; a swelling under the jaws, a 
soreness on the sides of the throat, extending to the 
ears, and occasioning throbbing painfully. I have a 
dull aching at the top of my collar-bone, and an un- 
pleasant sensation of weakness and heaviness in my 
chest; a bad taste in my mouth frequently. Have 
been regular, but have been afflicted for a few years 
past with sickness at the stomach and vomiting, at- 
tended occasionally with great pain for a few hours. 
During these attacks, the complexion changes to a livid 
hue. I have been very much troubled with dyspepsia. 
On recovering from the attacks above mentioned, I have 
experienced a feeling of weakness almost insupportable. 
Am very costive ; and my spirits are greatly depressed. 
Within a day or two I have taken a violent cold, which 
has affected me with sneezing, running from the ey T es 
and nose, together with a slight hoarseness. I was ad- 
vised to apply caustic to the throat, and Croton oil to 
my neck, chest, and throat. I have since discon- 
tinuea" these, not having received any permanent bene- 
fit from them. On two occasions, from over-exertion at 
concerts and examinations, I was unable to speak a 
loud word, from hoarseness, for several days. I am 
extremely anxious to learn your opinion. In about two 
months my public concerts take place, and* it is abso- 
lutely necessary that something should be done for me." 

OPINION. 

Yours is general constitutional disease. There is no 
special cause of alarm. A weakened stomach, a torpid 
liver, a want of sufficient air and exercise, are the foun- 
dations of all y^our ailments, and by the proper regula- 
tion of these, you may expect to have good health and 
a stronger voice. You must have energy and patient 
perseverance in carrying out the prescriptions sent to 
you. 

In one month this lady writes, and the letter is given 
to encourage others who may come under my care, to 
engage with determination and energy in carrying out 
the directions which may be given them. The reader 
may also see what great good a little medicine may do 
when combined with the judicious employment of ra- 
tional means, which do not involve the taking of med- 
icine or the use of painful and scarifying agencies and 
patent contrivances : — 

"I began your prescriptions at once. Having followed 
them for some time, I was obliged to intermit them for 
a few days, in consequence of having to conduct a 
concert, besides having to travel by stage and railroad 
seventy or eighty miles. During this time, I was up 
every night until twelve o'clock, and was much ex- 
posed to the night air. On returning home, I re-com- 
menced your directions, have made it a point to attend 
to them strictly, and have very seldom failed of doing 
so. In consequence of two omissions in diet, [ suffered 
from headache, which disappeared when I observed 
your directions. My appetite is good; my food agrees 
with me. I sometimes feel dull and sleepy after dinner. 
I drop to sleep immediately. Seldom wake in the night. 
Sleep about seven hours, and generally feel bright and 
strong in the morning, when I take a brisk walk of two 
miles and a half; the same after six, p.m. My walks 
at first fatigued me considerably ; generally, however, 
I have felt better and better from their commencement 
to their end, and have perspired very freely. The ex- 
ercise I take seems rather to increase than diminish 
my strength. I have not been prevented from taking 
exercise from any dampness in the atmosphere. I have 
sometimes been exposed to the night air in going to 
church and other places, but without any perceptible 
injury. The means you advised produce a general 
glow, and invariably remove headache, which I some- 
times have to a slight degree after dinner. I think my 
throat is better. There is no unpleasant feeling about 
it at present, except the difficulty in swallowing, and 
even that is better. Pulse sixty-seven." 



110 



I had for some time ceased to regard this energetic 
young lady as a patient, when she announces a new 
ailment, a difficulty at periodic times :— " I walked two 
miles every day, and every thing was going on well, 
until one evening after walking very fast, I sat awhile 
with a friend, in a room without fire, in November. 
The weather was chilly and damp ; was unwell, sup- 
pressed ; had a chill and incessant cough for several 
hours, ending in something like inflammation of the 
lungs." 

These things were remedied, and she is now engaged 
in the active discharge of her duties. This last inci- 
dent is introduced here to warn every reader, especially 
women, against all such exposures at all times, most 
especially during particular seasons. Such exposures, 
as sitting in rooms without fire, in the fall and spring, 
after active walking, have thrown stout strong men 
into a fatal consumption ; and it is not at all to be 
wondered at that delicate women should lay the foun- 
dation of incurable disease in the same manner. I will 
feel well repaid for writing these lines, if but here and 
there a reader may be found to guard against such ex- 
posures. Our parlors and drawing-rooms are kept 
closed to the air and light for a great portion of the 
twenty-four hours, and unless the weather is quite cool 
there is no fire in them. Thus they necessarily ac- 
quire a cold, clammy dampness, very perceptible on 
first entering. A fire is not thought necessary, as 
visitors usually remain but a few minutes; but when 
the blood is waimed by walking in the pure air and the 
clear sunshine, it is chilled in a very short space of 
time, if the person is at rest, in the cold and gloom of 
a modern parlor, especially as a contemplated call of a 
minute is often unconsciously extended to half an 
hour, under the excitement of friendly greetings and 
neighborly gossip. There can be no doubt that thou- 
sands every year catch their death of cold, to use a 
homely but expressive phrase, in ihe manner above 
named. Young women, especially, cannot act thus 
with impunity. Men perish by multitudes every year 
by exposures of a similar character; walking or work- 
ing until they become warm, then sitting in a hall or 
entry or a cold counting-room ; or standing still at the 
wharf or at a street corner ; or running to reach a ferry- 
boat until they begin to perspire, and then sitting still 
in the wind while the boat is crossing. It is by inat- 
tention to what may be considered such trifling little 
things that thousands of valuable lives are sacrificed 
every year. 

A YOUNG GENTLEMAN, 

(950) from Washington City, complained of 

Uneasiness a,t throat, caused by repeated colds ; late 
hours, hot rooms ; 

Cough most of mornings — dry, tickling, hollow ; 

Expectoration a little yellow ; 

Bloody, streaked expectoration, six months ago; 

Breathing oppressed, if sit or stoop long ; 

Take cold easy, in every way ; 

Throat has various feelings, tickling, heavy aching, raw, 
dry, from palate to depression ; 

Swallowing a little difficult at times ; 

Voice not much affected ; 

Headache, costive bowels, piles occasionally; 

Pain about shoulder-blades and at their points ; 

Soreness under both ribs sometimes ; 

Pains in the breast— more of a soreness from the top 
of the breast-bone to the pit of the stomach ; 

Have been ailing fifteen months ; 

Father, mother, sister, uncle, aunt died of Consump- 
tion. 

OPINION. 

Yoxi cannot have Consumption now : you are de- 
cidedly threatened with it. With proper attention, 
persevering and prompt, you may ward it off effectually, 
and live to the ordinary term of human life to those of 
your occupation. It is my opinion, that without this 
care, you will fall into settled disease within a year. 

In two months, this gentleman called to see me for 
the first lime. His lungs were working freely and 
fully, over the natural standard ; pulse seventy-two ; 
appetite good ; bowels regular. I did not think he re- 
quired any particular medical advice ; and it is my 
present belief, that with proper attention to diet, exer- 
cise, and regular habits of life, his health will become 
permanently good. 



Took a severe cold last winter, which left a severe 
cough. Every morning the breast feels sore, until stirs 
about some. Pain in the left side, running through to 
the left shoulder blade, and between the shoulders ; 
pain in the breast-bone, and in the centre of the left 
breast. Chief complaint is pain in the chest, left side, 
and a constant raising of frothy, thick, tough, and yel- 
low matter, with frequent hawking, hemming, and 
clearing of the throat. Age 22. 

OPINION. 

Your ai.ments are all removeable by diligent atten- 
tion to the directions I may give you. I very much 
hope you will spare no pains in carrying them out most 
thoroughly. You certainly have not Consumptive dis- 
ease. 

He called upon me some months afterwards, when I 
saw him for the first time. He had nothing to complain 
of; pulse sixty; his lungs working freely and fully, 
being considerably above the natural standard ; and as 
far as I know, he continues well to this day. 

973. 

" Am officer in a bank. Was at a fire during Christ- 
mas, seven months ago. Used my voice a great deal; 
began to be hoarse ; very much so by morning. This 
lasted a week, and went off; but in three weeks there 
appeared to be something about the palate which 
wanted to come away. Throat seemed inflamed, and 
ever since then have had a clogging feeling in the 
throat, that does not affect my voice, unless I read 
aloud, when I soon become hoarse. Two days ago, 
spit up a spoonful of dark blood ; never before or since. 
I have a binding sensation across the top of the breast, 
and three months since had a pain up ai;d down the 
breast-bone. Have used iodide of potash : have had 
the throat pencilled, and then sponged with nitrate of 
silver, without benefit— pulse, one hundred and ten." 

OPINION. 

Yours is a throat ailment, at the entrance of the 
windpipe — not as low down as the voice organs. There 
is very considerable active inflammation there. Your 
lungs are a little weakened, nothing more; the pains 
in the breast are not serious at all, and I see no ob- 
stacle to your entire recovery. 

I received letter after letter from this young gentle- 
man, stating that no perceptible benefit seemed to fol- 
low what I advised. He was encouraged to persevere, 
and finally his symptoms began to change, and then 
disappeared ; and in two months from his first consul- 
tation he wrote me to say that he had steadily im- 
proved ; pulse, permanently at sixty-five; expressing 
his obligations, &c. This case shows strikingly the ad- 
vantage of perseverance. 

A CLERGYMAN 
(844) wrote to me for advice in reference to a throat 
complaint. I prescribed, and had entirely forgotten 
the circumstance, when the following letter was 
received : — 

" I began to follow your directions on the 4th day of 
May, not quite three months ago, and have adhered tc 
them strictly ever since. I am evidently a great deal 
better. I have lost no flesh; although it is summer, 
my weight has not varied three pounds since I wrote 
to you ; it is now one hundred and forty-ninf> nounds. 
My tonsils are diminished, and give me no uneasiness, 
except in damp weather. From my throat, which is 
now generally perfectly comfortable, I am continually 
bringing up a pearly substance. Sometimes it is per- 
fectly clear, and like the pure white of an egg. But 
this is a mighty change. At first, I could not talk five 
minutes in the family circle. My throat was constantly 
tickling and burning; so that a mustard plaster, which 
took all the skin off my neck in front, was a comfort; 
but now I can talk as much as I wish, read a page or 
so aloud, and am almost tempted to sing a little." 

HOW DO PERSONS GET BRONCHITIS "? 
In the same manner as a common cold, for Bronchitis 
is a common cold protracted, settling not on the lungs, 
but on the branches of the windpipe, clogging them uj 
i with a secretion thicker than is natural ; this adheres 



Ill 



to the Inside of the tube-like branches, and to a certain 
extent closes them : hence, but a small portion of air 
gets into the lungs. Nature soon begins to feel ihe de- 
ficiency, and instinctively makes extra effortsto obtain 
the necessary quantity, in causing the patient to draw 
in air forcibly instead of doing it naturally and without 
an eftbrt. This forcible inspiration of external air 
drives before it the accumulating phlegm, and wedges 
it more compactly in a constantly-diminishing tube, 
until the passage is entirely plugged up. The pa- 
tient makes greater efforts to draw in the air, but 
these plugs of mucus arrest it, and there is a feeling as 
If the air did not get down to its proper place, or as if 
it were stopped short, causing a painful stricture, or 
cord like sensation, or as some express it, a stoppage of 
breath. If relief is not given in such cases, either by 
medicine judiciously administered, or by a convulsive 
nature of effort at a cough, which is a sudden and for- 
cible expulsion of such air as happened to be on the 
other side of the plug, the patient would die ; and they 
often do feel as if they could not possibly live an 
hour. This is more particularly a description of an 
attack of Acute Bronchitis. Chronic Bronchitis is but 
a milder form of the same thing, very closely allied in 
the sensations produced, if not indeed in the veiy 
nature of the thing, to what may be considered a 
kind of 

PERPETUAL ASTHMA, 

which may in most cases be removed and warded off 
for an indefinite time by the use of very little medicine, 
if the patient could be induced to have a reasonable 
degree of self-denial and careful perseverance. 

HOW DO PERSONS GET CONSUMPTION 1 
As they do most other diseases, by inattention, neglect, 
imposition on aature. Many persons have this dis- 
ease hereditarily, but the same means which perma- 
nently arrest the progress of accidental Consumption 
will as often and as uniformly ward off, indefinitely, 
the effects and symptoms of the hereditary form, the 
essential nature of accidental and hereditary Consump- 
tion being the same. The treatment is also the same, 
except that in the accidental form it must be more 

Erompt, more energetic ; in the hereditary form it must 
e more mild, more persevering. I consider the latter, 
the less speedily and critically dangerous of the two. 

MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS. 

A number of pages will be devoted to the illustra- 
tion of a variety of topics connected with the general 
subject ; all, however, will be of a practical character 
— at least, such is the intention. 

Consumption is the oxidation of the exuda- 
tion corpuscle. This corpuscle — this little body, this 
tubercle, this seed of Consumption — is an albuminous 
exudation, as minutely described on page 5, First Part, 
and being deficient in fatty matter, its elementary 
molecules cannot constitute nuclei, capable of cell de- 
velopment; therefore, these nuclei remain abortive, 
are foreign bodies in the lungs, and like all other 
foreign bodies there, cause irritation, tickling. This 
tickling is a cause of cough, as itching is a cause of 
scratching, both being instinctive efforts of nature to 
remove the cause of the difficulty. The oxidation— 
that is, the burning, the softening of this corpuscle or 
tubercle — gives yellow matter as a product, just as the 
burning — that is, the oxidation of wood — gives ashes as 
a product. Thus the yellow matter expectorated in 
Consumption is a sign infallible, that a destructive, con- 
suming process is going on in the lungs, just as the 
sight of ashes is an infallible sign that wood or some 
other solid substance has been burned — that is, de- 
stroyed. 

But why is it that this albuminous exudation, this 
tubercle, this exudation corpuscle, should lack this 
fatty muter, this oil, this carbon, which, did it have, 
would make it a healthy product, instead of being a 
foreign body and a seed of death 1 

Consumption is an error of nutrition. The patient 
has soliloquized a thousand times, "I sleep pretty well, 
Dowels regular, and I relish my food, but somehow or 
other it does not seem to do me the good it used to. I 
do not get strong." The reason of this is, that the 
food is imperfectly digested, and when that is the case, 
acidity is the result, whicn is the distinguishing feature 
of Consumptive disease. This excess of acid in the 
alimentary canal dissolves the albumen of the food, 
tad carries it off into the biood in its dissolved state, 



making the whole mass of blood imperfect, impure, 
thick, sluggish, damming up in the lungs— that is, con- 
gesting them — instead of flowing out to the surface, 
and keeping the skin of a soft feel and a healthful 
warmth. Thus it is that the skin of all Consumptives 
has either a dry, hot feel, or a cold, clammy, damp- 
ness ; at one time having cold chills creeping over 
them, causing them to shiver in the snn or hover over 
the fire; at another time, by the reaction, burning hot, 
the cheek a glowing red, the mouth parched with 
thirst. Another effect of the excess of acidity dis- 
solving the albumen and carrying it into the blood is, 
that the blood is deficient in the fat, or oil, or carbon, 
which would have been made by the union of this 
albumen with alkaline secretions ;. the blood then 
wanting the fat or fuel which is necessary to keep the 
body warm, that which was already in the body, in 
the shape of what we call flesh, is used instead, and 
the man wastes away, just as when steamboat men, 
when out of wood, split up the doors, partitions, and 
other parts of the boat, t*i keep her going, she moves 
by consuming herself. So the Consumptive lives on, 
is kept warm by the burning up, the oxidation of his 
own flesh every day and every hour ; this same 
wasting away being the invariable, the inseparable 
attendant of every case of true Consumption. He 
lives upon himself until there is no more fuel to burn, 
no more fat or flesh, and he dies — " nothing but skin 
and bone." What, then, must be done to cure a man 
of Consumptive disease 1 

He must be made more (what is called) "fleshy ;" 
that is, he must have more fuel, fat, to keep him warm. 

The acidity of the alimentary canal must be re- 
moved, in order that the food may be perfectly digested, 
so as to make pure blood, such as will flow healthfully 
and actively through every part of the system, and be- 
come congested, sluggish, stagnant nowhere. 

To remove this acidity, the stomach must be made 
stmng, and healthfully active ; but no more than health- 
fully active, so as to convert the food into a substance 
fit for the manufacture of pure blood. 

To make the stomach thus capable of forming a 
good blood material from the aliment introduced into it, 
as a perfect mill converts the grain into good flour or 
meal, there is behind the mill a power to turn it, there 
is behind the stomach powers to be exerted. These 
are the glandular system, the liver being the main one 
of all. This must be kept in healthful, operating order ; 
if it acts too much or too little, the food is badly manu- 
factured, and the blood which is made out of the food, 
and of the food alone, is imperfect and impure. 

After all this is done, there is one more operation, 
which is the last finishing touch by which pure life- 
giving blood is made ; 05?~ a sufficient amount of pure 
air must come in contact with it before blood is con- 
stituted. This contact takes place in the lungs : not 
such a contact as the actual commingling of wine and 
water, for the air and what is soon to become blood are 
not mixed together ; they are kept separate in different 
vessels. The air is in the lungs ; that is, in the little 
bladders or cells, and this fluid, which is to be con- 
verted into blood, is in the little veins or tubes, wliich 
are spread around over the sides of the air-cells, as a 
vine is spread over a wall ; but these little vessels have 
sides so very thin, that the life-giving material of the 
air passes through into the blood, just as the warmth 
of the sun passes through glass ; but while this life- 
giving quality of the air passes into the blood, making 
it perfect, the impure and deathly ingredients of the 
blood pass out of it, into the air, which has just been 
deprived of its life. Thus it is, that while the air we" 
draw in at a single breath is cool and pure and full of 
life, that which is expired is so hurtful, so poisonous, 
at least so destitute of life, that were it breathed in, in- 
stantly, uncombined with other air, by a perfectly 
healthy person, he would instantaneously die. So that 
pure air in breathing is most essentially indispensable; 
first, to impart perfection, life to the blood ; and also to 
withdraw from it its death. No wonder, then, that a 
plentiful supply of pure air is so essential to the 
maintenance of health, so doubly essential to the re- 
moval of disease and restoration to a natural condition. 
No wonder, then, that when a man's lungs are decay- 
ing, and thus depriving him of the requisite amount of 
air, he so certainly fades away, unless the decay is 
first arrested, and the lung power or capacity restored. 

The great principles, then, involved in the cure of 
Consumptive disease, or, professionally speaking, the 
great iuc»catieD&, are-- 



112 



To cause the consumption and healthful digestion of 
the largest amount possible of substantial, nutritious, 
plain food. 

To cause the patient to consume more pure air. 

To bring about the first condition requires the exer 
cise of extensive medical knowledge, combined with 
a wide experience and close and constant observa 
tian. To regulate healthfully the digestive apparatus— 
that is, to keep -the whole glandular system of the 
human body in healthfully-working order — requires re- 
medies and treatment as varied in their combinations 
almost as the varied features of the human face 
Scarcely any two persons in a hundred are to be treated 
in the same way, unless you can find them of the same 
size, age, sex, constitution, temperament, country, cli 
mate, occupation, habits of life, and manner of inducing 
the disease. Here are ten characteristics which are ca 
pable,as every arithmetician knows, of a thousand differ- 
ent combinations ; so that any person proposing any one 
thing as a remedy — a cure for Consumption, applicable 
to all cases and stages, must be ignorant or infamous 
heyond expression. 

The two things above named will be always curative 
in proportion to their timely accomplishment. The 
ways of bringing these about must be varied according 
to constitution, temperament, and condition. The 
mode of doing the thing is not the essential, but the 
thing done. Beyond all question, the thing can be 
done: Consumption can be cured, and is cured in 
various ways. The scientific practitioner varies his 
means according to the existing state of the case. The 
name of the disease is nothing to him ; he attacks the 
symptoms as they are at the time of prescribing; and 
if he be an experienced practitioner, he will know what 
ought to be done, and how it should be attempted, just 
as a classical scholar knows the meaning of a classical 
phrase or word the first time he ever sees it as per- 
fectly as if he had seen it a thousand times before. 
And without setting myself up as an instructor to my 
medical brethren, I may here intimate my conviction, 
that the cure of Consumption would be a matter of 
every day occurrence, if they would simply study the 
nature of the disease, read not a word of how it had 
been treated by others, but observe closely every case, 
and treat its symptoms by general principles, as old as 
the hills, and follow up the treatment perseveringly, 
prescribe for the symptoms, and let the name and dis- 
ease go. But then they must first understand perfectly 
the whole pathology of the disease — its whole nature. 
That, however, requires years of laborious study and 
patient observation. 

The above things being true, as perhaps none will 
deny, it is worse than idle to be catching up every year 
some new medicine for the cure of Consumption. The 
readiness with which every new remedy is grasped at, 
shows beyond all question that the predecessors have 
been failures. Scores of cures have been eagerly ex- 
perimented upon ; — naphtha, cod liver oil, phosphate of 
lime, each will have its day, and each its speedy night, 
simply because no one thing can by any possibility be 
generally applicable, when solely relied upon. The 
physician must keep his eye steadily upon the thing to 
be done, varying the means infinitely, according to the 
case in hand. Therefore, the treatment of every in- 
dividual case of Consumption must be placed in the 
hands of a scientific and experienced physician in 
time, and not wait, as is usually the case, until every 
balsam and syrup ever heard of has been tasted, tried, 
|nd experimented upon, leaving the practitioner nothing 
o work upon but a rotten, ruined hulk, leaving scarcely 
anything to do but to write out a certificate of burial, 
and receive as compensation all the discredit of the 
death. 

The intelligent reader will perceive that I have 
spoken of the cure of Consumption as a matter of 
course. From the resolute vigor with which cod liver 
oil has been prescribed and (believingly) swallowed 
within a very few years past, one would suppose that 
almost every one believed that the cure of Consump- 
tion was a common every day affair. A few years ago, 
nobody thought so, except perhaps here and there a 
timid believer who kept his credence to himself, 
lest he should be laughed at. But the public got hold 
of the idea that cod liver oil was a remedy for the cure 
of Consumption, and swallowed thousands of barrels 
ef what was said to be it, before they thought of in- 
quiring for the facts of the case. I have never to this 
hour heard or read of a single case of true Consump- 
tion ever being perfectly and permanently arrested by 



the alone use of cod liver oil. No case that I have 
seen reported as cured would bear a legal investigation. 
There has always been some kind of reservation. It is 
my belief that all the virtues of cod liver oil, or any 
other oil, or phosphate of lime, as curative of consump- 
tion of the lungs, are contained in plain meat and 
bread, pure air and pure water ; the whole of the diffi- 
culty being in making the patient competent to con- 
sume and assimilate enough of these. Herein consists 
the skill of the practitioner, and on this point he needs 
to bring to bear the knowledge, the study, the investiga- 
tion, the observation, the experience of a life-time; 
and he who trusts to anything short of this, throws 
his life away. 

The following articles are interesting and corrobora- 
tive. " LittelPs Living Age," No. 379, for August, 
the most popular and best conducted journal of the 
kind in America, copies from the London " Spectator" 
the following highly interesting and well-written ar- 
ticle. Every line of it merits the mature consideration 
of the intelligent reader. 

"NEW HOSPITAL FOR DISEASES OF THE 
CHEST. 

"While one-third of the deaths in the metropolis 
are ascribable to diseases of the chest, the hospital 
accommodation devoted to that class of diseases has 
heretofore been only one-tenth ; that is to say, the 
most prevalent and destructive class of diseases has 
had the least counteraction among the poorer classes. 
This peculiar, if not studied neglect, must be ascribed 
to a notion, now happily dying out, that diseases con- 
nected with the respiratory organs, and especially the 
lungs, were virtually beyond the reach of certain 01 
effective treatment. It was indifference to this old 
notion that Lord Carlisle made an admission, in his 
address to Prince Albert, on laying the first stone of the 
City of London Hospital for Diseases of the Chest — 
' We admit,' he said, ' that hospitals ought to give the 
preference to those maladies which afford a prospect 
of cure, rather than to those of a less hopeful charac- 
ter.' Now this admission, especially as compared with 
the qualification which followed it, that very much 
may be effected by precaution and a timely counterac- 
tion, is far too strong for the truth. Without accepting 
as literally true the inference of a physician eminent 
in the treatment of pectoral diseases, that all persons 
are at one time or other visited by maladies of that 
class, we believe it is certain that the proportion of 
mortality, enormous as it is, scarcely represents the 
comparative extension of such diseases. In the prac- 
tical and popular sense of the word, it may be said 
that cure is as common in the class of pectoral diseases 
as in any other class. It has become much more com- 
mon, indeed, since the great advance that has been 
made with the knowledge of such complaints in our 
own day. This advance has been of a two-fold char- 
acter. The immense progress of physiological inquiry 
has thrown great light on the conneclion and common 
causes of most cognate diseases, not only with each 
other but with the general health, and has thus enor- 
mously augmented the power of the physician in treating 
them by medicine and regimen. The invention of the 
stethescope, by placing the exploration of the inner 
chest within reach of observation, has given a distinct- 
ness of knowledge on the most characteristic and 
dangerous symptoms, heretofore unattainable : it has 
thus completed the round of evidence whkh estab- 
lishes the connection of diseases, and at the same time 
guides the nature and application of topical treatment. 

In discovering that the prevalency of pectoral dis- 
eases was far greater than had been supposed, science 
has also discovered how much more they are under 
subjection to the general laws of physiology and med- 
icine. This branch of science, however, is younger 
than others — a fact which teaches us to remember 
how much is to be expected from the active and vigor 
ous intellects now devoted to its exploration. We may 
also remember that while the primary object of hos- 
pitals is the relief of sufferers who are too poor to ob 
tain it for themselves, they T are also great instruments 
for the benefit of society at large, by checking the in- 
roads of disease where it could not otherwise be en- 
countered. They are still more signally valuable as 
great schools for' the study of the diseases to which 
they are appropriated. They exemplify most power- 
fully the double blessing of charity, for him that gives 
as well as him that receives ; the aid extended by a 
hospital to the poor is returned to the rich in the 



113 



knowledge which it collects ; for in rescuing from un- 
timely death the assembled children of poverty, science 
learns, as it could in no other way do, methods which 
enable it to rescue the children of wealth. 

The more hopeful character of the most modern 
science had been in great part anticipated by the brave 
intellect of Andrew Combe. Before his time, it was 
too generally, if not universally assumed, that the 
symptoms of Consumption were a death-warrant; he 
proclaimed the reverse truth, and established it. He 
became in his own person the teacher and exemplar, 
both to physician and patient; and in his compact 
popular volume and regimen, he has recorded, in a form 
accessible to all, the conclusions of his practical ex- 
perience. He did away many of the old coddling 
notions, which helped to'kill the patient by stifling th< 
pores of the skin, filling the lungs with bad air, soften 
ing the muscular system with inaction, and deadening 
the vital functions ; a service scarcely more useful \n 
reconciling the patient to the restorative influences of 
nature, than in returning hope to the afflicted relatives, 
and in showing what might be done by common sense 
and diligence. At an early age, Andrew Combe was 
found to be in a Consumption — words which were 
formerly accepted as a death-warrant, in submission to 
which the awed patient duly laid down and died ; 
Andrew Combe lived more than twenty years longer, a 
life of activity, usefulness, and temperate enjoyment. 

"The 'People's Journal,' for July, one of the most 
popular European publications, has an interesting ar- 
ticle in relation to the Consumption Hospital, founded 
at Brompton ; and few institutions have risen so 
rapidly. It has a long list of noble and wealthy sub- 
scribers, with the Queen and most of the royal family 
at its head. 'As death has abundantly proved the 
mortality of the disease, so, paradoxical as it may 
seem, death also supplies us with^evidence that the 
chief structural lesions of Consum'ption, tubercles in 
the lungs, are not necessarily fatal. The writer of 
these lines can state, from his own observation, (which 
has not been limited, and is confirmed by thatof others,) 
that, in the lungs of nearly one-half of the adult per- 
sons examined after death from other diseases, and 
even from accidents, a few tubercles, or some unequiv- 
ocal traces of them, are to be found. In these cases, 
the seeds of the malady were present, but were dor- 
mant, waiting for circumstances capable of exciting 
them into activity, and if such circumstances could not 
occur, the tubercles gradually dwindled away, or were 
in a state of comparative, harmless quiescence. This 
fact, supported by others, too technical to be adduced 
here, goes far to prove an important proposition, that 
Consumptive disease is fatal by its degree, rather than 
by its kind ; and the smaller degrees of the disease, if 
withdrawn from the circumstances favorable to its in- 
crease, may be retarded, arrested, or even permanently 
ertxred. There are few practitioners of experience who 
cannot narrate cases of supposed Consumption which, 
after exhibiting during months and even years, un- 
doubted symptoms of the disease, have astonished all 
by their subsequent, more or less, complete recovery. 
Cautious medical men have concluded themselves mis- 
taken, and that the disease was not truly tuberculous; 
but, in these days, when the detection and distinction 
of diseases is brought to a perfection bordering on cer- 
tainty, the conclusion that recoveries do take place 
from limited degrees of tubercles of the lungs, is ad- 
mitted by the best authorities, and is in exact accor- 
dance with the above-mentioned results of cadaveric 
inspection. Consider properly, and you will be ready 
to admit the truth of what has been already established 
by experience, that Consumption may be often pre- 
vented, arrested or retarded by opportune aid. On this 
point we know that many medical men are utterly in- 
credulous, and stigmatize others who are less so, in no 
measured terms ; but, with the present rapid improve- 
ments in all the departments of medical knowledge, 
there is less ground for such incredulity than there was 
for that which opposed and ridiculed Jenner in his ad- 
vocacy of vaccination as the preventive of small-pox.' 

In view of the above and other testimonials of the 
most distinguished living writers in favor of the cura- 
bility of Consumption, it is impossible for any well-in- 
formed and well-balanced mind any longer to deny it. 
We cannot conceive it possible that so many great men 
should be so much deceived on a point which they 
iiave made it tine business of a life-time to investigate 
and study. 



"SUICIDE BY STARVATION. 

"A very curious example of suicide by means of 
starvation occurred some years ago in Corsica. During 
the elections, the Sieur V. rushed into the electoral 
college armed with a dagger, which he plunged into 
the breast of a man who had done him some injury. 
The man fell dead at his feet. The assassination was 
committed in the full light of day, and in the presence 
of an assembled multitude. 

" V. was tried, found guilty, and condemned to death. 
His high spirit and resolute character were well known, 
and it was suspected that he would seek, by a volun- 
tary death, to evade the disgrace of perishing on the 
scaffold. He was therefore vigilantly watched, and 
every precaution taken to deprive him of the means of 
putting an end to his existence. 

" He resolved to starve himself to death during the 
interval which elapsed between the sentence of the 
Court or Assizes and the reply which the Court of 
Cassation would make to the appeal he had addressed 
to it. 

" He had succeeded in concealing from the observa- 
tion of his jailers a portion of the food with which 
they supplied him, so as to make it be believed that he 
regularly took his meals. After three days' abstinence, 
the pangs of hunger became insupportable. It then 
suddenly occurred to him that he might the more 
speedily accomplish the object he had in view by eating 
with avidity. He thought that the state of exhaustion 
to which he was reduced would unfit him to bear the 
sudden excess, and that it would inevitably occasion 
the death he so ardently desired. He accordingly sat 
down to the food which he had laid aside, and ate 
voraciously, choosing in preference the heaviest things. 
The consequence was that he was seized with a vio- 
lent fit of indigestion, from which, contrary to his ex- 
pectation, the prison doctor speedily cured him. 

" He then resumed his fatal design. He suffered 
again what he had undergone before. The torture was 
almost beyond his strength. His thirst, too, was in- 
tolerable. It overcame his resolution. He extended 
his hand towards the jug of water which had been 
placed in his cell. He drank with avidity, and, to use 
his own expression, was restored to life. 

" To avoid yielding again to a similar temptation, he 
daily took the precaution of overturning the jug of 
water which was brought to him. Lest he should be 
induced to raise it to his lips, he threw it down with 
his foot, not venturing to touch it with his hand. In 
this manner he passed eighteen days. 

" Every day, at different intervals, he noted down in 
his album a minute account of his sensations. He 
counted the beatings of his pulse, and marked their 
number from hour to hour, measuring with the 
most scrupulous attention the gradual wasting of his 
strength. In several parts of his melancholy memento, 
he declares that he felt it harder to bear the agonies of 
thirst than those of hunger. He confesses that he was 
frequently on the point of yielding to the desire of 
drinking. He nevertheless resisted. 

"He was surprised to find his sight become more 
and more clear, strong, and accurate ; it appeared to 
him like the development of a new sense. The nearer 
he approached his latter moments, the more his power 
of vision seemed to increase. On this subject he thus 
expresses himself: 'It appears as though I could see 
through the thickest walls.' His sense of feeling like- 
wise attained the most exquisite sensibility. His hear- 
ing and smelling improved in a similar degree. His 
album contains many curious statements on these sub- 
jects. 

The Sieur V. had devoted some attention to an- 
atomy and physiology ; and he attributes the increased 
acuteness of his senses to the way in which the in- 
testinal irritation acted on the nervous system. 

"His ideas, he says, were numerous and clear, and 
very different from anything he had experienced in 
moments of excitement or intoxication. They were all 
directed to logical investigation, whether he applied 
them to an analysis of material objects, or to philosophic 
contemplation. He also felt himself inspired with a 
singular aptitude for mathematical calculation, a study 
for which he had previously felt very little inclination. 
In short, he declares that he never derived so much 
gratification from his intellectual condition, as through- 
out the whole duration of his physical torture. 

" He made notes in his album to the last moments of 
his existence. He had scarcely strength sufficient to 



114 



hold the pencil with which he traced the following 
words: 'My pulse has nearly ceased to beat — but my 
brain retains a degree of vigor which, in my sad con- 
dition, is the greatest solace Providence could bestow 
on me. It is impossible that I can live out this day. 
My jailers watch me, and fancy they have adopted 
every precaution. They little think that I have out- 
witted them. Death annuls the sentence which has 
been pronounced on me. In another hour, perhaps, 
they will find nothing but a cold corpse.' 

"V. expired as he foretold. Hfs album has been 
carefully preserved. It is a record replete with in- 
terest to medical professors. The slow torture, endured 
with so much courage, and described with such re- 
markable clearness, renders it one of the most curious 
documents in the annals of medical science." 

Illustrating the same point, a gentleman, Mr. I. F. H., 
stated to the author that he was once under medical 
treatment for some affection of the eyes, requiring a 
very scanty diet. His general health was excellent, 
but he was always hungry; yet so far from having any 
sense of debility,* he had, when he went out into the 
street, an elasticity of mind and body, an instinctive 
desire of locomotion, which caused him to feel as if 
he could almost fly. and a joyousness of spirit, which 
was perfectly delightful. 

These two cases strikingly show, that with a smaller 
amount of food, and consequently of blood, men are 
cheerful in mind and active in body ; S5F" therefore, 
a small amount of food, perfectly digested, gives more 
health and strength than a larger, not so. It is better, in- 
comparably better, to feel a little hungry all the time, 
than to feel full, oppressed, heavy, with over eating. 

Every patient of mine, who ever expects to get well, 
must keep this fact constantly and practically in view. 
It is too much the custom to measure one's health by 
the avidity of bis appetite and his increase in flesh, as 
if he were a pig ; forgetting that a voracious appetite 
and fat are always indications of a diseased body. A 
uniform moderate appetite is the attendant of good 
health. A racer's ribs must be seen before he is fit for 
the track, because then he is most capable of endu- 
rance. 

The next incident shows, that with a moderate 
amount of substantial food and cold water, such being 
prisoner's fare, men may live for many years, with but 
little exercise, in the dark vaults of a prison, breathing 
all the time an atmosphere not very pure, as may be 
readily supposed. And it is earnestly hoped that the 
incidents narrated will leave upon the mind of every 
reader a life-long impression as to the value, both to 
the sick and the healthy, of living habitually on a 
moderate allowance of plain, substantial, nourishing 
food. It may be well to recollect here that it is not the 
quality, so much as the quantity of food, which lays 
the foundation every year of innumerable diseases and 
deaths. Let it be remembered, also, that men need a 
variety of food ; living on one (fr two kinds for a length 
of time will always undermine a healthy constitution. 
Milk only has all the elements of life ; and any other 
one kind of aliment, used indefinitely as to time, will 
as certainly deteriorate the constitution, bodily and 
mental, as anything that is planted will deteriorate if 
kept for successive years in the same field unrenewed. 
The popular notion that one or two kinds of food at a 
meal is most wholesome, is wholly untrue. On the 
contrary, several kinds at a meal, other things being 
equal, are more conducive to our well-being. Quantity, 
and not quality, is the measure of health. 

COUNT CONFALIONERI 

wrote from the great jail of Vienna as follows : — 

" I am an old man now, yet by fifteen years my soul 
is younger than my body : fifteen years I existed, for I 
did not live. It was not life in the self-same dungeon, 
ten feet square. During six years I had a companion ; 
nine years I was alone. 1 never could rightly distin- 
guish the face of him who shared my captivity in the 
eternal twilight of our cell. 

11 The first year we talked incessantly together. We 
related our past lives, our joys forever gone, over and 
over again. 

"The next year we communicated to each other our 
ideas on all subjects. 

"The third year we had no ideas to communicate ; 
we were beginning to lose the power of reflection. 

" The fourth, at intervals of a month or so we would 



open our lips, to ask each other if it were indeed pos- 
sible that the world were as gay and bustling as it wat 
when we formed a portion of mankind. 

"The fifth year we were silent. 

" The sixth, he was taken away, I never knew where, 
to execution or to liberty. But I was glad when he was 
gone: even solitude was better than that pale and 
vacant face. After that, I was alone. 

"Only one event broke in upon my nine years' 
vacancy. One day, it must have been a year or two 
after my companion left me, my dungeon door was 
opened, and a voice, I knew not whence, uttered these 
words: ' By order of his Imperial Majesty, I intimate 
to you, that one year ago your wife died.' Then the 
door was shut. I heard no more. They had but flung 
this great agony in upon me, and left me alone with it 
again."— Phil. Pennsylvanian, March 2, 1850. 

• Having shown the bearing which food has on health, 
I desire to make some statements as to the value of air 
and exercise in the same direction. These will be 
given succinctly, in the hope that the intelligent reader 
will study them and apply them at length, especially 
if he should come to me for medical advice. My habit 
is not merely to cure when I can the patient who 
comes to me, but to induce him to study and under- 
stand his own case and constitution, so that by the 
application of genera] principles he may afterwards be 
able to regulate his health under all ordinary circum- 
stances, as far as it can be done by diet, air, exercise, 
and regularity of personal habits ; but never venturing 
to take an atom of medicine, however simple, except 
by the special advice of an educated, experienced 
physician. 

IMPORTANCE OF PURE AIR TO HEALTH. 

Men are reported to have ]iv«?d three weeks without 
food, but without air we cannot live three minutes. 
The lungs of a full-sized man weigh about three 
pounds, and will hold twelve pints of air; but nine 
pints areas much as can be inhaled at one full breath, 
there being always a residuum in the lungs ; that is, all 
the air that is within them can never be expelled at 
once. In common, easy breathing, in repose, we in- 
hale one pint. Singers take in from five to seven pints 
at a single breath. We breathe, in health, about 
eighteen times in a minute ; that is, take in eighteen 
pints of air in one minute of time, or three thousand 
gallons in twenty-four hours. 

On the other hand, the quantity of blood in a com- 
mon-sized man is twenty pints. The heart beats 
seventy times in a minute, and at each beat throws out 
four tablespoons ; that is, two ounces of blood : 
therefore, there passes through the heart, and from 
it through the lungs, an amount of blood every twenty- 
four hours equal to two thousand gallons. 

The process of human life, therefore, consists in 
there meeting together in the lungs, every twenty-four 
hours, two thousand gallons of blood and three thotf- 
sand gallons of air. Good health requires this abso- 
lutely, and cannot be long maintained with less than 
the full amount of each ; for such are the proportions 
that nature has ordained and called for. It is easy, 
then, to perceive, that in proportion as a person is con- 
suming daily less air than is natural, in such proportion 
is a decline of health rapid and inevitable. To know, 
then, how much air a man does habitually consume, 
is second in importance, in determining his true condi- 
tion, to no other fact; is a symptom to be noticed and 
measured in every case of disease, most especiallly of 
disease of the lungs ; and no man can safely say that 
the lungs are sound and well and working fully, until 
he has ascertained, by actual mathematical measure- 
ment, their capacity of action at the time of the ex- 
amination. All else is indefinite, dark conjecture. And 
I claim for myself to have been the first physician in 
America who made the measured amount of con- 
sumed air an essential element as to symptoms, in 
ascertaining the condition of persons in reference to 
the existence of Consumptive disease, and making a 
publication thereupon. The great and most satisfac- 
factory deduction in all cases being this, that if, upon 
a proper examination, the lungs of any given person 
are working freely and fully, according to the figures of 
the case, one thing is incontroverlibly true, demonstra- 
bly true, that whatever thousand other things may 
be the matter with the man, he certainly has nothing 
like Consumption. And Consumption being considered 
a fatal disease by most persons, there is quite a wil- 



115 



Rngness to have anything else ; and the announcement 
and certainty that it is not Consumption, brings with it 
a satisfaction, a gladness of relief, that cannot be 
measured. 

On the other hand, just in proportion as a person is 
habitually breathing less air than he ought to do, in 
such proportion he is falling fast and surely into a fatal 
disease. This tendency to Consumption can be usually 
discovered years in advance of the actual occurrence 
of the disease; and were it possible to induce the 
parents of children over fifteen years of age to have 
investigations as to this point in the first place, and then 
to take active, prompt, and persevering measures to 
correct the difficulty, and not one case in a thousand 
need fail of such correction, with but little, if any 
medicine, in most instances many, many a child would 
b« prevented from falling into a premature grave, and 
would live to be a happiness-and honor to the old age 
of those who bore them. Persons who live in cities 
and large towns think, and wisely so, that the teeth of 
their children should be carefully examined by a good 
dentist once or twice a year ; but to have the con 
dition of the lungs examined, and, if need be, rectified, 
who ever thought of such a thing? And yet, as to 
practical importance, it immeasurably exceeds that of 
attention to the teeth. The latter are cared for as a 
matter of personal appearance and comfort ; the lungs 
are a matter of life and death. We can live and be 
happy without a tooth, but without lungs we must pre 
maturely die. Were the condition of the lungs, after 
such an examination as I have suggested, a matter of 
opinion or conjecture only, I would not propose it ; but 
it is not : it is a thing of numerical measurement, of 
mathematical demonstration, as to the one point, Do 
the lungs work freely and fully or not? If they do 
not, declining health is inevitable, sooner or later, unless 
their activity is restored, which, however, can be done 
in the vast majority of cases. 

YOUNG PERSONS. 
While speaking of the health and habits of the 
young, it may be well further to state, that wrong in- 
dulgences debilitate the system ; in time, the mind be- 
comes unable to fix itself upon any subject profitably. 
Exhausting discharges further weaken the energies, 
and idiocy sometimes supervenes, in various forms and 
degrees of epilepsy ; at other times, fatal symptoms of 
Throat-Ail and Bronchitis. (See Trousseau and Belloc.) 

A CASE. 

" A youth, aged nineteen, indulged freely for some 
time, and at length began to experience pains about 
the throat. The voice was altered ; shrill at first, then 
entirely lost. Swallowing liquids became impossible. 
He spit up large quantities of matter, and died after a 
year's illness. The lungs, on examination, were en- 
tirely sound, but the whole throat was ulcerated." 

Throat-Ail and Consumption are diseases of debility, 
and it may be easily supposed that no progress can be 
made towards a cure while causes of debility are in 
operation. This statement is made here to save the 
necessity, in all cases, of more direct inquiries. If, 
however, there is no personal control, parents may ap- 
ply for their children, and permanent relief be obtained 
without wounding the feelings or self-respect of the 
ailing party, who indeed may be blameless. 

MISCELLANEOUS CASES. 

(851. Sept. 2.) Your lungs are unimpaired ; they 
are in full working order. There is no tendency at this 
time to Consumptive disease. Your ailment is dyspep- 
tic laryngitis, complicated with a slight pleuritic affec- 
tion, and with proper attention you will get well. At 
the same time, it is important for you to know, that 
these throat affections are among the most incurable of 
all diseases when once fully established. This con- 
sideration should induce you to commence at once a 
proper course of treatment, and to persevere in it until 
you are perfectly restored to health. 

Note.— His principal ailment was an uneasy feeling 
in the throat, a frequent clearing of it, and an almost 
constant pain in the left breast. He wrote me in three 
weeks, that my prescriptions were acting admirably, 
and that he was getting well. 

(852. Sep. 2.) Your ailment is common tubercular 
disease, mainly tending to fix itself on the lungs, and 
nex* on the bowels. Decay of the lungs has not yetj 
kegun to take place ; they are becoming inactive, about j 



one-tenth of them doing you no efficient good. There 
is a reasonable probability that the disease may be ar- 
rested at this stage. A return to good health is by nc 
means impossible; it is doubtful. The throat ailment 
is nothing more than what may arise from a dyspeptic 
condition of the stomach, liable to end in tubercular 
ulceration in your case, your lungs being already tuber- 
culated to some extent; the right side slightly more 
than the other. 

Note.— He complained chiefly of spitting blood, cough, 
and debility ; had been using cod liver oil for several 
months to no purpose. I have not heard from him 
since giving the opinion. 

(853. Sept. 2.) You have chronic laryngitis, torpid 
liver, lungs acting imperfectly. There is no decaying 
process, no Consumptive disease, and I see no special 
reason why you may not, with judicious treatment, 
recover your health. 

He complained chiefly of husky voice (had to aban- 
don preaching), constipation, and variable appetite. In 
five months he wrote me that he " was able to enter 
upon his pastoral duties," and had been discharging 
them three months. 

(854. Sept. 12.) Your lungs are not in a safe condi- 
tion ; one-third of them are now useless to you. It 
will be necessary for you to use diligent efforts to arrest 
the progress of your disease, and spare no pains in 
doing so. 

Note.— Complains chiefly of spitting blood, cough, 
sore throat, debility. He appears to be getting well 
rapidly. 

(855. Sept. 7.) Your disease is common consump- 
tion of the lungs ; one- fourth of them are doing you 
no good ; a part of them are irrecoverably gone ; there- 
fore, under no circumstances can you be as stout and 
strong as you once were. The decay of your lungs is 
progressing every hour. If that decay is not, arrested, 
you cannot live until spring. Whether that decay can 
be arrested I cannot tell. It is possible that it may be 
done. It is not my opinion that it can be done. 

Note. — Chief symptoms harassing cough, drenching 
night-sweats, daily expectoration of blood, constipa- 
tion, irregular appetite, great emaciation and debility, 
could scarcely walk around one square. In three 
weeks he could walk twenty squares in a day without 
special fatigue. Here he ceased very unexpectedly to 
call upon me. Being a favorite child of his father, I 
took great interest in his case. Whether he suddenly 
relapsed and died, or thought he could get along now 
without farther aid from a physician, I do not know. 

A MERCHANT. 

" At this time the lungs are untouched by disease ; 
they do not work as free and full as they ought to do, 
but it is impossible that there should be any decay, or 
that they should be tuberculated to any extent. If 
your present weak state of health continues, the sys- 
tem will become so debilitated by winter, and so sus- 
ceptible to impressions from cold, that you will in all 
probability fall into an eventual decline. At this time, 
nothing is the matter with you but symptoms arising 
from a torpid liver and impaired digestion. Your health 
can be certainly restored." 

Note.— Aged thirty ; he had spitting of blood, pains 
in the breast, and other symptoms which greatly 
alarmed himself and friends, as pointing to settled Con- 
sumption. He got perfectly well with little or no med- 
icine, and remains so to this day. 

On the same day, September 18, a young woman 
came for examination, having walked several squares. 

Opinion. — "You are in the last stages of Consump- 
tion. A large portion of the lungs is utterly gone ; the 
decay is rapidly progressing, and nothing can arrest it. 
Death is inevitable before the close of the year." 

Note. — She had a hoarse, loud cotujh, cold feet, chills, 
no appetite, irregular bowels, difficult breathing on 
slight exercise. I did not prescribe. She died in a 
short time. 

(714.) J. S„ married, aged 40, an officer in the Mexi- 
can war, and severely wounded at Cerro Gordo, com- 
plained most of cough, weakness, sweating at night, 
and shortness of breath. Any sudden movement of 
the body or mental emotion produced almost entire 
prostration. Had lost one-ninth of his weight. 

Opinion. — "Your lungs are in good working order; 
no decay, not an atom ; the yellow matter expectorated 
is a morbid secretion from the windpipe and its 
branches. Your heart is affected ; the calibre of its 
blood vessels is too small to transmit the blood with 



116 



sufficient rapidity ; hence the fluttering and great debil 
Ity en any sudden motion or protracted exercise, for 
these but increase the quantity of blood to be conveyed 
away. Your ailments depend on constitutional causes 
to a great extent, and in proportion are capable of re- 
moval." 

I heard of this gentleman no more for one year, 
when he came into my office a well man in every 
respect, saying that he began to get well in three days 
after taking the first weekly pill, and thought as he 
was doing so well, there was no necessity of writing. 

A case (988) similar, in some respects, is now under 
treatment: great throbbing of heart and weakness on 
slight exercise ; a violent beating in the temples the 
moment he lays his head on a pillow at night. This 
does not occur when he lies on his back. Frequent 
numbness and pricking sensation in left arm and leg ; 
tosses and tumbles in bed for hours every night before 
he can get to sleep ; great general weakness, and total 
inability to walk ; riding in any kind of a carriage 
over a rough road, often but not always, brings on sick 
headache ; has frequent distress at stomach ; pulse 
one hundred; much dispirited, and has fallen away 
more than one-sixth. 

Opinion.— "Your ailment is a symptomatic heart af- 
fection, depending now, mainly, on constitutional 
causes, originating in over efforts of mind and body. 
The lungs are sound and well." 

In three weeks he writes, each of the two weekly 
pills brought away large quantities of stuff, yellow as 
yolk of egg, with masses of a colorless, stringy sub- 
stance, and left my bowels regular. I now sleep as 
well as I could wish ; very little pain in the side ; 
stomach no longer distresses me. I have gained 
strength, but no flesh, and some throbbing yet remains. 
_ Note.— This man will probably get well if he con- 
tinues to follow the directions as well as at the be- 
ginning. He had been advised to exercise his arms 
and the muscles of his chest a great deal, and was told 
that he must work, and thinking he could accomplish 
both at the same time, and being naturally industrious, 
he began to saw wood for family use during the coming 
winter ; but every day he became weaker and worse. 



The reader may see by this, how important it is 
times to know that a case is not Consumption, ano 
also the value of a steady resistance against ignorant 
interferences. 

(July '23.) "Your lungs are not diseased, nor are 
they even impaired in their action. There is not only 
no Consumption in your case, but there is a less ten- 
dency that way than in most persons. You have not 
merely lungs enough for the ordinary wants of the sys- 
tem, but a large amount in reserve. Your whole ali 
mentis a dyspeptic condition, and there is no reason 
why a rational habit of life should not restore you to 
as good health as you have ever enjoyed, without any 
medicine whatever." 

He complained of pain in the breast, large expectora 
tion, voice sometimes husky, and a tightness across the 
chest. 

(July 23.) "Your lungs at this time are not in a 
satisfactory condition, more than one-sixth of them 
being valueless to you. A portion at the top of the 
right breast has decayed away. Your case is one pre- 
senting all the ordinary symptoms of common Con- 
sumption. It will be altogether impossible for you to 
arrest the progress of your disease if you continue your 
present habils of business (printer). If you pursue an 
out-door calling, and acquire judicious habits of life, it 
is probable that your disease may be arrested, and that 
you may be restored to renewed health." 

Note. — As he had a good appetite, was working daily 
at his trade, and did not feel very bad, he thought it 
not advisable to abandon his calling, and died in three 
months. 

(Nov. 8.) "Your lungs are whole, sound, and in 
full working order. There is at present no appearance 
of Consumptive disease. Your ailments arise wholly 
from general constitutional causes, and may be re- 
moved by proper and rational habits of life and con- 
duct." 

Note. — He was not satisfied with my opinion ; was 
fully impressed with a belief that he was falling into a 
decline, and insisted upon repeated examination. He 
was a man of wealth, of fortunate social relations, 
and very naturally dreaded death — too much so for a 



until he could scarcely stand up. This being a heartlman. He observed faithfully the directions given, no 
affection, every moment of such exercise necessarily I medicine was advised, and wrote in three months that 



aggravated the malady, 

This shows the mischievous effects of taking a 
wrong view of a case and of following the advice of 
every person one meets with. Many persons are ad- 
vised to death. Over confident advice is the attendant 
of inexperience and ignorance, It is forgotten ths 
paid advisers, being well themselves, do not endanger 
their own lives, in case their recommendations are in 
efficient, if, indeed, not positively hurtful. Many are 
infatuated with vegetable remedies, taking it for granted 
that they can do no harm, even if they do no good ; 
forgetting that in many cases a loss of time is equiva- 
lent to a loss of life, and that the most virulent poisons 
Ai all nature — those which produce almost instan- 
taneous death— are of vegetable origin, such as nico- 
tine, prussic acid, and the like. 

I. Q,. H., married, aged forty-eight ; had a distress- 
ing cough, which, with a severe pain below the point 
of the right shoulder-blade, prevented any refreshing 
sleep. He arose every morning sweaty, haggard, and 
weary; no appetite, and daily expectoration of large 
quantities of matter. He had fallen off forty-two 
pounds, and was greatly depressed. I informed him 
that his lungs were not diseased, and that there was 
no necessary obstacle to his recovery. His friends 
thought he became worse under my treatment, for at 
the end of four weeks he was confined to his bed day 
and night, with frequent rigors and flushes. The pain 
steadily increased, at times aggravated almost beyond 
endurance by a cough, which I thought nothing could 
safely control, and hence gave nothing for it. He 
thought he could not live unless speedily relieved ; his 
relative, a physician, came to remonstrate against my 
"holding out hopes of recovery to a man who was 
evidently sinking with Consumption." I informed the 
patient he was better ; that he would probably need no 
more medicine, and explained to him the reasons for 
such an opinion. In a few days his strength began to 
increase, and he walked out. He left the city soon 
afterwards, and now, at the end of three years, he is 
a hearty, healthy man, weighing upwards of two hun- 
dred pounds, having taken no medicine since he saw 
me. I considered his case to be one of great torpidity 
of the liver, with abscess, and treated it accordingly. 



he was as well as he ever was in his life ; his chief 
complaint was an " uneasy sensation about the heart," 
and some " trouble in the throat." 

(Nov. 9.) " Your lungs are not diseased materially 
at this time. They do not work fully, but there is no 
decay. Your ailment is Chronic Laryngitis, of a very 
dangerous and aggravated character. It is very doubt- 
ful whether you will get well. Something may be done 
for you by a rigid attention to all the directions given." 

Note. — He could not speak above a whisper ; swal- 
lowed food with great difficulty and pain. He re- 
mained under the treatment of his family physician, 
and died in seven weeks." 

(849.) " You are suffering under the combined in- 
fluence of dyspepsia and consumptive disease, and 
they mutually aggravate each other. One-fifth of 
your lungs are now useless to you. This is a very 
serious deficiency. The extent to which you may be 
benefited, can only be ascertained by attention to 
directions given. Your case is not hopeless, yet it is 
critical and of a very grave character." He died in 
five weeks. He could not or would not control his ap- 
petite, and the author ceased to prescribe, as is his 
practice when instructions are not implicitly followed. 

(Aug. 30.) " All your ailments arise from a want of 
natural proportion between exercise and eating. If 
these were properly regulated, you would get well 
without any other means, as the lungs are sound, 
healthy, and entire. You are too full of blood, and it 
is not healthful ; hence it does not flow freely, but 
gathers about the internal organs, oppressing them and 
giving rise to any number of ailments, constantly 
varying as to character and locality. Make less blood, 
and take more exercise, according to the printed in 
structions given you, and your return to good health 
will be speedy and permanent." 

She complained of pains and oppressions, particularly 
about the chest, tickling cough, &c. I heard no more 
of her for six months, when her husband, a Southern 
planter, called to express his satisfaction, and to say 
that she was in good health, and had been for some 
time. 

(Sep. 30.) " Your disease is common consumption of 
the lungs. It began at the top of the right breast, and 



117 



after making some ravages there, it ceased and attacked 
the left, which is now in a state of continued decay. 
It may spontaneously cease on the left side, as it did on 
the right: in that event, life would be preserved for the 
present. Without such an occurrence as just named, 
one-half of the lungs being useless to you, the consti- 
tution usually fails in six or eight weeks, and some- 
times much sooner." She died in six weeks. 

Frail and feeble persons often outlive by half a 
life time the robust and the strong, because they 
feel compelled to take care of themselves, that is, 
to observe the causes of all their ill-feelings, and hab- 
itually and strenuously avoid them. Our climate is 
changeable, and in proportion unhealthful. In New 
York City, for example, during one week in December 
last, in which the thermometer ranged from five de- 
grees above Zero to fifty-five, there were forty-one 
deaths from inflammation of the lungs, while the 
ordinary number is about fifteen. The healthy 
disregard these changes to a great extent, and perish 
Within a few days. The feeble are more sensitive to 
these changes ; they increase their clothing and their 
bedding with the cold, and with equal care diminish 
both, with the amount eaten, as the weather grows 
warmer, and thus long outlive their hardier neighbors. 
These precautions, with others, must all observe, 
through life, who have been cured of an affection 
of the throat or lungs. Let this never be forgotten, for 
the oftener you are re-attacked, the less recuperative 
energy is there in the system, and the less efficient will 
be the remedial means which once cured you, unless 
by months of continued attention and wise observances 
you give the parts a power and a strength they never 
had before. This can be done in many cases. 

But once cured, avoid the causes which first injured 
you. If you put your hand in the fire, you may re- 
store it, but however magical may be the remedy, that 
hand will be burned as often as it is placed in the fire, 
without any disparagement of the virtues of the resto- 
rative. No cure of your throat or lungs will render you 
invulnerable. What caused the disease in the first in- 
stance will continue to cause it as long as you are ex- 
posed to them. No promise is given you of perma- 
nence of cure longer than you are careful of your 
health. The safer plan by far will be to consider your- 
self peculiarly liable to the disease which once an- 
noyed you, and make proportionate endeavors to guard 
yourself habitually against its advances. All assu- 
rances that any mode of cure will afford you a 
guarantee against subsequent attacks, are deceptive. 
No medicine that any man can take in health will pro- 
tect him from disease. There is no greater falsity than 
this, that if you are well, a particular remedy, or drink, 
or medicine, will fortify the system against any speci- 
fied disease, whether cholera, yellow fever, or any 
other malady. So far from this being so, it is precisely 
the reverse. Doubly so ; you are thrown off your 
guard, and in addition you make the body more liable 
to irhe prevalent malady by poisoning the blood; for 
whatever is not wholesome food, is a poison to the sys- 
tem, pure water excepted. Nothing, therefore, will 
protect a healthy man from disease but a rational at- 
tention to diet, exercise, cleanliness, and a quiet mind ; 
all else will but the more predispose him to it. But 
when once diseased and then cured, these things are 
not sufficient to keep him well ; he must avoid what 
first made him an invalid, otherwise permanent health 
is not possible, but a speedy relapse and death are in- 
evitable, as to Throat-Ail, Bronchitis, and Consump- 
tion. 

DANGER OF CUTTING TONSILS. 

M. Landouville removed an enlarged tonsil of a 
woman, aged 21. In eight days she had uncontrollable 
spitting of blood, which was constant, besides vomiting 
a large quantity. Small pulse ; extremities cold. The 
danger was imminent. Various means had already 
been adopted in vain ; such as ice externally, styptics 
witernally ; then pressure with lint dipped in lemon 
juice ; but it was at length controlled by pressing ice 
against the spot with forceps. (See Hays' Med. Jour., 
October, 1851.) Other cases are given in medical pub- 
lications ; they are not of frequent occurrence, but each 
one operated upon is liable to experience disagreeable 
results. An operation is seldom necessary — not one 
case in twenty. And as in the case above, the 
danger was not over for a week after the operation had 
been performed, others who have the tonsils taken out 



have cause for a lengthened and most unpleasant rax- 
pense. 

It must not be forgotten that Throat-Ail is in verf 
many instances wholly unmanageable, and ends fatally, 
simply from" its being thought lightly of, until it has 
produced such a state of general irritation throughout 
the system, that the constitutional stamina is exhaust- 
ed, and the pulse is habitually a fourth, or third, or 
even more, above the natural standard. Most gener- 
ally, such cases go on to a fatal termination, in spite of 
all modes of treatment. This is so uniformly the re- 
sult, that any certain benefit in such cases cannot be 
promised; nor is it just that the general principles of 
treatment should suffer discredit from failure here; 
they are admirably and uniformly successful when- 
ever they are applied in the early stages of the disease. 
It is to invoke prompt attention to the first and earliest 
symptoms of Throat Ail, that pains have been taken 
in these pages to describe them plainly, clearly, and 
distinctly. 

CELL DEVELOPMENT. 

The human body is inconstant transition. The par- 
ticles of which its structure is constituted are not the 
same in position and relation for any two minutes in 
succession. Thousands of atoms which compose it the 
present instant are separated from it the next, to make 
a part of it no more ; and other thousands, which are 
a portion of the reader's living self while scanning this 
line, will have been rendered useless and dead on read- 
ing the next. There are two different armies of 
workers, whose occupations cease not from the cradle 
to the grave. One army, composed of its countless mil- 
lions, is building up 'the body ; the other removes its 
waste; one party brings in the wood and the coal 
for the fire-place and the grate, the other carries 
away the ashes and the cinders ; — the builders and the 
cleansers. When the builders work faster than the 
cleansers, a man becomes fat, and over-fat is a disease. 
When the cleansers are too active, the man becomes 
lean, and wastes away to a skeleton, as in Consump- 
tion. Health consists in the proper equilibrium of 
these workers. 

Every movement of the body, every thought of the 
mind, is at the expense of a portion of the material 
frame ; that is to say, certain atoms of the living body 
are killed by every action of the mind, by every motion 
of the body, and being dead, are useless. But they 
must be removed from the body, or these " heaps of 
slain" would fill up the workshop of life, and the whole 
machinery would stand still ; the fire-place would be 
filled with ashes, the furnace clogged with cinders, and 
the grate be useless. Vast masses of these dead atoms 
are pushed, worked out, or thrown from the body at 
the surface. At any night, on undressing, the clean- 
liest person may rub from the body countless numbers 
of these dead atoms, a teaspoon-ful of them may be 
gathered from the feet at a single washing, if long ne- 
glected. Hence the value of thorough daily frictions 
to the skin, as promotive of health, because, oh an 
average, we all eat about one-third more than is need- 
ed ; thus throwing on the cleansers a third more labor 
every twenty-four hours than they were designed to 
perform. By the frictions we come to their aid arti- • 
ficially. They are wise who perform these frictions 
daily and well ; but wiser they by far who do not eat 
the extra one-third, and consequently do not need to 
be scrubbed and bathed and washed every day of their 
existence, to save them from the effects of over-feed- 
ing. Better eat less and save trouble. The surplus 
third would feed half the poor of the land. 

But a larger portion of these dead atoms are scattered 
in the more interior parts of the body, and the 
cleansers remove them by first rendering them fluid, as 
solid ice or snow is made fluid by heat. It is then, as 
it were, sucked up by these cleansers, and conveyed 
finally to the blood, just at the heart, where they are 
mingled together and sent direct to the lungs, where 
they meet with the pure air that is breathed. Here an 
exchange takes place between the air and the blood. 
The air gives to the blood its oxygen, its life, while tho 
blood gives its death to the air. Hence it is that the 
air gives life as it goes into the lungs, but gives death 
if breathed unmixed as it comes from the lungs ; that 
is, if a healthy person were to breathe for three min- 
utes no other air than that which has just come out o 
the lungs of another man, in three minutes J 
would die. Hence my insisting so much on causL 



118 



Consumptive persons to breathe the largest possible 
amount of pure air; it unloads the blood more per- 
fectly of its dead atoms, and also gives life to the 
essence of food which it also meets in the lungs ; that 
is, puts the finishing work to its becoming living blood. 

Let us notice next the builders, whose work is to 
supply new and living particles as fast as the old ones 
fall off and die. These new particles are in the blood, 
which delivers its living freight as it flows through the 
body, as a steamer delivers its freight to the thousand 
different ports as it ploughs along the majestic Missis- 
sippi. Whenever a living particle comes to the point 
where it is needed to supply the place of one just 
fallen or dead, by some inscrutable, inexplicable agency, 
as quick as electricity itself, a vesicle, a cell, a little 
boat, as it were, is formed, which floats it to the spot, 
delivers its charge, and bursts and dies, its duty done, 
the object of its creation having been performed : — an 
apt type of the whole and living man, who, when the 
great object of his creation is performed on earth, him- 
self passes away in death ; and happy indeed would he 
be, were that work so fully, so well, and so invariably 
done. These little wrecked, these bursted boats, 
have been collected, and ascertained to be made in- 
variably and almost wholly of two materials — phos- 
phorus and lime, which also are constituents of 
the brain itself. This phosphorus and lime are sup- 
plied by what we eat and drink. If we do not eat and 
drink enough, or if what we do eat and drink has not 
enough of these constituents ; or if, again, it is not per- 
fectly digested, then there is not enough of these con- 
stituents to make the necessary boats to freight the 
nutrient particles to their destination ; hence, the man 
wastes away to skin and bone, and dies — not because 
he does not eat. but because what he does eat does him 
little or no good. Especially thus is it in Consumption ; 
a man dies of inanition, or, as physicians say, an error 
of nutrition. 

Consumptive people die for want of strength, want 
of flesh, want of nutriment ; not for want of lung sub- 
stance, as is almost universally supposed. They die, in 
almost every instance, long before the lungs are con- 
sumed, so far as to be incapable of sustaining life. 
Numerous cases are given where men have lived for 
years with an amount of available lungs not equal to 
one-fourth of the whole. They were there, perhaps, 
but not available, not efficient. The majority of 
persons who die of Consumption, perish before a third 
of the lungs have consumed away, in consequence of 
loose bowels, torpid liver, indigestion, night sweats, 
want of sleep, clogging up of the lungs with matter 
and mucus by the daily use of cough drops, balsams, 
tonics, or other destructive agents. These symptoms 
need but be controlled to protect life indefinitely; 
that is to say, if the symptoms were prescribed for 
according in genera] principles, and properly nursed, 
letting lue Consumptive portion of the disease alone, 
it vv<ui(l somet ines cure itself, or at least allow the pa- 
tient to live in re 'sonable comfort for a number of years. 

The reader may almost imagine that he has a clue to 
the cure of Consumption, if he could but give the 
patient phosphorus a<hd lime, or phosphate of lime — 
that is, burnt hones— eight or ten grains, with the first 
mouthful of each meal, so as to let it be mixed with 
the food and carried with it into the blood; from twenty 
to thirty grains being daily needed in health. The 
scientific world were charmed less than a hundred 
years ago by the discovery of oxygen. It was sup- 
posed that as oxygen was the constituent of the air 
which imparted vitality to the blood, gave it its purity, 
its activity, and filled the man with life and animation, 
nothing was needed but to take enough oxygen 
to purify the blood, and thus strike at the root of 
all disease. Accordingly, the oxygen was prepared and 
administered. The recipient revived, was transported, 
was fleet as the antelope, could run with the wind. He 
smiled, he fairly yelled for joy, and — died, laughing, or 
from over excitement The machine worked too fast ; 
it could not be stopped, and pure oxygen has never 
been taken for health since. 

Thus it will, perhaps, always be with artificial reme- 
dies ; they cannot equal those which are prepared in 
Nature's manufactory. The phosphate of lime, in 
order to answer the purposes of nature, must be elim- 
inated from the healthful digestion of substantial food 
in the stomach, and the only natural and efficient means 
of obtaining the requisite amount is, to regulate the 
great glands of the system in such a manner as to 
&use the perfect digestion of a sufficient amount of 



suitable food, fc#" ar »d this is within the power of th« 
scientific practitioner, in the great majority of cases of 
Consumption, when attempted in its early stages; but 
for confirmed Consumption — that is, when the lungs 
have begun to decay away, it is criminal to hold out 
any promises of cure, or even of essential relief, in any 
given instance. 

It is often stated as disparaging to physicians, that, 
notwithstanding the general increase in knowledge, in 
all departments, and the claim that meiilciKe is reduced 
almost to a science, that human life is gradually short- 
ening. There is great reason why men should not live 
so long as formerly. As a nation, we live more lux- 
uriously; our habits of eating and sleeping have be- 
come more artificial, more irregular. Large numbers 
of people have no regular occupation. Our young 
women are trained in female boarding schools, which, 
witfi rare exceptions, are academies of mental, moral, 
and physical depravation ; where novel reading in 
secret, and a smattering of everything in public, with a 
thorough practical knowledge of nothing, is the order 
of the day. From graduation to marriage nothing is 
done to establish the constitution, to make firm the 
health — no instructions given as to how that health 
may be preserved, no active teaching as to household 
duties, no invigorating morning walks, no wholesome, 
elegant, and graceful exercises on horseback. The days 
are spent in eating, in easy lounging, in ceremonial 
visitings, in luxurious dreaminess over sentimental fic- 
tions ; their nights in heated rooms or crowded assem- 
blies of hot and poisoned, if not putrid air. No wonder 
that with educations like these, the girls of our cities 
and larger towns fade away into the grave long before 
they reach the maturity of womanhood. 

Our young men, also, in cities and large towns espe- 
cially, grow up in too many instances without any 
stamina of constitution. Bad practices — drinking, chew- 
ing, smoking, theatre going, secret society gatherings — 
involving late hours, late suppers, late exposures, pri- 
vate indulgences— these destroy the health, deprave 
the morals, and waste the energies of the whole man. 
Many are permitted to grow up without any trade, 
trusting to a wealthy parentage, or political influence, 
or the name of a profession, entered only for show and 
not for practical life. Others grow up as clerks in 
stores, banks, offices, with good salaries it may be; but 
when the merchant has become a bankrupt, the offices 
failed, the banks broken, the party in power defeated, 
their occupation is gone, their resources are exhausted ; 
they lounge about waiting for a place, the clothes are 
wearing out, the board bill is in arrears, independence 
lost, spirits broken, mind irritated, disposition soured, 
and the first crime is committed — that of engaging 
board without any certain means of paying, or leaving 
a struggling widow in arrears ; — the proud, the high- 
minded, the well-dressed, courteous, and cheerful-faced 
young man of six months ago has made his first step 
towards degradation, by making a toiling woman, give 
him for nothing the bread and meat which she had 
earned in toil and sweat, and tears perhaps, and which 
the children of her own bosom needed. When the 
honor is lost, low habits and loss of health and life soon 
follow. Let every young man from the country hesi- 
tate to come to the city to try his fortune, unless he 
have learned well an honest and substantial trade ; then 
he may work his way sternly and steadily to useful- 
ness, influence, and wealth. It is for want of a suitable 
education and occupation that such numbers of our 
young go down to a premature, if not dishonored, grave. 
But notwithstanding these errors as to the education 
and employment of our young men and young women, 
medical writers have been extensively disseminating 
useful knowledge by means of books, pamphlets, lec- 
tures, newspaper articles and the like, in reference to 
the preservation of health in the nursery, the school- 
house, the academy, the college — in factories, work- 
houses, penitentiaries, as to diet, exercise, ventilation, 
drains, sewerages, house-building ; and the general re- 
sult is, that within three hundred years past, the 
average length of human life has been increasing and 
not diminishing. The average age increased two and a 
half years for the twenty years ending 1820 in the United 
States. For the fifty years ending in 1831 in France, it 
increased from 28£ years to 31£, notwithstanding the 
devastations of the wars of Napoleon and the French 
Revolution. In London, for the century ending 1828, 
the average age of all who died had increased 4$ years. 
In Geneva, 300 years ago, it was 21 years ; it is now 41. 

Europe is computed to have a population of tw« 



719 



hundred and thirty millions. Not a hundred years ago, 
Gibbon, the great historian, estimated it at less than 
one-half. This immense increase lias taken place not- 
withstanding the millions who have emigrated to this 
and other countries— notwithstanding, too, the far 
greater drawback, that during a considerable portion of 
the time the most desolating wars were waged that 
were ever carried on there.This can only he accounted for 
by the reforms which medical science has introduced, 
and the more general diffusion of practical knowledge 
as to the preservation and promotion of health, in pub- 
lications made by eminent physicians and surgeons. 

As, therefore, a higher degree of medical intelligence 
has extended the average of human life — in some 
places fifty per cent., taking all diseases together— it is 
reasonable to suppose that increased intelligence as to 
one class of diseases would, in the course of time, have 
a like happy effect ; that if more truthful views as to 
the nature, causes, and symptoms of diseases of the 
lungs were extensively promulgated among the people, 
their fearful ravages would be diminished in correspond- 
ing proportion. 

In Idol, the deaths in Boston, from Consumption 
alone, were about thirty per cent, of the entire mor- 
tality, and the Medical Association announces that it 
" is steadily on the increase from year to year." If this 
is the case in Boston, where such large quantities of 
cod-liver oil have been purely made, and hence more 
easily and cheaply obtained, it presents a striking and 
practical contradiction of its curative powers in Con- 
sumption, and calls upon us in louder and louder tones 
to look less to the cure of this terrible scourge, and 
more to the detection of its early symptoms and its pre- 
vention, by scattering intelligence to every family, and 
on the wings of every wind, as to what are its causes 
and what these early symptoms are. Such is the ob- 
ject of this publication. 

Patent Medicines are those whose contents are not 
made known. A physician who has any respect for 
himself would scarcely use them, or advise their use. 
It is a universal custom among all honorable practition- 
ers, to communicate to their brethren any valuable dis- 
covery-, thus, any one of them is benefited by the dis- 
coveries of all the others : they hold their knowledge 
in common. A remedy discovered to be truly valuable 
in New York to-day, in ,the cure of any disease what- 
ever, is, in a few months, known wherever the English 
language is read and spoken. Thus thousands, scat- 
tered over the world, whom the discoverer never could 
see, are benefited and blessed by his discovery, through 
the regular practitioner. Same other person obtains 
this knowledge, prepares the ingredients, disguises 
them with some inert substance, and sells it as a secret 
remedy, leaving those to die, as far as he cares, who 
do not buy from him or his agents ; while thousands of 
others, in other states and countries, perish for the 
want of a knowledge locked up in his bosom. Any 
patent medicine is a cure for a given disease, or it is 
not. If it is not a cure, it is false and criminal to sell 
it as a cure. If, on the other hand, it is what it pro- 
fesses to be, it cannot be much better than murder to 
withhold it from those who cannot purchase it, and 
to allow thousands, at a distance, to die from the want 
of it, who never heard of it, or, if they did, live too far 
away to send for it in time. Let those who purchase 
these articles think of the argument, and aid and abet 
no more, by their patronage, those who allow their 
fellow-creatures to die by thousands every year, who 
would be saved (if what is said be true) by the knowl- 
edge of the remedy whose composition is so carefully 
concealed. 

Many things have been passed over in the foregoing 
pages, which might satisfy the curiosity or interest 
a large class of readers, but it is not necessary that they 
should be known, and if known, might have an in- 
jurious effect, considering the present state of knowl- 
edge on the subject of Consumptive disease ; such, for 
example, as stating what symptoms are infallibly fatal, 
what kind of persons, as to sex, temperament, color of 
hair, eyes, skin, make of body, are most liable to it, or 
having it, have less hope of recovery. For similar rea- 
sons, I have given but few fatal cases and their symp- 
toms ; for persons having one or more of these same 
symptoms might conclude that they, too, must die, 
when those same symptoms, in combination with 
others, would indicate a very different result. I do not 
wish the reader to suppose that I do not lose any 
eases — that few or none die in my hands. I lose pa- 
tients as other physicians do. I have lost some whom 



I expected would recover. Nor do I wish to make th« 
impression, that it is a frequent occurrence that per- 
sons in the advanced stages of Consumption are re- 
stored to comparative health ; for it is not a frequent 
occurrence— it is a rare thing. My object is, first, te 
show what the early symptoms are ; and, second, to in- 
duce the reader to make application to me at this early 
stage, with the full assurance of my belief, that thus 
one person would not die of disease of the throat or 
lungs where one hundred now do. In truth, I had 
greatly rather that persons in the advanced stages 
would not apply To me; for it at once involves a de- 
gree of responsibility and solicitude, which is to extend 
through weeks and months, and for which any money 
paid is not the shadow of a remuneration. 

I greatly desire it to be understood that I have 
no magical means of cure. Ailments of the throat 
and lungs are not to be removed by a box 01 pills 
or a bottle of balsam. It is not the work of a day, no» 
of a week. These cases often require weeks am 
months of treatment, and of a treatment constantlj 
varying, to meet the varying phases of the disease, 
Sometimes it occurs, but not often, that a person writes 
for advice in full, and it is given, and the single pres- 
cription, pkusevkrkd in, has effected a happy cure, and 
months and years after, such persons have come to see 
me, to express their gratification. At other times, pres- 
criptions are sent, and the persons never heard of after- 
wards. In nearly all cases, these are young people, or 
persons who have no energy of character, no perse- 
verance, no determination. For a few days or a fort- 
night, they give a general attention to the directions, 
and because they are not cured, break off and apply to 
some other physician, to follow the same course, or be- 
come negligent of themselves, and eventually die. It 
is a most hopeless task to attempt to cure any of Throat- 
ail or Consumption who have no energy of character. 
It is time, and trouble, and money lost, as they are not 
diseases to be eradicated in a day, by a drop or a pill. It 
is to be accomplished, if at all, by a determined, thorough 
and persevering attention, for weeks and sometimes 
many months, to rational means, W^° calculated to 
build up the constitution, with a decreasing use of med- 
icine and an increasing attention to habits of life. 

Asthma.— I have said but little of this distressing 
disease. It is not often critical or dangerous until ad- 
vanced life. As a general rule, it is incurable. Chil- 
dren who have it, sometimes grow out of it. In some 
women, it often disappears at the turn of life ; in 
others, during the years of child-bearing. A fit of 
asthma, as it is called, generally cures itself, by being 
let alone. An attack is often hastened away by ju- 
dicious means. In persons of a feeble constitution, it 
is liable to come or go any day or hour, and prove fatal 
in marked changes of weather— that is, to very cold, or 
from cold to a warm, heavy, thawy, foggy atmosphere. 
The only proper and efficient method of treatment is, 
to prevent the attack, which can be done in the great 
majority of cases, and for an indefinite length of time. 
The distinguishing symptom is want of breath ; the 
patient feels sometimes as if it would almost kill him 
to speak two or three words ; the necessity of breath 
is so great, he cannot find time to cough, and represses 
it, lest it should take his breath away. He can neither 
cough, sneeze, spit, nor speak freely. He sits up, 
wheezes, throws his head back, wants the doors and 
windows opened. The attacks generally come on 
towards the close of the day. and pass off about mid- 
night or soon after, when the cough becomes loose, and 
large quantities of a substance more or less yellow, 
pearly, and tenacious, are expectorated ; urination be- 
comes copious, and the patient recovers, to be attacked 
in the same way night after night, until the violence of 
the disease is expended, and recovery takes place; or 
if these ameliorations do not occur about midnight, the 
case is aggravated, and the patient dies in a few hours. 
This disease is treated more at length in the large ed- 
ition. It is certain, that in a vast number of cases, 
whether hereditary or accidental, the attacks can be 
indefinitely warded off by proper care and habits of 
fife, if the constitution is not much broken. 

CROUP OF CHILDREN. 
Many a lovely child is destroyed in a single night by 
this alarming disease. Its nature is described in tha 
First Part. It is a disease of the windpipe, which is 
filled or lined with a phlegm, which becomes more and 
more tough, almost leathery— thickens, and at length 
closes up the passage to the lungs, and the child dies. 



120 



It usually comes on in the night. The distinguishing 
■ymptom is a wheezing, barking cough. A mother 
who has ever heard it once, needs no description to 
enable her to recognise it again. The first born are 
most likely to perish with it ; simply because the 
parent has no experience of its nature, and hence is 
not alarmed in time, or knows not what to do, while 
the physician is being sent for. In the hone of being 
instrumental in saving some little sufferer, whose life 
is inexpressibly dear, at least to one or two, I will make 
some suggestions, not for the cure of the patient, but 
to save time. The instant you perceive that the child 
has Croup, indicated by the barking- Cough, uneasy 
breathing; restlessness, send for a physician, and as 
instantly wrap a hot flannel around each foot, to keep 
it warm ; but while the flannels are being heated, dip 
another flannel, of two or more thicknesses, in spirits 
of turpentine, or spirits of hartshorn ; or have a large 
mustard plaster applied, one that will reach from the 
top of the throat down to some two inches below the 
collar bones, wide enough at top to reach half-way 
round the neck on either side, and nearly across the 
whole breast at bottom. But it will take time to send 
for a physician, to prepare flannels, and to make the 
plaster or obtain the turpentined flannel, and in some 
cases fifteen minutes is an age — is death, if lost ; there- 
fore, while these things are preparing, give the child, 
if one year old or over (and half as much, if less), 
about half a teaspoon-ful of Hive Syrup, and double 
the dose every fifteen minutes until vomiting is pro- 
duced ; and every half hour after vomiting, give half 
as much as caused the vomiting, until the physician 
comes, or the child ceases to cough, when he breathes 
free, and is safe. If you have no Hive Syrup, give a 
easpoon-ful of Syrup of Ipecac, and double the dose 
;very fifteen minutes until vomiting is produced. • If 
you have been so thoughtless as to have nothing at all, 
soil some water, keep it boiling, dip a woolen flannel of 
several folds into it, squeeze it out moderately with 
our hand, and apply it as hot as the child can possibly 
lear to the throat, and in from one to three minutes, ac- 
cording to the violence of the symptoms, have another 
to put on the instant the first is removed, and keep 
this up until the breathing is easy and the cough is 
loose and the phlegm is freely discharged, or until the 
arrival of the physician. 

1 wish to impress upon the reader's mind a few dis- 
connected subjects. Consumption most generally 
comes on by a slight cough in the morning, about the 
time of rising or first stirring about. The existence of 
tubercles in the lungs is not necessarily fatal ; they 
remain dormant for a life-time, unless irritation or in- 
flammatory action is excited by bad colds neglected, or 
exhausting habits or diseases, or debilitating occurren- 
ces, or wasting indulgences. These tilings throw more 
persons into fatal Consumption than are destroyed by 
the hereditary form of the disease ; and these should 
be, as they can in very many instances, safely rem- 
»died. 

The following recipes are frequently referred to: — 

How to Toast Bread. — Keep the bread a proper dis- 
ance from the fire, so as to make it of a straw color. 
It is spoiled if it is black, or even brown. 

Toast Water. — Take a slice of bread about three 
inches across and four long, a day or two old. When 
it is browned, not blackened, pour on it a quart of 
water which has been boiled and afterwards cooled. 
Cover the vessel, and after two hours, pour off the 
water from the bread gently. An agreeable flavor 
may be imparted by putting a piece of orange or lemon 
peel on the bread at the time the water is first poured 
on the bread. 

Barley Water. — Take two tablespoons of pearl bar 
ley, wash it well in cold water, then pour on it half a 
pint of water, and boil it fifteen minutes; throw this 
water away, then pour on two quarts of boiling water, 
and boil down to a pint ; then strain it for use. An 
ounce of gum arabic dissolved in a pint of barley water 
Is a good demulcent drink. 

Flax-seed Tea. — Take an ounce or full table-spoon 
©f flax seed, but not bruised, to which may be added 
two drams of bruised liquorice root; pour on a pint of 
boiling water, place it covered near the fire for four 
hours, strain through a cotton or linen rag. Make it 
fresh daily. 

Tamarind Whey.— Two tablespoon-fuls of tamarind, 
stirred in a pint of boiling milk ; then boil for fifteen 
minutes, and strain. 

Wine Whey.—T&ke a pint of milk, put it on the fire ; 



as soon as it begins to boil, pour on eight or ten tabte 
spoons of Madeira wine, in which has been stirred two 
teaspoons of brown sugar ; stir the whole until it ha* 
been boiling tor fifteen minutes ; then strain through a 
cloth. 

Boiled Flour and Milk. — Take a pint of flour ; make 
it into a dough ball with water; tie it tightly in a 
linen bag; put it into a pan of water, covering the 
ball, and let it boil ten hours ; place it before the fire 
to dry, cloth and all; take it out of the cloth, remove 
the skin, dry the ball itself. Grate a tablespoon of this, 
and stir it into a pint of boiling milk, until a kind of 
mush is formed. 

Boiled Turnips. — Small turnips boiled make one of 
the best articles of food which invalids and convales- 
cents can use. Carrots may be added ; half and half. 
Boil them once; repeat the boiling in fresh water 
until they are quite soft; press the water out through 
a coarse cloth ; then mix enough new milk to form a 
kind of pulp; season with salt, and then place them 
before the fire until it is a little dry or crusted. 

Beef Tea. — Cut into thin slices a pound of lean meat, 
pour on a full quart of cold water, let it gradually 
warm over a gentle fire; let it simmer half an hour, 
taking off the skum ; strain it through a napkin. Let 
it stand ten minutes, then pour off the clear tea. 

Cracked Wheat. — Dry some common wheat, then 
grind it in a coffee mill; boil it three or four hours; 
add a little salt, a little milk, butter, cream, or molasses 
may be added, as in using homminy. It should be 
always washed clean, and then boiled long enough to 
become of the consistence of boiled rice or homminy. 
A pint of wheat dried and grounnd is enough for a 
day ; not to be used for supper. 

Dandelion Diet Drink. — 7'ake three ounces of the 
bruised root of the dandelion flower, which should be 
gathered in July, August, and September; pour on a 
quart of water, boil it to a pint, and strain it. 
60 Drops make one Teaspoon. 

4 Teaspoons " one Tablespoon. 

2 Tablespoons " one Ounce. 
2 Ounces •' one Wine-glass. 

2 Wine-glasses " one Gill or Teacup. 
4 Gills " one Pint. 

I greatly desire that nothing I have written should 
excite unreasonable expectations as to the speediness 
of cure of the diseases treated of ; they come on slowly, 
are sometimes for years gathering force in the system, 
and hence it is unreasonable to suppose that they are 
to be eradicated except by energotic treatment, 
long-continued, unless attended to in their very first 
stages. The patient, page 107 top of second column, 
expressed himself as being cured in two days: — it was 
three months before every remnant of disease seemed 
to have left his throat. Remember this, if 110 other 
sentence — attend at once to the first morning cough, or 
frequent hawking, hemming, swallowing, or want of 
clearness of voice of two weeks' continuance ; other- 
wise, in nine cases out of ten, a fatal ConsumptioB 
will be the result. 



42 Irvino Flack, New York. 



W. W, MAJil* 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 

VOL. L] JUNE, 1854. [NO. VI. 

THE LITTLE COURTESIES OF LIFE. 

In walking through the streets of Paris, one scarcely fails to 
be struck with the life, light, and animation which prevails 
everywhere, and seems to pervade almost every body and 
every thing. The traveller from murky London or anxious 
New York, or stiff, calculating, skinny Boston, feels himself to 
be in a new atmosphere, and before he is aware he is hurried 
along with the living tide of the Boulevards or Champs Elysees, 
a polite and smiling gentleman, — his own countenance so 
brightened up with a cheery gladsomeness and sunshine, that he 
would not know his own phiz if suddenly confronted with a 
mirror. Everywhere there are birds, and songs, and flowers, 
and smiles ; at every turn there is such a seeming unaffected 
courtesy and polite deference that the most common person can 
scarce avoid coming to the conclusion that he is somebody, and 
he retires to his hotel with a lighter and more satisfied heart 
than he has had for many a long day, and places his head upon 
his pillow, well pleased with all the world. The Editor's 
reminiscences of beautiful Paris, in the palmy days of Louis 
Philippe, are all of flowers and sunshine. Being a child of the 
sunny south, it seemed to him, when he first pitched his tent in 
Gotham, to wander no more, because of family ties, that every 
man, woman and child was going to a funeral ; glum and 
monosyllables were the order of the day. If sauntering in 
Union Park he took a seat on some vacant bench, the very next 
comer moved on the last two inches of the utmost extremity, in 
three cases out of four giving a view of his back ; in sixteen, 
seconds more he would be making numberless gyrations with 
his cane or boot toe on the gravel walk ; if the bench happened 
to be on the flagging he would fix his eye on some spot and spit 
at it by the quarter ; no cheerful flitting ever coming across 



122 Hall's Journal of Health. 

that sad reflecting face even for the briefest moment, a? if there 
were not a thought or a sympathy for any human being. Why 
not give time to gold and time to gladness too, and let each have 
its season : be serious if you please in Wall-street or behind the 
counter, but in the car or omnibus, or park or square, or church 
or promenade, let an inner joyousness light up the countenance, 
and let the smile of recognition of your brother man wake up 
new life whenever the eye falls upon that brother's countenance ; 
it will seldom fail to light up a kindred gladness there, self-per- 
petuating all along glorious old Broadway, from Union square 
to the Battery ; all of us would live the longer for it, and what is 
more, live the happier. I move that no vinegar cruet be allowed 
in Broadway until moon down. What right has any man to 
come up to me, without cause or provocation, when I am glad- 
somely strolling down town, with little Nell and Molly, each 
holding on to a forefinger, to turn my face into a tamarind ? 
They will see it in a moment, and their little hearts will beat less 
joyously, until we get to the next candy shop These are 
little things it is true, but the mass of human enjoyment or sor- 
row is made up of these self-same little things. A writer well 
says : — • 

" The little things of life have far more effect upon character, 
reputation, friendship, and fortune than the heartless and super- 
ficial are apt to imagine. They are few indeed, however 
rough by nature, who are not touched and softened by kindness 
and courtesy. A civil word, a friendly remark, a generous 
compliment, an affable bow of recognition — all have an influence 
— while surliness, incivility, harshness and ill-temper naturally 
enough produce an effect exactly to the reverse. The American 
people, as a whole, are perhaps not remarkable for courtesy. 
They are so actively engaged in the bustle of life, in onward 
movements of commerce and trade, that they have little leisure 
to cultivate and practice those polished refinements, which are 
the results of education, of travel, and of enlarged intercourse 
with society. Nevertheless, we are not a discourteous people, 
and in the great cities the proprieties of manner, and the 
civilities of form are attended to with a commendable degree 
of exactness. 

" Still we are bound to confess that we are deficient in many 
of the little courtesies of life — courtesies that are admirably 



The Children of the Rich 123 

calculated to sweeten the intercourse of society, the intercourse 
of friendly feeling, and the general communion that takes place 
from day to day, between neighbors and companions. The 
excuse with many is, that they have not time to practice the 
civilities to which we refer — that they are too much engaged in 
more important matters. Thus a friendly visit will not be re- 
paid, a polite note will be left unanswered, a neighborly call will 
be disregarded, a pleasant smile will be met with a cold look of 
indifference, and a cordial grasp of the hand will be responded 
to with reluctance, if not surprise. All this may seem nothing, 
and yet the effect upon the mind and the heart is chilling and 
painful." 



THE CHILDREN OF THE RICH. 

The following article ought not to perish with a daily paper. 

" Too much honor cannot be awarded to Messrs. Brace and 
Pease for their untiring efforts to elevate the children of the city 
poor, from the conditions of ignorance and general demoraliza- 
tion in which so many of them lie enthralled. We every day 
hear interesting narratives of the good which is doing bv these 
instrumentalities, of intelligence quickened, virtuous resolutions 
enforced, industrial aspirations promoted ; and we are told that 
the testimony of the farmers in the country, upon whose whole- 
some stock these youthful scions are sought to be engrafted, is 
often extremely encouraging. Messrs. Pease and Brace are 
ndeed sure to be rewarded in the advancing success of their 
enterprise. 

" But we are satisfied that there is a still more hopeless class 
among us than the children of the Five Points, and these are 
the children of our rich men. The former have this advantage, 
that they are born and nurtured under circumstances of so much 
infamy, as to make any change in their condition almost.neces- 
sarily a change for the better and not for the. worse. They 
begin at the very lowest step of the social ladder, and although 
they may in truth never mount, they yet may hardly be said 
ever to descend any lower than their original perch. No affable 
pimp is so foolish as to lavish his attentions upon the outcast 
and penniless, nor does the unctuous blackleg deem it worth 



124 Halts Journal of Health. 

while to lubricate by the fatal saliva of his courtesies, a morsel 
which when swallowed must prove so purely sinewy and undi- 
gestible. Thus the baseness of our Five Points children is apt 
to remain native, not acquired. They have any amount of 
"original sin'' on hand, but their " actual transgressions" pale 
and die out before the lurid glow which characterizes those of 
our Fifth Avenue youth. 

" Where then is the benevolent Mr. Pease or Mr. Brace whose 
heart is touched by the moral raggedness of our rich young 
men ? Where is the bold and wise philanthropist who shall 
probe this deadly and deepening ulcer, and tell us what sound- 
ness remains underneath ? The time is ripe, the urgency un- 
precedented. One can count as he goes along our lordly 
thoroughfares, so many homes in which the father sits solitary, 
robbed of the sons who should have been the ornament and 
prop of his declining years, or in which the sleepless heart of 
the mother counts the weary hours till morning, waiting in vain 
her prodigal's return ! And one can also count on the other 
hand as he goes along Broadway so many princely houses where 
hell lies in ambush, and hecatombs of promising youth are 
nightly offered up to the gigantic Moloch of Play ! We are 
informed on good authority that fifteen houses between Bleecker 
and Barclay-streets in Broadway alone, are daily and nightly 
open for gambling, fitted up many of them with extreme luxury, 
rendered attractive by every artifice which can inflame the 
senses and captivate an imagination devoted to pleasure, and 
maintained some of them as to the mere necessary expenditures 
at an outlay of between twenty and thirty thousand dollars a 
year. Who support these glittering palaces of death ? Where, 
for instance, do the proprietors of the most luxurious of these 
hells get the twenty or thirty thousand dollars per annum, which 
enable them to maintain the house they occupy between Prince 
street and Spring, and set a dinner table and a supper table 
every day and night, which eclipse every gentleman's table in 
town, and which, nevertheless, are free to every gentleman's son 
in town ? They get them out of the pockets of our business 
men. The industry and enterprise of our commercial classes 
are incessantly tapped to fatten these bloated ulcers of vice and 
crime. For it is not the sons of our farmers and mechanics that 
are to be found in these haunts, but only the sons of those who 



The Children of the Rich. 125 

have large property, and expect to leave their children enough 
to maintain them without work. It is the children of our rich 
men who keep up the army of pimps, and swindlers, and black- 
legs that infest the city. Find a young man who has no money, 
or who having money, has no desire to get rid of it unprofit- 
ably, and you find a soil upon which roguery cannot fasten. 
Who feed our pugilists ? Who in the long run pay the ex- 
penses of their idleness, and train them for their loathsome 
office ? It is of course our rich men. It is those who having 
amassed a mint of money, carelessly and culpably drown the 
active or productive energies of their children in the love of 
purely passive enjoyment. 

The mud of our streets owes half its parentage to the dust of 
the earth, and half to the rains of heaven. So the vice and 
crime which disfigure society appear to grow out of the alliance 
of extreme wealth and extreme poverty. It is chiefly in the 
very lowest or in the very highest stages of the socTal edifice 
that we encounter intemperance, licentiousness, gambling, and 
the various forms of profligacy which still curse our civilization. 
We have all faith, indeed, that as Henry C. Carey, and after 
him, Frederick Bastiat, have splendidly demonstrated, there 
exists a perpetual tendency in history toward the approximation 
of our social extremes, by the gradual elevation of both to a 
new social level ; but in the meantime how desirable would it 
be to have this faith intelligently promoted by our own action ! 
How much, meantime, might our rich men do by cutting off as 
far as in them lies, the sources of the existing demoralization ! 
As the reader passes along Broadway, let him glance at the 
juvenile faces that about noon-day fill the porches and sitting- 
room windows of the great hotels, and if he be a father let him 
ask himself how he would like to see a son of his own enrolled 
in that bleached and decrepid regiment. How still they sit, 
and how T patiently they gaze upon the monotonous streets ! 
Are they palsied ? No, they smoke, they sneeze, they cough, 
they discharge in fact all the offices of automatic life. By-and- 
by they will rise and saunter toward the bar perhaps, or they 
will go to the billiard-room and chase the weary hours around 
the table till dinner-time, when night will doubtless galvanize 
them into some more feverish activity. You devoutly pray 
God to exempt your darling boy from such a fate as he grows 



126 Hall's Journal of Health. 

up. But God's pity is infinite toward these poor faded flowers, 
and your blooming offspring can claim no exceptional regard 
from him. By no coaxing or adulation can we persuade Him 
to remit eternal laws in our behalf, and if we bring up our 
children to covet a life of pleasure as the summum bonum, or to 
anticipate a career of inglorious or passive enjoyment, not all 
the powers of heaven can prevent their falling into the hands of 
the harpies who live by their destruction. Of course it is 
entirely right that the enterprise of our business men should be 
richly rewarded, that industry and fidelity to one's avocations 
should even be stimulated by the chance of attaining at last to 
abounding wealth. But at the same time let us all remember 
that we belong to society before we belong to ourselves, and that 
we have no right therefore to overlook the paramount claims of 
society for a moment in the education of our children. The 
grand distinction of human life is that it is pervaded by the sen- 
timent of society, fellowship, equality, and those accordingly in 
all ages who have most amply illustrated it have been marked 
by the most cordial subjection to this sentiment. We would 
have fathers remember that their children are primarily the 
children of society, and only secondarily theirs. And we repeat 
that they have no right to overlook the paramount claims of 
society in the education of their children. No man, even sup- 
posing him to have the wealth of Mr. Astor, has a right to bring 
up his children to a career of idleness. No man not a savage 
has a right to educate his children with a view simply to the 
passive enjoyment of life. This is wholly to mistake the end 
and meaning of life. Life was never meant to be a mere 
pleasure save to the brute. To higher natures it has always 
been and always will be a school, a discipline, a journey, a 
march, a battle, a victory. The law is absolute and whole- 
some, growing out of the very divinity of man's source. No 
amount of fortune accordingly can exempt a man from its 
operation. It leaves no one where it finds him. If it does not 
elevate him above the lambent stars, it makes him grove] in the 
dust of the earth. The alternative is infallible, and therefore 
we say to our thoughtless rich men, that they had better, on 
every account study the methods of a wise depletion, and 
educate their children to industry, economy, usefulness. It 
were greatly better for society, because society would then 



The Spirit Rapper. 127 

have immense benefits unsparingly rendered it ; and it were 
greatly better also for their sons, because then these latter 
would stand some chance of turning out the men their fathers 
were before them, and would no longer be tempted to curse 
the parentage, whose fond and wicked pride furnished them 
the means only of a boundless and inevitable profligacy." — 
New York Tribune. 



THE SPIRIT RAPPER. 

(a true story.) 
WRITTEN BY A CLERGYMAN, 

Illustrating the evil influence of Over-eating. 

Some few years ago, when the Spirit Rapping manifestation 
seemed to have aroused the public mind, and the well-known 
excitement which then followed pervaded every house to more 
or less extent, it fell to my lot to become personally acquainted 
with a young theological student, who narrated to me the fol- 
lowing graphic occurrence : — 

" I was intensely excited upon hearing of the visible, audible 
appearance, and manifestations of spirits, from the hitherto un- 
seen world. I took it for granted at once that such communi- 
cations were sure — beyond all doubt — folly to express a doubt. 
I felt almost afraid to surmise that it were possible to be true 
or false. In short, it was reduced to a certainty that the spirits 
existed, and that I, myself, should become a Medium forthwith. 

" 1 thought about the subject all day. I dreamed about it all 
night. With all who would talk, I talked ; and wondered that 
anybody should not feel enraptured, as I felt. Walking along, 
riding, sitting, reading, — spirits, spirits ! I saw, nor thought of 
any thing than spirits. It may seem strange to the reader that 
I should have been so enthusiastic at an event that certainly 
was not demonstrated, and, by almost every one, very much 
doubted. But I was young ; and, I was 'green/ you may add. 
Certainly, I was very credulous. Had no experience in the 
world, except with good men, consequently never knew the bad 
part of it. At all events I thought this — that the spirits, good 
or bad, could not get access to us without Divine permission, 
therefore, their communion with us was intended to accomplish 



128 HalTs Journal of Health. 

some good object. I never doubted that the spirits did not hold 
intercourse in the ' rapping ' way. 

" One nig-ht I retired to rest, after having eaten rather 
heartily, and felt as though I had rather gorged myself too 
much, for the good things were plenty and abundant around me. 
Calmly reposing under the shades of the night until about ten 
o'clock, I thought I heard a singular sound in the north corner 
of the room. It was as dark as any night I ever saw. To look 
in that direction with the view of seeing any thing was prepos- 
terous — to lay still and do nothing seemed to me to be equally 
so. It occurred for a moment that to hallo right out would be 
the only alternative, but then it looked rather silly to alarm a 
neighborhood unless there were some real apprehensions of 
murder, or thieves in the apartment. These were the only 
three courses I could take, and which were the best in my case 
of undue excitement the reader may judge. I thought, however, 
I could but lie still, as it was too dark for assassins to see the 
hiding corner I was in, and too well wrapped up to be seriously 
molested by the spirit tribe. Here I was determined to await 
my fate. The noise was such that it could not be disputed 
that something did it. It was an unearthly, singular noise. I 
had never heard such before in my life, and what made it 
most singular was that, — the time was midnight, the very 
hour when spirits come. I found that it was folly to quiet the 
rapping by saying nothing. I felt that no thief could be the 
perpetrator, for he would not have tantalized me a whole hour. 
I knew it was not a cat, for the noise was the same all the time 
— that at intervals. By-and-bye I aroused myself from the 
seeming lethargy I was in ; I determined to speak — to say some- 
thing ! — I felt that thing was a spirit ; sure — for how could it 
be anything else ? I thought for a moment, now ' spirits will 
not talk unless you speak first,' — well, here it goes — hem ! 

" ' Who are you ? ' 

" No reply. 

" (Louder tone) — ' Who are you ? ' 

" No reply. 

" ' My dear deceased sister, is that you ?' 

" 'Flip, flop! flip, flop!!!' 

11 * Ah ! it is you.' 

«■« Flip, flop! flip, flop MP 



The Spirit Rapper. 129 

" ' Well, what do you want ? ' 

"'Flip!' 

"'What will—' 

"'Flip, flip!!' 

" ' What will you ha — ' 

" ' Flop, flip ! flip, flop ! ! ' 

" ' Have ? '— 

" 'Dear sister, communicate your wish to a distracted — ' 

" 'Flip, flop! flip, flop!!' 

" (The spirit treats me with contempt) — ' Are you the spirit 
of grandfather ? ; 

" No reply. 

11 ' Are you the spirit of grandmother ? ' 

" (Taking courage.) — ' What thundering spirit are you then ? 
You are none of my acquaintance. Are you the evil one ? ' 

" ' Flip, flop ! flip, flop ! ! flip, flop ! ! ! ' 

" ' I say, are you the evil one, — and what do you want here ? ' 
# # * # # 

" ' Get thee behind me, Satan.' 

" « Sp'l, dTash, blup, blup, flip.' 

" ' What, under heaven, are you ? A, B, C, D E— ? 1 

"'Flip.' 

" ' A ? ' 

" ' Ah, A is the letter. What next ? B, C, D, E, F, G, H, 
I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S— ?' 

"'Flop, — !!!' 

" ' S is the letter, but then it rapped at S tw 7 ice, that means 
double S, A,SS ! — Pshaw ! nonsense. You are one yourself. 
I say, I believe you are the evil one without any intelligence, 
so go away.' 

u At this time the sweat began to roll down the face in 
profusion, and there was left nothing more to do than to raise 
the alarm, for if it was the devil his eternal ' flip, flop,' would 
not cease by my request. While these thoughts were cogi- 
tating there was an incessant 'flipping and, flapping,' which 
very plainly showed that nothing I had done had the least 
tendency to quell the disorder. 

"'Flip, flop! flip, flop!' 

" ' Ting — ting — ting — ting ! ' 

" ' What ? Five o'clock in the morning ! ! ! By the stars — 



130 Hall's Journal of Health. 

it is five o'clock in the morning, and my head immersed in 
this blanket has kept out day -light this hour ! Leaping out 
of bed — in rushed father and mother, one with the shovel, the 
other with the tongs, and Julia with the broom. 

" ' What on earth is the matter ? ' all cried out with one 
breath. 

" Matter ! enough is the matter. The " old boy " has been 
here last night, and, and frightened — -' 

"'Flip, flop!' 

" ' There ! Hear him ! He has been doing his wings that 
way all night, and for the life of me I thought I was gone 
more than once. What now ! Didn't you hear the rapping 
yourself ? ' 

'''Yes; but it is nothing more than a poor little mouse, 
half drowned in the wash basirt, and there he is now, with 
his head only out of the water ! ' 

''Readers, it was the fact! — the Rochester Spirit and the 
evil one was nothing more than a drowning mouse ! " 

Moral — Avoid hearty suppers. Q. E. D. 



PREMIUM ON BABIES. 

" To the Committees of Agricultural Associations. 

" Gentlemen, — It is our good fortune to live in an age and 
country characterized by invention and improvement in the 
useful arts and sciences. Valuable premiums are annually 
awarded to those persons who have devised the best implements 
of husbandry, for developing the capacity of the soil for useful 
production. Companies have been formed and agents sent 
abroad to import into our country the best horses, cattle, &c, to 
mix with the stock of our country, and the laws of animal pro- 
duction and improvement have been closely studied by our 
sagacious farmers, to ascertain the best mode of perfecting the 
inferior animals which are subject to human control. 

" As man stands at the head of the animal creation, and as he 
is equally with the inferior animals, subject to influences, which 
improve or deteriorate ; to know what circumstances, regimen, 
habits, &c, are best calculated to improve man physically, 
becomes a matter of great importance. I say to improve man 



Premium on Babies. 131 

physically, because there is a connexion so close, a sympathy so 
mutual, existing between the mind and body, that the capacity 
of the former for exertion, depends in a great degree upon the 
healthy condition of the latter, and hence if we would regard 
man as an intellectual being only, we perceive the importance 
of understanding those laws of the animal economy, by an 
observance of which, physical power is developed and health, 
preserved. 

If these laws were generally understood and observed by the 
people of our country, the complaints of dyspepsia and nervous 
diseases, now so common, would be comparatively unknown ; 
and the languid victims of disease, incapacitated for usefulness 
and enjoyment, would be far better enabled to fulfil the designs 
of Nature in their creation. 

" But how can the mass of the people be informed in regard 
to these important matters ? I answer that you have it in your 
power, to direct the minds of the people in this portion of our 
country, to the improvement of the human race. 

" You award premiums to those, who exhibit at our annual 
fairs, the best horses, cows, and sheep : award premiums also to 
those parents, who will exhibit the finest children of a certain 
age. Understand me : by finest children, I do not mean the 
most intellectual or beautiful. The intrinsic difficulty of making 
such decisions, as well as impolicy of the thing, must be appa- 
rent to all. I do not mean the fattest, nor yet the largest, 
except so far as size is combined with the best form, to produce 
strength, action, and capacity for endurance. In regard to 
forming a correct judgment of the physical superiority of 
children, I apprehend that good judges of cattle, might not 
be good judges of children. Although it is not my purpose or 
province to furnish rules, by which children may be physically 
estimated, I will remark, that human beings should not have 
such an accumulation of a lipous tissue, as to interfere with 
the movement and strength of the individual. The muscles 
should not be too soft and yielding, but rather %m and resisting. 
The chest should be well developed, the lungs sufficiently 
capacious to aerate or arterialize the entire amount of venous 
blood in the system, in due time. The form and structure 
should be such, as before remarked, to combine strength with 
agility* The various parts of the system should be in due and 



132 Halls Journal of Health, 

symmetrical proportion, the best fitted to resist disease, and the 
vital organs so constructed and sustained as to perform their 
functions easily and efficiently. The unobstructed and perfect 
performance of these functions, constitutes health ; while a 
failure of these organs to perform their functions, constitutes 
disease. 

" What a delectable sight it would be to see mothers, with the 
conscious pride of useful maternity, leading or carrying forward 
their rosy boys and girls, for exhibition. 

u Some will smile, perhaps, in derision, at the idea of such an 
exhibition, but let me say that premiums given, for the finest 
children, (in the sense in which finest is here used) would induce 
many parents to investigate the laws of the animal economy, to 
learn what kinds of diet, how much exercise, and what character 
of exercise is necessary for a full development of man's physical 
power. Nay, more ; mothers might thence learn, that health of 
children depends in a great degree upon the health of parents. 
Health of parents depends upon the observance of certain physi- 
ological laws, not generallly understood, and of course but little 
observed. These laws ought to be generally known ; but how 
can they be known unless the attention of the people is particu- 
larly directed to them ? 

" Pardon me, gentlemen, if you think 1 am dictating to your 
better judgment. I merely wish to call your attention to the 
subject of awarding premiums, for the finest children to be 
exhibited at our annual fairs, with a view to human improve- 
ment. I trust you will bestow that attention to the subject 
that its importance deserves." — Western Citizen, Paris, Ky. 

" March 17th, 1854." 



Our Proverbs. — Listen if you would learn. Be silent if you 
would be safe. Inquire about your neighbor before you travel. 
The first of wisdom is the fear of God. The world is carrion, 
and its followers dogs. Poverty without debt is independence. 
Long experience makes large wit. The sluggard becomes a 
stranger to God, and an acquaintance with Indigence. By six 
qualities may a fool be known: Anger without cause, speed 
without profit, change without motive, inquiry without an object, 
putting trust in a stranger, and wanting capacity to discriminate 
between a friend and a foe. 



Ignorance and III Health. 133 

IGNORANCE AND ILL HEALTH. 

A lady correspondent, for weary months and years an in- 
valid, writes in reference to a sentiment advanced in one of the 
Journals — that sickness is the result very generally of ignorance 
or inattention — says : 

" I am willing to let it be, that my illness is the result of 
ignorance, but, I suppose, if the whole were known, it would be 
seen that some of my ailments are inherited. I was early taught 
that if I disobeyed the physical law, illness would be the result. 
My father was a physician, a regular graduate, but died while I 
was young, and in a few years I had a new one to care for me, 
consequently I did not have that kind of training which so 
nervous a child as I ought to have had ; under more favorable 
circumstances I might have had better health. 

" If I had my life to live over again, I should select such 
occupations as would be most conducive to health, even if it 
were all drudgery. Inclined to be ambitious, and not having 
the means to enable me to " take the world easy/' I hurried on, 
by night and day, until I could do so no longer. We often think 
in youth, if we could accomplish a desired object, our happiness 
would be complete, but when attained we are not happy, and 
sigh for something else. The only thing I sigh for now is good 
health, and if ever I come into possession of so great a happiness, 
it will be highly prized." 

Such, reader, is the experience of multitudes, learned at a time 
of life too late for remedy ; have a care then that such may not 
be yours; let the promotion of your health be a prominent 
ingredient in every plan and every avocation, and you will feel 
thankful for the result to the latest hour of your life, for it bears 
a value far beyond that of glory or of gold. 



RAGE AND RUIN. 



Some one has said, that every furious burst of passion shortens 
a man's life a year. If it only shortened his own life, the world 
would not be a great loser ; but unfortunately, passionate people 
keep all around them in hot water ; their very presence, without 
a word being said, generates an evil atmosphere, causing an 



134 HalFs Journal of Health. 

apprehensive uneasiness, which annihilates every gladsome feel- 
ing. " Mother," said a little child one day, " if I am, a good 
little girl, will I go to heaven when I die ?" 

" Yes, my child ; and all good people go there too." 

" Mother, will grandfather go to heaven when he dies ?" 

" Yes, my dear, I hope he will." 

" Well, mother, I don't want to go to heaven, grandfather is 
so cross." 

The Editor confesses to a combined feeling, a half and fiall 
mixture of sadness and impatience, whenever he loses a " case," 
although it is said, that the "doctor's bill" is paid more cheer- 
fully than any other, when divers items, "real, personal and 
mixed," thereby change owners. But absorbed in such a feeling 
as above described, it is rather up hill work to sustain a cheerful 
countenance at the evening reunion of wifey and children, and 
grandmother. Tidy as the tea table may be, brightly as the 
" Liverpool" burns in the grate, joyfully as little Bob flaps his 
hands and arms, as if they were a pair of wings, the moment 
"father" enters the door; still, there is the incubus of the "lost 
patient." Sadness, that human power is so limited ; impatience, 
that physic had not had some unusual efficacy in this case, 
because there is always something to constitute a particular 
reason for the restoration of the case in hand ; the only sister in 
a family of loving brothers, it may be ; a father, on whose con- 
stant labors depends the support of a helpless young family ; a 
son, the hope of a widowed mother, her only stay in life ; a hus- 
band, far on in years, every child gone long before him, the only 
solace of her heart, with whom he had lived lovingly from the 
day they both pledged themselves to love, and "none other" for 
life, yet, old as he is, and carefully as he has to be watched over, 
she, whose attachment, scores of years have only deepened and 
purified, she too feels a special desire that he might be spared to 
travel with her a little further, towards the borders of the 
" promised land," else, if he passes away, who is there in the 
wild, rude world, to be interested in her welfare, to look to her 
interests, to sympathise in her sorrows, to shed one tear at her 
grave ? — not one ! How terrible to be left alone, old, childless ! 
When that hour comes to me, let it be my last. 

But the memory of the "lost patient" — the impress it leaves on 
the countenance, even amid family joys, has a contaminating 



Ignorance of III Health. 135 

effect, and little Moll, our four year old, a perfect Mimosa, whose 
joyously beaming face will be saddened over in a second, by 
half a father's frown, sidles up to mother, and hiding her face in 
her lap, most earnestly inquires, " Mother, does thee think father 
loves us any ?" 

The Editor has been trying very hard for the last half hour 
to come to the point in an easy, gradual, graceful way — but 
" copy*' is wanted — and he must close with the statement of a 
fact, which illustrates the point he has been aiming at, the in- 
fluence it has on the health and happiness of all, especially in 
family circles, to strive after, and maintain an habitually cheer- 
ful quietude of deportment, at home and abroad, on the street, 
by the wayside ; thus striving resolutely, bravely, against what- 
ever odds, of a naturally hasty temper, so terrible an experience 
as the following may never fall to the lot of the reader. 

A farmer, not long since, in Wanapace, Wisconsin, sold a 
yoke of oxen to an individual in the neighborhood, and received 
his pay in paper money. The man who purchased the oxen, 
being in a hurry to start off, requested the farmer to assist in 
yoking them up. He accordingly went to the yard with the 
man for that purpose, leaving the money lying on the table. 
On his return to the house, he found his little child had taken 
the money from the table, and was in the act of kindling the fire 
in the stove with it. From the impulse of the moment he hit 
the child a slap on the top of the head, so hard as to knock it 
over, and in the fall it struck its head against the stove with 
such force as to break its skull. 

The mother, who was in the act of washing a small child in a 
tub of water, in an adjoining room, on hearing the fracas, dropped 
the child and ran to the room whence the noise proceeded, and 
was so much terrified at what she there beheld, that she forgot 
the little child in the tub for a time, and upon her return to the 
room found the little one drowned. The husband, after a few 
moments reviewing the scene before him, seeing two of his own 
children dead, without further reflection, took down his gun 
and blew his own brains out. 

If you act with a view to praise only, you deserve none. 



136 Hall's Journal of Health. 

INFLUENCE OF CHRISTIANITY ON MEDICAL 
SCIENCE. 

(BY REV. JOHN" CUMMING OF LONDON.) 

Ever since Jesus suffered, wrought miracles, healed the sick, 
stilled the ocean, and showed his control over rebellious nature 
— by bringing it back again into order, — man has gained by 
degrees a greater mastery over all things, as if then humanity 
received a new impulse ; and in proportion to his Christian light 
(I do not say Christianity is the cause, but it certainly is a coin- 
cidence,) has been his civilization ; and, in proportion to that, 
the gradual authority which he seems to be regaining over that 
nature, the reins of which he lost in Paradise, but which Jesus 
has now partially, and will again completely put into his re- 
deemed and sanctified hand. It is to me a most delightful 
experience, to see any one discovery in science or in art, which 
restores to man, however slightly, the mastery over created 
things. Is it not true that since Jesus healed the sick, there has 
been given a greater impulse to curative science than ever was 
felt before ? Is not medicine, with all its defects, with all the 
obloquy cast upon it, because it cannot do everything, progres- 
sive ? Is it not true, that some diseases, once thought incurable, 
are now almost extirpated ? Small-pox is now, not only curable, 
but almost banished from our land. And was the discovery of 
this mode of cure simply chance ? Will you say it was acci- 
dent ? I believe it to have been as much an inspiration of 
the God of providence as the bible is an inspiration of the God 
of grace. Is it not fact, that man's life is longer than it was ? 
If you do not believe me, ask the Insurance Societies, and they 
will tell you it is so by some six years. It is much longer than 
this, if we remember, that the sickly and delicate infant which 
was lost before, while only the strong ones survived, is now 
spared, and, under the blessing of God, and by the appliance of 
art, grows up to manhood. Is not all this gain ? Is it not 
progress in the direction in which the miracles of Jesus lay, 
and in the reversal of that curse which "brought death into the 
world, and all our woe ?" Is it not also true, that operations 
once thought perfectly impossible, are now performed by our 
surgeons with safety and success ? Is not that recent wonderful 
discovery, chloroform, one of the most providential blessings 



The Millennial Sabbath. 137 

,nat God has given us ? I look upon it as a most significant 
instalment of the reversal of the curse, stilling the groans and 
travail of the creature, an inspiration from God ; and connected 
with the special curse pronounced upon Eve and her daughters, 
and read in the light of that curse, it is, to my mind, a beautiful 
earnest of what will be — a forelight of the approaching dawn — 
an augury of millennial days, when there shall be no more pain, 
nor tears, nor sorrow, nor crying. 

THE MILLENNIAL SABBATH ! 

It will be a day of lasting rest. When the night that is far spent 
is completely exhausted, and the day that shall be is fully come, 
then there shall be perfect rest. The earth shall have his sab- 
bath, which it lost by our sin. Man shall have his, in its 
integrity, and purity, and beauty. God rested on the seventh 
day from all his work, and hallowed the sabbath, and blessed it. 
I believe there is not a beast in the field, nor a fish in the sea 
nor a fowl in the air, that has not a right to the sabbath, and 
that shall not yet have a sabbath of rest. There is not a laborer 
in the workshop, nor a toiling man in the post-office, nor a clerk 
in the counting-house, that may not claim the sabbath. Next to 
God's word, God's sabbath is the right and privilege of man. 
And when that last sabbath comes — the sabbath of all creation 
— the heart, wearied with its tumultuous beatings, shall have 
rest ; the soul, fevered with its anxieties, shall enjoy peace. 
The sun of that sabbath will never set, or veil his splendors in 
a cloud. The flowers that grow in his light will never fade. 
Our earthly sabbaths are but faint reflections of the heavenly 
sabbath, cast down upon the earth, dimmed by the transit of 
their rays from so great a height and so distant a world. The 
fairest landscapes, or combinations of scenery, upon earth, are 
but the outskirts of the paradise of God, fore-earnests and inti- 
mations of that which lies beyond them ; and the happiest 
sabbath-heart, whose every pulse is a sabbath-bell, hears but a 
very inadequate echo of the chimes and harmonies of that 
sabbath, that rest, where we " rest not day and night," in which 
the song is ever new, and yet ever sung. 



Death from Eating Cloves. — Mr Amos Brown, an esteemed 
citizen of our village, says the Granville Advocate, died in convul- 
sions, and a subsequent post-mortem examination showed con- 
clusively that his death was caused by eating cloves, which he 
had been in the habit of using as a substitute for tobacco. 



138 Hall's Journal of Health. 

COUGHING IN CONSUMPTION. 

A gentleman called upon us recently, who actuaily escaped 
from the fangs of consumption some years ago ; and we are 
induced to present the circumstances. 

" You speak of coughing continually. Let me suggest to you 
the query, whether this is not unnecessary and injurious ? I 
have long been satisfied, from experience and observation, that 
much of the coughing, which precedes and attends consumption 
is voluntary. Several years ago, I boarded with a man who 
was in the incipient stages of consumption. I slept in a chamber 
over his bed-room, and was obliged to hear him cough continually 
and distressingly. I endured the annoyance, night after night, 
till it led me to reflect whether something could not be done 
to stop it. I watched the sound which the man made, and ob- 
served that he evidently made a voluntary effort to cough. 
After this I made several experiments t>n myself, and found that 
I could prevent myself from coughing, sneezing, gaping, &c., in 
case of the strongest propensity to these acts, by a strenuous 
effort of the will. Then I reflected that coughing must be very 
irritating and injurious to the delicate organs that are concerned 
in it, especially when they are in a diseased state. What can 
be worse for ulcered bronchia, or lungs, than the violent 
wrenching of a cough ? It must be worse than speaking. A 
sore on any part of the body, if it is constantly kept open by 
violent usage, or made raw again by a contusion just when it is 
healing (and of course begins to itch) will grow worse, and end 
in death. Certainly, then, a sore on the lungs may be expected 
to terminate fatally, if it is constantly irritated, and never suffered 
to heal ; and this, it seems to me, is just what coughing does for 
it. On the strength of such considerations as these, I made bold 
to ask the man if he could not stop coughing. He answered, 
no. I told him what I thought about it, as above. He agreed 
to make a trial ; and on doing so, he found to his surprise that 
he could suppress his cough almost entirely. The power of 
the will over it increased as he exercised it, and in a few days 
he was mostly rid of the disposition to cough. His health, at 
the same time, evidently improved, and when I last saw him, 
he was in strong hopes of getting out of death's hands." 



Coffee and Tea. 139 

This occurred eighteen years ago, and the man comes round 

now, an active business man, averring that he has not had a 
sick day since. — Exchange Paper. 



COFFEE AND TEA. 



In the January number, the moderate use of coffee and tea 
was advocated as healthful at regular meals, more so to invalids 
than cold water. In Blackwood's Magazine, for the same month, 
is an interesting paper, from which we learn that black and green 
tea are prepared from the same species of plant; the difference 
in color and in effects are produced by the modes of handling. 
For green tea, the leaves are roasted almost immediately after 
they are gathered. They are dried off quickly after the rolling 
process. For black tea they are allowed to be spread out in the 
air for some time after they are gathered. They are then 
further tossed about till they become soft and flaccid. They are 
now roasted for a few minutes and rolled, after which they are 
exposed to the air for some hours in a soft and moist state. 
Lastly, they are dried slowly over charcoal fires. The colored 
green teas are made by mixing Prussian blue and gypsum, and 
reducing them to a fine powder, which is applied to the teas 
during the process of wasting. The Chinese never drink these 
teas, and are much amused with the idea that the " outside 
barbarians" should prefer them to those of a natural green 
The best coffee grows on the driest soils. Yet the worst coffee, 
if kept ten or fourteen years, will acquire the flavor of the finest 
Mocha. The principal art in preparing coffee lies in roasting ; 
for in this process it is that its peculiar aroma is produced. The 
heat should never be greater than is sufficient to impart to the 
berry a light brown color ; for if carried beyond this point a 
disagreeable secondary smell mingles with the aroma. By the 
fashionable process of drinking coffee, that is, without the 
grounds, a good deal of nutritious matter is wasted, Many of 
the Oriental nations drink the grounds invariably. Not less 
than a hundred millions of the human race drink coffee, it is 
computed, as a daily beverage. In France, Germany, Sweden, 
Turkey, and a large portion of the United States, it is used by 
almost every body, just as tea is in England, Holland, Russia, 
and China. Experience, says the writer in Blackwood, teaches 



140 Halls Journal of Health. 

people that tea and coffee, used moderately, prevent the waste 
of the tissues, afford positive happiness, and increase the 
nervous activity, enabling' men, as the writer in question, 
forcibly remarks, to throw more blood and spirit in the face of 
difficulties. 



CARELESSNESS. 

If you want to travel through the world in a quiet, contented 
way, don't get careless in any respect. Man, in every phase of 
life, is particularly given to carelessness. If he is on the high 
road to wealth and station, he becomes careless of those who 
perhaps were the very means of his good fortune. On the other 
hand, if he is unfortunate in business he loses his self-respect, 
and rushes to the dram shop or gaming table. 

Whatever position a man finds himself placed in, whether by 
accident, fortunate speculation, or persevering industry, he should 
always retain that command over himself that will entitle him to 
the good will of old as well as new friends. If a man rises from 
comparative obscurity to some degree of eminence of any kind, 
and with no intention to offend, but carelessly notices an old 
friend if he meet him, he is very likely to get the ill-will of his 
more humble but old associate. The first time this careless 
recognition is noticed it produces a bad effect, and the next dis- 
like, and finally hatred and contempt. We have known some 
of the very best friends in the world completely estranged by a 
wrong interpretation of acts towards each other. 

It is a common belief that as a man advances in the world he 
is desirous of cutting those who do not gain so rapidly as him- 
self. This is an error, no doubt, in many instances, and the 
remedy is one of the easiest things in the world. A little of the 
starch out of the one, and the slightest liberal feeling on the 
other, will be found to be a true panacea for nine-tenths of the 
imaginary shys which lead to the entire separation of old friends, 
and even goes so far sometimes as to produce bad feelings 
among relatives. 

We shall end this brief article on carelessness by repeating the 
advice with which we begun. If you want to travel through 
the world in a quiet contented way, don't get careless in any 
respect. Be free with your friends as though no change affected 
your condition in life, let that condition have changed ever so 
much, be it for better or worse. — Yonkers Herald. 



Kindness the Best Punishment. 141 



KINDNESS THE BEST PUNISHMENT. 

A Quaker of most exemplary character, having been dis- 
turbed one night by footsteps around his dwelling, rose from his 
bed, and cautiously opened a back door to reconnoitre. Close 
by was an outhouse, and under it a cellar, near a window of 
which was a man busily engaged in receiving the contents of 
his pork barrel from another within the cellar. The old man ap- 
proached, and the man outside fled. He stepped up to the cellar 
window and received the pieces of pork from the thief within, 
who, after a little while, asked his supposed accomplice, in a whis- 
per, " Shall we take it all ?" The owner of the pork said softly, 
" Yes, take it all ;" and the thief industriously handed up the 
balance through the window, and then came up himself. 
Imagine his consternation, when, instead of greeting his com- 
panion in crime, he was confronted by the Quaker. Both were 
astonished ; for the thief proved to be a near neighbor, of whom 
none would have suspected such conduct. He pleaded for 
mercy, begged him not to expose him, spoke of the necessities 
of poverty, and promised faithfully never to steal again. " If 
thou hadst asked me for the meat," said the old man, " it would 
have been given thee. I pity thy poverty, and thy Weakness, 
and esteem thy family. Thou art forgiven." The thief was 
greatly rejoiced, and was about to depart, when the old man 
said, " Take the pork, neighbor." " No, no," said the thief, " I 
don't want the pork." " Thy necessity was so great that it led 
thee to steal. One-half of the pork thou must take with thee." 
The thief insisted that he could never eat a morsel of it. The 
thoughts of the crime would make it choke him. He begged 
the privilege of letting it alone. But the old man was inflexible, 
and, furnishing the man with a bag, had half the pork put there- 
in, and laying it upon his back, sent him home with it. He met 
his neighbor daily for many years afterwards, and their families 
visited together, but the matter was kept secret ; and though 
in after years the circumstance was mentioned, the name of the 
delinquent was never made known. The punishment was 
severe and effectual. It was probably his first — it was cer- 
tainly his last attempt to steal. Had the man been arraigned 
before a court of justice, and imprisoned for the petty theft, 



142 Hall's Journal of Health , 

how different might have been the result ! His family disgraced; 
their peace destroyed, the man's character ruined, and his spirit 
broken. Revenge, not penitence, would have swayed his heart. 
The scorn of the world would have blackened his future, and in 
all probability he would have commenced a course of crime 
at which, when the first offence was committed, his soul would 
have shuddered. And what would the owner of the pork have 
gained ? Absolutely nothing. Kindness was the best punish- 
ment, for it saved while it punished. 



Grass in Rum. — An old fellow in Missouri, who was in the 
habit of " not belonging to the Temperance Society," was in the 
act of taking a nip one day before a young Virginian. 

" What do you drink?" asked the latter. 

" Brandy and water," was the reply. 

" Why don't you drink mint juleps?" 

"Mint juleps?" queried the old man, "why, what in the 
name of drink is that ?" 

" A most delicious drink," was the answer ; " and I'll show 
you how to make it, as I see you have mint growing almost at 
your door." 

The young fellow soon produced the juleps, and the old man 
was delighted with it. 

About a month after, on his return home, the Virginian thought 
he would stop at his old friend's and " indulge," but judge of 
his surprise when his inquiries at the door for his friend was 
answered by an aged female darkey, with : 

"Oh, Massa's dead and gone dis two weeks!" 

"Dead!" exclaimed the young man, "why, how strange! 
What did he die of ? " 

"Oh, I d'no," returned the woman, "only a fellow come 
along about a monf ago and larnt him to drink grass in he 
rum, and it killed him in two weeks." 



Love that has nothing but beauty to keep it in good health, is 
short-lived, and apt to have ague fits. 

The parent who would train up a child in the way he should 
go, must go in the way he would train up his child 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



VOL. L] JULY, 1854. [NO. VII. 

ANNUAL AILMENTS. 

Some persons are sick once a year. In some cases, the regu- 
larity is such, that on the very same day of each returning year, 
their " o!d enemy" makes his unwelcome appearance. These 
ailments are various ; with some, it is an attack of sick head- 
ache ; others have an entire loss of appetite ; a third person has 
some kind of an eruption. Regular annual returns of " bilious- 
ness" are very common ; a sore leg, a chronic head- ache, or 
bleeding from the nose or lungs, afflict others. One man has a 
yearly " sneezing spell," another a most uncomfortable watering 
of the eyes or nose, while the great mass of people have " The 
Spring Fever," which was a familiar by-word in our school- 
boy days, and was a covert way of telling one that he was lazy ; 
for while there was no decided sickness, no special ailment, yet 
there was such a vis inertia, such a power of doing nothing, 
that an epithet of some kind was needed. On the approach of 
warm weather, in the month of April, and more decidedly so in 
May, we are all sensible of a want of usual vigor ; an indefi- 
nable languor pervades the whole man, mind and body ; when 
we sit down, we feel like staying there ; it is really an effort to 
undertake anything; we drag ourselves along to necessary work; 
and as for getting up in the morning, we are never ready to do 
it. We wake soon enough, especially when there is some 
little yearling to crawl over and manipulate the nose, or explore 
the eye with a straight finger suddenly converted into a hook, 
and then drawn out with infinite glee ; no gesture, or growl, or 
impatient turning over, frightens away the little fisherman ; in 
fact he rather likes it; it is real fun to him: then incontinently 
he makes a grab at Proboscis with his soft, warm, tiny hand, 
and misses it just enough to let two or three sharp finger-nails 

" make their mark" for an inch or so in parallel lines ; at length 

13 



146 Hairs Journal of Health. 

the corner of one unwilling eye is opened with the express pur- 
pose of seeing in what direction you must send your frown, when 
you find two of the sweetest little peepers playing upon you so 
confiding, so loving, so twinkling with gleesomeness, that, pres- 
sing the tiny tormentor to your bosom, you smother him with 
kisses, and are fairly waked up. This is the sweetest alarm- 
clock in all nature, and the most effectual. As regular as the 
dawn, too, while it practises — a perseverance worthy of a better 
cause* — than breaking up a summer morning's nap. 

We began this journal with the fixed purpose, at least, until 
we changed our notion, never to admit to its pages a single 
medicinal recipe. But, inasmuch as there is such a large class 
of persons who ,( can't wake up" early in the morning, we are 
tempted by the hope of accomplishing a great good, to give the 
following formula : — 

AN INFALLIBLE PREVENTIVE OF LATE SLEEPING. 

Take a year old baby — your own is the best — place it in your 
bed every evening at sixty-one minutes after sun-down, precisely, 
and retire regularly yourself four hours after. 

This is immeasurely superior to any alarm-clock ever con- 
structed, for the clock has no second, if the first fails, while the 
baby keeps on alarming, until the waking-up is perfect and com- 
plete, and a relapse for that day is impossible. 

Perhaps the reader may remember that we were speaking of 
the " Spring Fever," that universal lassitude which makes us 
mere automata at the departure of cold weather. But this is 
not the only symptom ; the appetite begins to flag, our meals 
come before we are ready for them, and we sit down to them 
unwillingly ; if we enjoy the bliss of boarding, we begin to com- 
plain of the landlady, or lord, as the case may be, and grumble 
threats of making a change; that the table is not as good as it 
used to be, and the old saw about " new brooms," and their per- 
formances, refreshes our memories ; at length, things begin to 
take a serious turn ; our clothing does not fit, it hangs like a bag ; 
and to quench uncertainty we get on one of Fairbanks best, 
and find that we have lost in two months about " seven per cent," 
and pronouncing it a " ruinous rate," we promptly resolve, and 
with a good deal of determination, too, that we must " do some- 
thing." In this case, the first resolutions are the best, but as we 



Annual Ailments. 147 

think it over, we come to the conclusion that it would be better 
to take something, and as the calling in of a physician endangers 
our largest liberty, and he might impose restrictions which might 
not be agreeable, we resolve upon a patent medicine, and if not 
sooner advised, or, if having no choice ourselves, we are at a 
loss to determine what is best, we very wisely go to a druggist 
and ask him if he has not something that will do us good ; of 
course he has, having at least half a dollar clear interest in every 
bottle he sells ; or it may be, we see an advertisement in one of 
the papers, reading like the following: — 

"Certificate" — A Model of its Kind. 

Dear Doctor : 

I will be one hundred and seventy-five years 
old next October. For ninety-four years 1 have been an invalid, 
unable to move except when stirred with a lever ; but a year 
ago last Thursday, I heard of the Granicular Syrup. I bought 
a bottle, smelt oi the cork, and found myself a new man. I can 
now run twelve and a-half miles an hour, and throw nineteen 
double somersets without stopping. 

P. S. — A little of your Alicumstoutum Salve applied to a 
wooden leg, reduced a compound fracture in nineteen minutes, 
and is now covering the limb with a fresh cuticle of white gum 
pine bark. 

We go at once to the "Patent Medicine Depot," and ask the 
shopman if the a Granicular" and "Alicumstoutum" are really 
good, he assures us that according to his best interest and belief, 
they have cured persons "a great deal worse off" than we are; 
so to make assurance doubly sure, we purchase a bottle of each, 
and take a dose of both thrice a day, on the principle that if one 
medicine cures everything, two medicines will cure all, and more 
too, and we will not only get well of our present ailments, but 
all that are to come. Thus it is, the patent medicine men live 
in up-town palaces, have their beautiful villas on the banks of 
the Hudson, build splendid stores on Broadway, and drive in un- 
exceptionable equipages ; and to make all these go in the same 
direction as their physic, they head subscription lists, especially 
the published ones, with their hundreds and their thousands — 
meanwhile we. their victims, go down to our graves, unsuspect- 
ing why or how. 



148 Hall's Journal of Health. 

This brings us to our second reminder of " Spring Fever/' 
or rather its termination. We will now take the back track, 
and discourse of its cause, its cure, and its prevention. Reader! 
it will save you many a sorrow, many a dollar, and may-be, many 
a day of glorious life, if you will take heed to our utterance. 

We eat about one-third more in winter than in summer, 
because we not only have to repair the wear and waste of the 
system, but we eat to keep the body warm, a portion of the food 
is converted into fuel ; we must keep a bodily warmth of ninety 
or a hundred degrees winter and summer, but it is easy to under- 
stand, that, as the thermometer is at forty in winter and eighty 
in summer, less fuel is required to sustain the natural tempera- 
ture in warm weather ; yet, if in defiance of this, we pile on 
the fuel ; a wreck and ruin is as inevitable as the blowing up of 
a steam engine, if double the necessary quantity of steam is 
constantly generated. 

For a while after the opening of spring, we have the appetite 
of winter, and not using our knowledge, we indulge it as exten- 
sively ; and thus generating more heat than is needed, we soon 
begin to think " we are feverish," in other words, we are too 
warm, but instead of making less fire, we begin to tear down the 
walls of our bodily-house, by taking ofF our winter clothing, and 
thus add another cause of disease and death. In a short time, 
however, nature comes to our aid, and to save us, takes away 
our appetite ; but we, taking this as an evidence of declining 
health, decide upon one of two things : either to eat without an 
appetite — which is expressively denominated as ll forcing it 
down" — or we decide upon taking a tonic, forgetting that nature 
can neither be forced nor coaxed with impunity. The effect of 
eating without an appetite, or forcing an appetite by the use of 
tonics, is the same, that is, the introduction of more food into 
the stomach than nature requires, than there is juices to digest it ; 
for, although you may take a tonic which whets the appetite, it 
does no more ; it does not increase the amount of gastric juice, 
for nature supplies it only in proportion to the needs of the sys- 
tem, and if she gave as much when twenty degrees of heat 
were required as when sixty were necessary, she would commit 
a great blunder — this she never does, when unmolested. Then 
we have more food in the stomach than there are gastric juice 
for ; more wheat than there are mills to grind it, more work 



Annual Ailments. 149 

than there are workmen to perform. But nature has not " a lazy 
bone in her," but goes to work to do the best she can ; the food 
is digested, but not thoroughly ; it is ground up, but not perfectly; 
the work is done, but it is badly done; hence an imperfect ma- 
terial for making blood is furnished; and an impure blood, an 
imperfect blood, is inevitable. Do not many of us recollect the 
old time custom of taking " sassafras" tea in spring, or some 
other favorite remedy, with the expressed intention of "purifying 
the blood ?" It is a habit with multitudes to use some kind of 
medicine in the spring of the year, and beyond all question with 
present good effect, as they all act in one way essentially, and 
that is, to remove the surplus from the system. It all amounts 
to this : we eat in the spring more than we can dispose of, and 
then take medicine to get rid of it, and all for the transient 
pleasure enjoyed for the few minutes of each day that it is 
passing down the throat. But some are "principled," as they 
term it, against taking physic ; but they are not " principled'* 
against the greater harm of eating against the appetite, for by 
taking the physic they would be consuming something which 
might destroy others ; whereas, by eating a meal without an ap- 
petite, they consume — and that to their own injury — that which 
would save many a famishing creature, man or beast, from 
starvation. None can read without disgust of a Roman Ruler, 
who would eat to his full, then take an emetic, that he might eat 
again, or be saved from the effects of a gorge. Even this person 
acted more wisely than does he who eats without an appetite, 
and allows it to remain in him to vitiate the blood and finally 
destroy the body, but in the slow process of destruction, afford- 
ing time to transmit to the innocent unborn, a vitiated constitu- 
tion, to afflict and plague for untold years to come. If the man 
could but die in the act, as it were, the world would be left the 
better, for there would be more left to be eaten by the more 
worthy, and he would not leave his slimy trail behind him, in the 
person of a child. If he is said to be a real benefactor to his 
race who makes two blades of grass grow where but one grew 
before, what ought he to be thought of, who absolutely destroys 
food each day by forcing it down, which it would take a million 
blades of grass to reproduce ? Reader ! do you plead guilty to 
having eaten without an appetite, to having "forced it down ?" 



150 Hall's Journal of Health. 

then do it no more, for it is a sin against yourself, against nature, 
and against all human kind. 

We are all familiar with the prevalence of bowel-complaints 
of all kinds, in the spring of the year, and of their fatal nature, 
sometimes spreading from house to house, from family to family, 
from neighborhood to neighborhood, like some infectious or con- 
tagious disease, and often, but most erroneously, attributed to the 
use of fruits, berries, and the like ; the cause is one and uni- 
versal : it is over eating, with its legitimate results, sour stomach, 
wind, loose bowels, debility, diarrhoea, dysentery, and death. 
Thus it is, that the more sudden the coming on of spring weather, 
and the hotter it is, the more sickness there will be, while in the 
fall of the year, as the weather gets colder, and however sud- 
denly, we begin at once to gain in appetite, in vigor, in flesh 
and health. 

The remedy for spring diseases, by whatever name, is eat 
less. We do not mean that you shall starve yourself, or that 
you shall deny yourself whatever you like best, for as a general 
rule, what you like best, is best for you ; you need not abandon 
the use of tea, or coffee, or meat, or anything else you like, but 
simply eat less of them. Eat all you did in winter, if you like, 
but take less in amount. Do not starve yourself, do not reduce 
the quantity of food to an amount which would scarcely " keep 
a chicken alive," but make a beginning, by not going to the table 
at all, unless you feel hungry ; for if you once get there, you will 
begin to taste this and that and the other, by virtue of vinegar, 
or mustard, or syrup, or cake, or "something nice ; v thus a fic- 
titious appetite is waked up, and before you know it, you have 
eaten a hearty meal, to your own surprise, and perhaps that, or 
something else, of those at table with you. 

The second step towards the effectual prevention of all 
spring diseases, summer-complaints, and the like, is : diminish 
the amount of food consumed at each meal by one-fourth 
of each article, and to be practical, it is necessary to be 
specific ; if you have taken two cups of coffee, or tea, at a 
meal, take a cup and a-half; if you have taken two biscuits, 
or slices of bread, take one and a-half; if you have taken 
two spoonfuls of rice, or hominy, or cracked wheat, or grits, 
or farina, take one and a-half; if you have taken a certain, 
or uncertain quantity of meat, diminish it by a quarter, and 



Annual Ailments 151 

keep on diminishing in proportion as the weather becomes warmer, 
until you arrive at the points of safety and health, and they are 
two : — 

1. Until you have no one unpleasant feeling of any kind after 
your meals. 

2. Until you have not eaten so much at one meal, but that 
when the next comes, you shall feel decidedly hungry. 

If these suggestions are attended to in any community, in any 
spring, the physician in that locality will "book" but twenty-five 
cents in the dollar. Think, for a moment, how beautiful, and 
wise, and kind, is nature's mode of procedure in such cases. 
You may "force" your food for a-while, but at length she goads 
you on until you loathe its very smell or sight, or even mention. 
And when some mistaken mother, or sister, or aunt, or granny, 
prepares you "something nice," and before you are aware of it 
places it right under your nose, with the assurance that you must 
take something to keep up your strength, you can only smother 
your impatience, or hold in your imprecations of left-handed bles- 
sings, at the expense of the most heroic efforts. For days and 
weeks you do nothing but " sit around ;" you eat nothing, you 
loaf and lounge about, more dead than alive, with a countenance 
nineteen yards long, and so unfeignedly solemn to behold, as to 
excite the commiseration of the kind-hearted, or the cachination 
of the healthy. 

Supplies being thus effectually cut off, that is, the cause being 
first removed, nature next proceeds to work off the surplus, as 
the engineer does unwanted steam ; and as soon as this surplus 
is got rid of, we begin to improve ; the appetite, the strength, 
the health return by slow and safe degrees, and we at length de- 
clare we are " as well as ever." 

Now, if instead of eating against nature, we would do at 
once what nature will enevitably compel us to do, sooner or 
later, that is, lessen supplies, at the very first and faintest 
intimation of approaching ill, we would, if done under the coun- 
sel of a regular physician, not lose an hour from our daily avo- 
cations, and would be as well as ever at the end of a week, instead 
of at the end of months, and save, too, all the months of suffering, 
and making them, as to pleasure or business, the blanks of our 
existence. 

But the uninformed and the poor are "not able to lose time," 



152 Hall's Journal of Health. 

they must work for their daily bread, and the day they cease 
their toil, has no bread for wife and children at its close ; thus it 
is that many an honest poor man, and many a widowed mother, 
strive to weather it out, day after day, eating without an appe- 
tite, in the mistaken notion that it keeps up their strength, until 
the system becomes so impregnated with disease, that at last they 
reluctantly "give up," they find " it's no use ;" take to their bed, 
and but too often, not until all the restorative energies of nature 
are gone, and never leave until they make it in the grave. 
It is this vain, this unwise struggle against nature, this doing 
more than they are able, which places many an industrious wife 
and mother in an early grave ; the almost universal excuse is, 
they !' can't help it," there is "so much to be done." But if they 
die, isn't it helped then ? with your children left to grow up in 
neglect, or to be brutalized over by some unprincipled, or selfish, 
or unfeeling, or artful successor ? Mother ! look on your little 
ones, and think of this the next time you commit the sin of doing 
more than you are really able, against the remonstrance of your 
husband, your mother, your physician, and your own judgment. 
According to my observation, there is not much danger of a 
man's overdoing himself. The first thing the lord of creation 
does when he gets " out of kelter" is to go to his wife to be 
" fussed over." A half-and-half sick man is the veriest " co- 
nanny" in existence. Reader, do you know what that is? It 
is the synonym of " poor shoat," in the west ; perhaps a clearer 
idea may be given by the word " calf." A half-and-half sick 
man is a calf, for he makes a great a-do about nothing; he 
whines, and complains and grumbles, and makes you think he is 
very sick, and for a long time he refuses to take anything ; at 
length, by dint of persuasion, he agrees to take what you pro- 
pose, and when you bring it to him, he is out of the notion, and 
says he can't, and thus he lounges about the house for days 
together, whereas his wife, if nothing more had been the matter 
joith her, would have worked it off, and said nothing about it. 



There is a gentleman named Standard, now living, at the age 
of 88, who distinctly remembers hearing the first volley fired in 
the Revolutionary war, at Lexington, on the 19th of April, 1775. 
He was then 9 years old. ; 



The Hours Most Fatal to Life. 153 



THE HOURS MOST FATAL TO LIFE. 

We have ascertained the hours of death in 2,880 instances 
of all ages, and have arrived at interesting conclusions. We 
may remark that the population from which the data are derived 
is a mixed population in every respect, and that the deaths oc- 
curred during a period of several years. If the deaths of 2,880 
persons had occurred indifferently at any hour during the twenty- 
four years, 120 would have occurred at each hour. But this was 
by no means the case. There were two hours in which the pro- 
portion was remarkably below this, two minama in fact — namely, 
from midnight to 1 o'clock, when the deaths were 83 per cent 
below the average, and from noon till 1 o'clock, when they were 
20 3-4 per cent below. From 3 to 6 o'clock, A. M., inclusive, 
and from 3 to 7 o'clock, P. M., there is a gradual increase, in 
the former of 23 1-2 per cent above the average ; in the latter of 
5 1-2 per cent. The maximum of death is from 5 till 6 o'clock, 
A. M., when it is 40 per cent above the average ; the next, 
during the hour before midnight, when it is 25 per cent in excess ; 
a third hour of excess is that from 9 till 10 o'clock, in the 
morning, being 17 1-2 per cent above. From 10 A. M., to 3 
P. M., the deaths are less numerous, being 16 1-2 per cent below 
the average, the hour before noon being the most fatal. From 
3 o'clock, P. M., to 7- P. M., the deaths rise to 5 1-2 per cent 
above the average, and then fall from that hour to 11, P. M., 
averaging 6 1-2 per cent below the mean. During the hours 
from 9 till 11 in the evening there is a minimum of 6 1-2 per 
cent below the average, Thus the least mortality is during the 
mid-day hours — namely, from 10 to 3 o'clock ; the greatest 
during early morning hours, from 3 to 6 o'clock. About one- 
third of the total deaths were children under five years of age, 
and they show the influence of the latter still more strikingly. 
At all hours, from 10 o'clock in the morning until midnight, the 
deaths are at or below the mean; the hours from 10 to 11, A. 
M., from 4 to 5, P. M., and from 9 to 10, P. M., being minima t 
but the hour after midnight being the lowest maximum; at all 
the hours from 2 to 10, A. M., the deaths are above the mean, 
attaining their maximum at from 5 to 6, A. M., when it is 45 
1-2 per cent above. — London Quarterly Review. 



154 Halts Journal of Health. 



THE BATTLE AND THE BURTHENS OF LIFE. 

It is an admitted fact that less than one half of the human 
family have to toil like galley-slaves to support " the rest of man- 
kind" in idleness. Every State is burthened with its almshouses ; 
and every family with its hangers-on, whose only function is to 
eat what others earn — to consume what others produce. They 
are either too weak, or too proud, or too lazy to labor; and con- 
sequently these miserable drones must be supported by the indus- 
trious bees who supply all the honey for the human hive. • 

It is a pity that the stern justice of that good old Bible ordi- 
nance : "He that will not work, neither shall he eat," were not 
more rigorously applied to that innumerable army of Do-No- 
things, who, like the frogs of Egypt, infest all the avenues of 
civilized society. The man who consumes more than he earns 
is guilty of robbery. He who hangs a mere clog upon the social 
state, has no legitimate right to the food he swallows, or to the 
clothes he wears. Every dollar be spends is a fraud upon his 
toiling neighbor; and the sooner he vanishes from existence, and 
gives place to a man with work in him, the better will it be for 
the town, village or hamlet which his good-for-nothing body en- 
cumbers. The idea that a portion of humanity is made of porce- 
lain, and not of common clay — for ornament and not for use, 
may do for the creed of dandies, who saunter through life, bask- 
ing in the social sunshine which they have never helped to create ; 
but it must be scouted by all honest men who get their bread by 
the sweat of their brows, and by lives of honorable toil fulfil the 
fiat of their Creator. 

In this city of half a million of human beings, how large a 
portion dawdle away existence in idleness and sloth; or contrive 
by trading, shaving, gambling, and stealing, to fill their mouths 
and their pockets with the fruits of other men's labors ! To eat, 
sleep, and show themselves ; and to jolt their jaded sensibilities 
into some faint semblance of pleasurable emotions is the grand 
problem of a great majority of those who count in the census, 
but who form no part of the element that " constitutes a State ;" 
while the toiling few are struggling in fields, in marts, in work- 
shops, and on 'change, to produce the wherewithal to satisfy the 
appetites and the ambitions of the lazy, loafing masses. 



Poisonous Visiting Cards. 155 

And is there no relief from this insupportable burden? Will 
society always compel one willing worker to supply the mouths 
of half a dozen idlers? Shall one sturdy fellow always sweat 
at the oar, rowing a whole boat-load of indolent passengers across 
the ferry of Life ? Must one poor man always turn the wheel 
that keeps the social machinery in motion ? — No, not when a 
proper estimate is bestowed upon the dignity of labor — when a 
just reprobation is visited upon the infamy — the crime of idle- 
ness. When society shall take off its hat, and make obeisance 
to the swart workers who feed and clothe it, and point with the 
finger of scorn at the effeminate drones who consume it, then 
toil will be justly honored ; while idleness, pauperism, beggary, 
and crime, in al! their forms, will be crowded into the limbos of 
outer darkness where they belong. — New York Mirror. 



POISONOUS VISITING CARDS. 

Few ladies remember that they carry around poison in their 
card cases. But it is so, and sometimes to the danger of chil- 
dren or thoughtless people of larger growth. The elegant and 
highly polished enamel on visiting cards is composed, in part, of 
poisonous mineral substances, and if eaten would produce serious 
sickness. The manufacture of this card paper is said to be ex- 
ceedingly unhealthy, and we may well believe it. It would be, 
therefore, a kind thing to the workmen engaged in the manufac- 
ture of cards, and a safe thing for themselves and their children, 
if the ladies, who set the fashion to these things, would give up 
the use of enameled cards, and confine themselves to those of 
plain surface. These, we understand, are now decidedly the 
most fashionable, from what cause we know not, but the plain, 
brownish cards are considered the most stylish. It is gratifying 
to see fashions turned in the channels of common sense, of health 
and humanity, even though in a small matter. We hope that 
the knowledge of the dangerous character of these cards will 
not lead to their restoration to the feminine favor and to fashion, 
which is a very fickle thing ; we mean, of course, the fashion, 
not the fair. — Providence Journal. 



156 Hall's Journal of Health. 



STRANGE SUPERSTITION. 

The Norwich (Conn,) Courier relates a strange and almost 
incredible tale of superstition recently enacted at Jewett City, 
in that vicinity. Alfout Six years ago, Horace Ray, of Griswold, 
died of consumption. Since thai time, two of his children, grown 
up people, have died of the same dkease, the last one dying some 
two years since. Not long ago the same fatal disease seized upon 
another son, whereupon it was determined to exhume the bodies 
of the two brothers already dead, and burn them, because the 
dead were supposed to feed upon the living 3 and so long as the 
dead body in the grave remained in a state of decomposition, 
either wholly or in part, the surviving members of the family 
must continue to furnish the sustenance on which fhat. dead body 
fed. Acting under the influence of this strange and blind su- 
perstition, the family and friends of the deceased proceeded to 
the burial ground at Jewett City on the 8th inst., dug up the 
bodies of the deceased brothers, and burned them on the spot. 
It seems impossible to believe that such dark ignorance and folly 
could exist in the middle of the nineteenth century, and in a 
state calling itself enlightened and Christian. — Boston Courier. 



LAYING CARPETS. 



Perhaps eight out of every ten of our readers have expe- 
rienced the annoyance of laying down carpets ; have felt the 
rush of blood to the head — the straining of the nether garments 
—the unpleasant rapping of the tops of fingers instead of the 
tops of the tacks, which that employment is heir to. The 
foreign correspondent of the Newark Advertiser, writing from 
Florence, suggests the basis of a reform which all housekeepers 
will appreciate and desire. " Here," he says, " iron rings are 
fastened in the floors when the carpets are laid, and they have 
hooks in the binding, for which these rings are eyes, so that there 
is no taking out and nailing in of tacks, and carpets are raised 
and laid as noiselessly and easy as bed covers." There are a 
good many people about this time, we imagine, who will approve 
of the hook and eye system for carpets, and the abolition of the 
tack-hammers and bruised fingers. — Troy Whig. 



A Doubtful Witness. 157 



A DOUBTFUL WITNESS. 

Professional engagements required the writer's presence in a 
circuit court which was then in session in oj|e of the villages of 
a midland county of the "Empire State;" and during the term 
an incident occurred, which may be interesting, if not useful to 
those legal gentlemen who are partial to the study of the " laws 
of evidence.' 7 The case tried was one in which a question arose 
as to personal property, claimed to have been sold some time 
previously under an execution, and the plaintiff in the case called 
a witness to establish the fact of the sale. The following "evi- 
dence" was elicited on the cross-examination of the witness : — 

Question by Counsel. " Sir, you say you attended the sale on 
the execution spoken of. Did you keep the minutes of that 
sale?" 

Witness. " Don't know, sir, but I did ; don't recollect whether 
I kept the minutes, or the sheriff, or nobody, I think it was one 
of us." 

Counsel. " Well, sir, will you tell me what articles were sold 
at the execution ?" 

[Here the witness hesitated, not willing to commit himself by 
going into particulars, until the patience of the counsel became 
exhausted, and he pressed a special interrogatory.] 

Counsel. " Did you on that occasion sell a threshing-ma- 
chine?" 

Witness. " Yes, I think we did." 

Counsel. " I wish you to be positive. Are you sure of it ?" 

Witness. "Can't say I am sure of it; and when I come to 
think of it, 1 don't know as we did ; think we didn't." 

Counsel. " Will you swear, then, that you did not sell one ?" 

Witness. <{ No, sir; don't think I would; for I can't say 
whether we did or didn't." 

Counsel " Did you sell a horse-power ?" 

Witness. " Horse-power ?" 

Counsel. " Yes, horse-power ?" 

Witness. " Horse-power ! Well, it seems to me we did. And 
it seems to me we didn't. I don't know as I can recollect 
whether I remember there was any horse-power there ; and if 
there wasn't any there, I can't say whether we sold it or not, but 



158 Hall's Journal of Health. 

I don't think we did ; though it may be, perhaps, that we did % 
after all. It's some time ago, and I don't like to say certainly. 7 ' 

Counsel. " Well, perhaps you can tell me this ; did you sell a 
fanning-mill ?'' 

Witness. " Yes, ^r, we sold a fanning-mill. I guess I am sure 
of that." 

Counsel. " Well, you swear to that, do you ? — that one thing, 
though I don't see it on the list." 

Witness. "Why, I may. be mistaken about it; perhaps 1 am. 
It may be it was somebody else's fanning-mill at some other time > 
not sure." 

Counsel, (to the Court.) " I should like to know, may it please 
the Court, what this witness does know, and what he is sure 
of." 

Witness, (to Counsel.) " Well, sir, I know one thing that I'm 
sure of; and that is, that on that sale we sold either a threshing- 
machine, or a horse-power, or a fanning-mill, or one, or all, or 
neither of them, but don't know which !" 



Degeneracy of the First Families of Virginia. — A Rev. 
Charles Brookes submitted a paper to the American Statistical 
Association upon the effect of intermarriage between blood rela- 
tions. In the course of it he stated "some of the 'first families 7 
of Virginia have degenerated to a painful extent, on account of 
the repeated intermarriages of the members, in their attempts to 
keep the property in the family. Some of the ' best blood' has 
thus so degenerated, that those who now represent it are dwarfs 
in more than a single sense/' 



A Mr. Edmonson, in McCraken County, Ky., last week, on 
setting down to breakfast, discovered the biscuit on the table of 
an unusual color ; he called his cook and required her to eat one 
of them, which she did very reluctantly, and died in fifteen 
minutes afterwards from the effects of the poison she intended 
for her master and mistress. 



Clergymen in Pennsylvania. — The census of 1850, shows 
that in Pennsylvania there is one clergyman to every 850 ; one 
lawyer to every 924 ; and one physician to every 528 inhabitants. 



Ever Youthful T aimer ston — Deafness. 159 

How to be a Man. — When Carlysle was asked by a yuung 
person to point out what course of reading he thought best to 
make him a man, replied, in his characteristic manner. The 
letter is too long — we quote only the concluding paragraph : — 
" In conclusion, I will remind you that it is not books alone, or 
by books chiefly, does a man become in all points a man. 
Study to do faithfully whatsoever thing in your actual situation, 
then and how, you find either expressly or tacitly laid down to 
your charge — that is your post — stand in it like a true soldier. 
Silently devour the many chagrins of it, as all situations have 
many, and see you aim not to quit it without doing all that it at 
least required of you. A man perfects himself by work much 
more than by reading. There are a growing kind of men that 
can wisely combine the two things — wisely, valiantly, can do 
what is laid to their hand in the present sphere, and prepare 
themselves withal for doing other wider things, if such lie before 
them." — Carlisle. 



Ever Youthful Palmerston. — Unlike almost any other man 
in the world he doesn't get fat, and he doesn't get thin ; he 
doesn't stoop; he doesn't totter; he doesn't use a stick, nor a 
wig, nor a list shoe, nor a top-coat ; nor does he look as if he 
ever could, would, or should do anything of the kind. See him in 
what weather you will, you always find him in the same tem- 
perature, always equable, always serene, yet always genial. 
Hail, rain, or snow, out of doors, it is always sunshine with him. 
In the dog-days or in December, other men come into the House 
either panting like so many semi-calcined sugar-bakers, or 
shivering like recently submerged skaters dragged out of the 
Serpentine by the barbarians of the Humane Society. But be 
4 he thermometer at 99° of Fahrenheit or 0^ of Reaumer, Pal- 
merston is corporeally never either hot or cold, and mentally his 
medium is seemingly ever the same. Not like the smooth 
reserve, the decorous self-possession of Gladstone or of Sydney 
Herbert, which, if it never ruffles, yet never animates. At ease 
with himself he puts every one around him at ease too. — Liver- 
pool Albion. 

Deafness. — The Perthshire Advertiser reports a recently 
discovered mode of conversing with those afflicted with partia 
deafness, viz., by taking the individual by the hand, at the same 



160 HalVs Journal of Health. 

time placing the two thumbs together. By this simple process, 
the sound is conveyed in a more direct manner to the ear, and 
the person spoken to will hear distinctly in a tone of voice 
several notes lower. It is also important to add, that a chain 
could be formed up^n the same principle, by a number joining 
hands in the manner alluded to, when the individual affected 
will hear in a moderate key at either end of the chain. 



Peruvian Bathing. — I took a stroll along the beach, and was 
much amused at witnessing the singular mode adopted by the 
ladies for the enjoyment of a water excursion. The bathing- 
men are Indians, very stout and robust ; who, being divested of 
every species of covering except a pair of drawers, take to the 
water, each carrying a lady upon his shoulders. The men 
strike out to swim, and do so without inconveniencing the ladies, 
who float horizontally on the surface of the water. In this way 
they are carried a mile or more, and appear to enjoy this novel 
mode of locomotion extremely. — Bonellis Travels in Bolivia. 



Sewage Saved. — A project, which gives every promise of suc- 
cess, is about to be tried in Glasgow, by which a very valuable 
portable solid manure will be extracted from the sewage of that 
city, which, it is estimated, may be sold, with a large profit to 
the company, at £2 a ton. Whenever this can be accomplished, 
the waste of our great cities will supersede the use of guano, 
and that now valuable commodity will at once cease to be 
worth the expense of carriage from Peru ; while by having the 
sewage soil removed as rapidly as it accumulates, one of the 
main causes of city disease, will be at once removed. 



In woman, the disjunction of knowledge from thought, is 
especially strange and displeasing. I have known a woman of 
this kind from my earliest youth; and I have watched her 
through every period of her life. She is well acquainted with 
the dead, and with most living languages ; is free from all vanity 
and affectation ; never allows her studies to interfere with any 
domestic duty ; yet her learning does not make her an interest- 
ing person. Though she has read the best, as well as the most 
difficult authors of all nations, she never writes a letter that 
gives one any extraordinary pleasure. — W* Humboldt. 



Governing Children, 161 



GOVERNING CHILDREN. 

We have known religious parents who purposely checked, and 
crossed, and disappointed their children, as a system of home 
education, in order, as they alleged, to break the natural will, 
and thus make it easier for them in after life, to deny self and 
practice virtue. When we see such a course pursued, we think 
of the child's remark, when asked why a certain tree grew 
crooked — " Somebody trod upon it, I suppose, when it was a 
little fellow." 

Childhood needs direction and culture more than repression. 
There is a volume of sound truth in these lines : — 

" He who checks a child with terror, 

Stops its play and stills its song-, 
Not alone commits an error, 

But a great and moral wrong. 

" Give it play and never fear it, 

Active life is no defect ; 
Never, never break its spirit, 

Curb it only to direct. 

" Would you stop the flowing river, 

Thinking it would cease to flow ? 
Onward it must flow forever ; 

Better teach it where to go." 

Home Gazette. 



A Large Prize Offered. — The United States Department 
of State has published a letter from that indefatigable French- 
man, Mr. Vattemare, addressed to John Y. Mason, which the 
latter gentleman transmitted to Secretary Marcy, accompanied 
with a letter from himself. Mr. Vattemare, by his will, leaves 
$100,000 to any person who discovers the "means of curing 
Asiatic Cholera, or of the cause of the pestilence. " To give 
publicity to the fact, the publication has been made. The power 
of awarding the prize has been conferred on the Institute of 
France, and the interest of it 4 until it has been awarded, is to 
constitute an annual prize, to be given to those who advance the 
knowledge of the cause of Cholera and its remedy. 



162 HalVs Journal of Health. 



THE HARDEST MODE TO DIE. 

To be shot dead is one of the easiest modes of terminating 
life ; yet, rapid as it is, the body has leisure to feel and reflect. 
On the first attempt by one of the frantic adherents of Spain, to 
assassinate William, Prince of Orange, who took the lead in the 
revolt of the Netherlands, the ball passed through the bones ot' 
the face and brought him to the ground. In the instant that 
preceded stupefaction, he was able to frame the notion that the 
ceiling of the room had fallen and crushed him. 

The cannon shot which plunged into the brain of Charles XII., 
did not prevent him from seizing his sword by the hilt. The 
idea of an attack, and the necessity for defence, was pressed on 
him by a blow which we should have supposed too tremendous 
to leave an interval for thought. But it by no means follows 
that the inflicting of fatal violence is accomplished by a pang. 
From what is known of the first effect of gun-shot wounds, it is 
probable that the impression is rather stunning than acute. 
Unless death be immediate, the pain is as varied as the nature 
of the injuries, and these are past counting up. 

But there is nothing singular in the dying sensation, though 
Lord Byron remarked the physiological peculiarity that the 
expression is invariably that of languor; while in death from a 
stab, the countenance reflects the traits of natural character, of 
gentleness or ferocity, to the last breath. 

Some of these cases are of interest to show with what slight 
disturbance life may go under a mortal wound, till it finally 
comes to a sudden stop. A foot soldier at Waterloo, pierced by 
a musket ball in the hip, begged water of a trooper, who chanced 
to possess a canteen of beer. The wounded man drank, returned 
his heartiest thanks, mentioned that his regiment was nearly 
exterminated, and having proceeded a dozen yards on his way 
to the rear, fell to the earth, and with one convulsive movement 
of his limbs, concluded his career. " Yet his voice," says the 
trooper, who himself tells the story, " gave scarcely the smallest 
sign of weakness." 

Captain Basil Hall, who, in his early youth, was present at 
the battle of Corunna, has singled out, from the confusion which 
consigns to oblivion the woes and gallantry of war, anothei 



Earth and Mind Culture. 163 

instance, extremely similar, which occurred on that occasion. 
An old officer, who was shot in the head, arrived pale and faint 
at the temporary hospital, and begged the surgeon to look at his 
wound, which was pronounced mortal. " Indeed, I feared so," 
he responded, with impeded utterance, " and yet I should like to 
live a little longer were it possible." He laid his sword upon a 
stone, at his side, " as gently/' says Hall, ll as if its steel had been 
turned to glass, and almost immediately sank dead upon the 
turf." — Quarterly Review. 



EARTH AND MIND CULTURE. 

Among our monthly exchanges, we look with especial interest 
for the Horticultural Review and Botanical Gazette, of Cincin- 
nati, and the Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural 
Taste, published at Rochester, New York. These publications, 
of fifty octavo pages a month, are furnished at the very low rate 
of two dollars a year, to clubs of five persons and to clergymen. 
It would be among the grandest consummations, if these and 
similar publications could be made to take the place of the 
wishy-washy love-sick monthlies, which count their circulation 
by scores of thousands, polluting the hearts of our sons and our 
daughters, tainting their memories, corrupting their imaginations, 
falsifying their ideas of natural life, planting and nourishing im- 
practicable and vain ambitions, vitiating the morals, wasting the 
time, perverting the affections and sympathies of our nature, and 
undermining the health. These are the legitimate, the necessary, 
the universal tendencies of novel reading, more especially of the 
kind found in the fashion-plate monthlies established five or six 
or more years ago ; and yet these monthlies are regularly noticed 
and whitewashed by religious newspapers, with here and there 
an independent exception, as the Louisville Presbyterian Herald, 
The New York Observer, and other standard papers. How 
can a Christian parent allow such poisons to lie on his centre 
table by the side of the family Bible from one year's end to 
another! How can the gentleman and the scholar allow these 
publications to be handled by his children, when he must know 
that they give false ideas of life, as it is, and impart an exagger- 
ation of style to the young mind which give the impress ot 
" snob" for the remainder of life ! You can tell the readers ol 



164 Hall's Journal of Health. 

these publications in five minutes' conversation, yes, in their first 
utterances — everything is " awful," " excruciating," " horrid," 
"splendid," "most magnificent." Each sight, or incident, or 
transaction, exceeds in the pleasurable or disagreeable anything 
they had " ever seen in their life before." — The truly refined, the 
truly aristocratic, the truly knowing, do not use these sweeping 
expletives, they know too much, their observation and experience 
has been too large, and their taste and judgment, and presence 
of mind, and reverence for truth forbid these wild exaggerations. 

If, then, the established fashion-plate monthlies were banished 
from our houses, and publications on the cultivation of gardens, 
fruits, flowers, and various plants, were to take their place, and 
some means were employed at first to get our children interested 
in such things, a field of investigation would soon open to their 
view as beautiful and boundless as the universe, interesting, hap- 
pyfying. and enchanting in every step of progress. 

The cultivation of a single flower, on a surface of a foot 
square in a New York city back yard would, with proper 
guidance, give a more practical insight of botany, chemistry 
and geology, than is obtained in a whole course of four years' 
study in one of the " boarding schools" of the time, or rather 
" skinning schools," as applied to the parent's pocket, and "ruin- 
ation schools" as applied to the pupil, as far as the habits of 
mind, body and health are concerned, as well as to the utilities 
of actual, practical life. I do not mean the fancy or amateur 
culture which the June Knickerbocker describes when 

MR. AND MRS. SPARROWGRASS RETIRE FROM THE CITY TO 
ENJOY RURAL LIFE. 

" When Mrs. Sparrowgrass and I moved into the country, 
with our heads full of fresh butter, and cool, crisp radishes for 
tea; with ideas entirely lucid respecting milk, and a looseness 
of calculation as to the number in family it would take a good 
laying hen to supply with fresh eggs every morning ; when Mrs. 
Sparrowgrass and I moved into the country, we found some 
preconceived notions had to be abandoned, and some departures 
made from the plans we had laid down in the little back-parlor 
in avenue G. 

"One of the first achievements in the country is early rising ! 
with the lark — with the sun — while the dew is on the grass, 



Earth and Mind Culture, 165 

'under the opening eyelids of the morn,' and so forth. Early 
rising! What can be done with five or six o'clock in town? 
What may not be done a.t those hours in the country? With 
the hoe, the rake, the dibble, the watering-pot ? To plant, prune, 
drill, transplant, graft, train and sprinkle ! Mrs. S. and I agreed 
to rise early in the country — 

" * Richard and Robin were two pretty men, 
They laid in the bed till the clock struck ten : 
Up jumped Richard and looked at the sky : 
O Brother Robin the sun's very high !' 

Early rising in the country is not an instinct ; it is a sentiment, 
and must be cultivated. 

" A friend recommended me to send to the south side of Long 
Island for some very prolific potatoes — the real hippopotamus 
breed. Down went my man, and what with expenses of horse- 
hire, tavern bills, toll-gates, and breaking a wagon, the hippopo- 
tami cost as much as pine-apples. They were fine potatoes 
though, with comely features, and large, languishing eyes, that 
promised increase of family without delay. As I worked my 
own garden, (for which I hired a landscape gardener at two 
dollars per day to give me instructions,) I concluded that the 
object of my first experience in early rising should be the plant- 
ing of the hippopotamuses. I accordingly rose next morning at 
five, and it rained ! The next, and it rained ! It rained for two 
weeks! We had splendid potatoes every day for dinner. 'My 
dear,' said I to Mrs. Sparrowgrass, ' where did you get these 
fine pototoes ?' ' Why,' said she, innocently, ' out of that basket 
from Long Island !' The last of the hippotamuses were before 
me, peeled, and boiled, and mashed, and baked, with a nice thin 
brown crust on the top. 

" I was more successful afterward. I did get some fine seed- 
potatoes in the ground. But something was the matter : at the 
end of the season I did not get as many out as I put in. 

" Mrs. Sparrowgrass, who is a notable house-wife, said to me 
one day, ' Now, my dear, we shall soon have plenty of eggs, for 
I have been buying a lot of young chickens/ There they are, 
each one with as many feathers as a grasshopper, and a chirp 
not louder. Of course, we looked forward with pleasant hopes 
to the period when the first cackle should announce the milk- 



166 Halls Journal df Health. 

white egg, warmly deposited in the hay which we had provided 
bountifully. They grew finely, and one day I ventured to re- 
mark that our hens had remarkably large combs, to which Mrs. 
S. replied, 'Yes, indeed, she had observed that; but, if I wanted 
to have a real treat, I ought to get up early in the morning and 
hear them crow/ ' Crow !' said I, faintly, ' our hens crowing ! 
Then, by ' the cock that crowed in the morn, to wake the priest 
all shaven and shorn,' we might as well give up all hopes of 
having eggs,' said I, 'for, as sure as you live, Mrs. S., our hens 
are all roosters !' And so they were roosters! that grew up and 
fought with the neighbors' chickens, until there was not a whole 
pair of eyes on either side of the fence. 

*' A dog is a good thing to have in the country. I have one 
which 1 raised from a pup. He is a good, stout fellow, and a 
hearty barker and feeder. The man of whom I bought him said 
he was thorough-bred, but he begins to have a mongrel look 
about him. He is a good watch-dog though, for the moment he 
sees any suspicious- looking person about the premises, he comes 
right into the kitchen and gets behind the stove. First we kept 
him in the house, and he scratched all night to get out. Then 
we turned him out, and he scratched all night to get in. Then 
we tied him up at the back of the garden, and he howled so 
that our neighbor shot at him twice before daybreak. Finally, 
we gave him away, and he came back ; and now he is just re- 
covering from a fit in which he has torn up the patch that had 
been sown for our spring radishes. 

"A good strong gate is a necessary article for your garden. 
A good, strong, heavy gate, with a dislocated hinge, so that it 
will neither open nor shut. Such an one had I last year. The 
grounds before my fence are in common, and all the neighbors 7 
cows pasture there. I remarked to Mrs. S., as we stood at the 
window in June last, how placid and picturesque the cattle looked, 
as they strolled about, cropping the green herbage. Next 
morning I found the innocent creatures in my garden. They 
had not left a green thing in it. The corn in the milk, the beans 
on the poles, the young cabbages, the tender lettuce, even the 
thriving shoots on my young fruit trees had vanished. And 
there they were, looking quietly on the ruin they had made. 
Our wath-dog, too was foregathering with them. It was too 
much, so I got a large stick and drove them all out, except a 



Earth and Mind Culture. 167 

young heifer, whom I chased all over the flower-beds, breaking 
down my trellises, my woodbines and sweet-briars, my roses and 
petunias, until I cornered her in the hot-bed. I had to call 
assistance to extricate her from the sashes, and her owner sued 
me for damages and recovered. I believe I shall move in town.'* 

The above is not the earth culture we are inculcating, but the 
practical cultivation of a few square feet of ground which ma) 
be had in any city back yard, taking some Horticultural month- 
ly, as a guide, with an elementary work on Botany, Chemistry, 
and Geology; thus a single article on the moss-rose, or morning- 
glory, or strawberry, or holly hock, or any familiar plant or 
flower, would give abundant study for a month, and all the while 
delighting and expanding the mind. 

If all the fashion-plate monthlies in the land could be made 
into one vast hecatomb of fire, or, if the paper could be remade 
and used for Horticultural Magazines, and every family were to 
subscribe, and pay for, and practically use them, and no Bremer, 
or D'Israeli, or Dickens, or Sue, or Dumas, or George Sand, or 
Thackeray, was allowed a place in the family library, this would 
be a far more virtuous, and refined, and practical, and happy 
world than it is : our sons would be more like men, for their 
minds would be agreeably exercised on subjects which naturally 
elevate : our daughters would make better wives, for instead oi 
having their imaginations, and sensibilities and sympathies ex- 
pended in a wrong direction, instead of originating, cherishing, 
and feeding expectations, never deserved, never to be realized, 
and really, never truly desirable, their mental, moral, and physi- 
cal powers would be usefully employed on the topics discussed 
in the monthlies above named. There is something ennobling, 
something pacifying in the cultivation of the soil. It eventually 
makes a man independent, self-reliant. The earth gives her 
returns without demanding of her customers every variety of 
bowings, and scrapings, and servilities, and meanness, and mis- 
representations, and stretchings, and downright cheateries, so 
general now among all trades and traffics. An active man in 
business, and a money-making fellow, said in my hearing not 
long ago, "I hate my business, I loathe and abhor it. I must 
lie and cheat, or fail, for my rivals live by it." This was said 
by a young man who had one of the best mothers that ever 
drew the breath of life. — How a man's pen will run away ! 



168 Halls Journal of Health. 

It is now writing of mercantile morals in a notice of a publica- 
tion on gardening. I hope the reader has been wide enough 
awake to see the connection — although it is an idea which I do 
not recollect to have seen — that the cultivation of the soil natu- 
rally dignifies, elevates, and ennobles the character, because the 
earth yields her increase without demanding the flatteries and 
falsities of trade, while its tillers have a right, by means of the 
promise, to expect and demand an ample return from well-direct- 
ed labor ; our great mother gives full measure, pressed down 
and running over ; no twelve cents for a shilling, no thirty-four 
inches for a yard, no fifty-six grains for a dram, no fourteen 
ounces, avordupois for a pound, no watered milk, no sanded 
sugar, no chicoried coffee, no drugged wines, no manufactured 
nutmegs or wooden seeds. 

Let any young woman read the article on the chemistry of 
organic cells, in the Cincinnati Horticultural Review, let her 
read it with care and see if she does not rise from the perusal 
of a two-paged article with a feeling of elevation of mind which 
arises from the consciousness of increased knowledge, which no 
novel can ever similate, and which freshens, and expands, and 
deepens for life-long observation ; while the stories and the tales, 
like the exhilarations from brandy or opium, fade away forever, 
leaving only the poison, and the sting behind: the poison of 
deliberate harm done to the body, the sting of time misspent, 
never to be regained. 



The march to the Grave. — What a mighty procession has 
been marching towards the grave during the past year! At the 
usual estimate, since the 1st of January, 1853, more than 
31,500,000 of the world's population have gone down to the 
earth again. Place them in a long array, and they will give a 
moving column of more than thirteen hundred to every mile of 
the globe's circumference ! Only think of it ; ponder and 
look upon these astounding computations ! What a spectacle, 
as they " move on," tramp, tramp, tramp— forward upon this 
stupendous dead march ! 

Life is short and time is fleeting, 

And our hearts, though strong and brave, 

Still, like muffled drums, are beating 
Funeral marches to the grave. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



VOL. I.] AUGUST, 1854. [NO. VIII, 



WHAT IS CHOLEKA? 

Cholera is the exaggeration of intestinal vermicular motion. 

This definition, explained in language less professional, would 
do more good than all the popular recipes for the cure of Cho- 
lera ever published, because it expresses the inherent nature of 
Cholera and suggests the principles of cure, in its early stage, 
to the most unreflecting mind. 

The public is none the better, or wiser, or safer, for one of 
all the ten thousand •" cures " for Cholera proclaimed in the 
public prints, with a confidence which itself is a sufficient guar- 
antee that however well-informed the authors may be in other 
matters, as regards Cholera itself they are criminally ignorant j 
for no man has a right to address the public on any subject 
connected with its general health unless he understands that 
subject in its broadest sense, practically as well as theoretically. 

As Cholera has become a general and perhaps, at least for 
the present, a permanent disease of the country, and at this 
time is more or less prevalent in every State of the Union — 
and one, too, which may at any hour sweep any one of us into 
the grave — it belongs to our safety to understand its nature for 
ourselves, and do what we may to spread the knowledge among 
those around us. 

A "live" cheese or a cup of fishing worms may give an 
idea of the motion of the intestines in ordinary health. The 
human gut is a hollow, flexible tube, between thirty and forty 
feet long ; but, in order to be contained within the body, it is, 
to save space, arranged as a sailor would a coil of rope, forever 
moving in health — moving too much in some diseases — too 
little in others. To regulate this motion is the first object of 
the physician in every disease. In head-aches, bilious affec- 
tions, costiveness and the like, this great coiled-up intestine,, 

15 



170 Mali's Journal of Health. 

usually called "the bowels," is "torpid," and medicines are 
given to wake it up, and what does that cures the man. Cos- 
tiveness is the foundation — that is, one of the first beginnings — 
or it is the attendant of every disease known to man, in some 
stage or other of its progress. But the human body is made 
in such a manner, that a single step cannot be taken without 
tending to move the intestines ; thus it is, in the main, that 
those who move about on their feet a great deal have the least 
sickness, — and, on the other hand, those who sit a great deal, 
and hence move about but little, never have sound health; it 
is an impossibility — it is a rule to which I have never known 
an exception. 

Cholera being a disease in which the bowels move too much, 
the object should be to lessen that motion ; and, as every step 
a man takes, increases intestinal motion, the very first thing to 
be done in a case of cholera is to secure quietude. It requires 
but a small amount of intelligence to put these ideas together, 
and if they could only be burnt in on every heart, this fearful 
scourge would be robbed of myriads of its victims. 

There can be no cure of Cholera without quietude — the 
quietude of lying on the back. 

The physician who understands his calling is always on the 
look-out for the instincts of nature ; and he who follows them 
most, and interferes with them least, is the one who is oftenest 
successful. They are worth- more to him than all the rigma- 
role stories which real or imaginary invalids pour in upon the 
physician's ear with such facile volubility. If, for example, a 
physician is called to a speechless patient — a stranger, about 
whom no one can give any information — he knows, if the 
breathing is long, heavy and measured, that the brain is in 
danger ; if he breathes quick from the upper part of the chest, 
the abdomen needs attention ; or if the abdomen itself mainly 
moves in respiration, the lungs are suffering. In violent cases 
of inflammation of the bowels, the patient shrinks involuntarily 
from any approach to that part of his person. These are the 
instincts of nature, and are invaluable guides in the treatment 
of disease. 

Apply this principle to cholera, or even common diarrhoea, 
whvMi \he bowels do not act more than three or four times a 
day ; the patient feels such ar unwillingness to motion that he 



What is Cholera? 171 

even rises from his seat with the most unconquerable reluct- 
ance; and when he has, from any cause, been moving about 
considerably, the first moment of taking a comfortable seat is 
perfectly delicious, aiid he feels as if he could almost stay there 
always. The whole animal creation is subject to disease, and 
the fewest number, comparatively speaking, die of sickness; 
instinct is their only physician. 

Perfect quietude, then, on the back, is the first, the impera- 
tive, the essential step towards the cure of any case of cholera. 
To this art may lend her aid towards making that quietude 
more perfect, by binding a cloth around the belly pretty firmly. 
This acts beneficially in diminishing the room within the abdo- 
men for motion ; a man may be so pressed in a crowd, as not 
to be able to stir. This bandage should be about a foot broad, 
and long enough to be doubled over the belly ; pieces of tape 
should be sewn to one end of the flannel, and a corresponding 
number to another part, being safer and more effective fasten- 
ings than pins. If this cloth is of stout woollen flannel, it has 
two additional advantages — its roughness irritates the skin and 
draws the blood to the surface from the interior, and by its 
warmth retains that blood there ; thus preventing that cold, 
clammy condition of the skin which takes place in the last 
stages of cholera. Facts confirm this. When the Asiatic 
scourge first broke out among the German soldiery, immense 
numbers perished ; but an imperative order was issued, in the 
hottest weather, that each soldier wear a stout woollen flannel 
abdominal compress, and immediately the fatality diminished 
more than fifty per cent. If the reader will try it, even in cases 
of common looseness of bowels, he will generally find the most 
grateful and instantaneous relief. 

The second indication of instinct is to quench the thirsts 
When the disease now called Cholera first made its appear- 
ance in the United States, in 1832, it was generally believed 
that the drinking of cold water, soon after calomel was taken, 
would certainly cause salivation ; and, as calomel was usually 
given, cold water was strictly interdicted. Some of the most 
heart-rending appeals I have ever noticed were for water, wa- 
ter ! I have seen the patient with deathly eagerness mouthe 
the finger-ends of the nurse, for the sake of the drop or two of 
cold water there while washing the face. There are two ways 



172 HalVs Journal of Health. 

of quenching this thirst, cold water and ice. Cold water often 
causes a sense of fulness or oppression, and not always satisfy- 
ing ; at other times the stomach is so very irritable, that it is 
ejected in a moment. Ice does not give that unpleasant ful- 
ness, nor does it increase the thirst, as cold water sometimes 
does, while the quantity required is very much reduced. 

A CASE. 

About a year ago, I was violently attacked with cholera 
symptoms in a rail-car. The prominent symptoms were a con- 
tinuous looseness of the most exhausting character, a deathly 
faintness and sickness, a drenching perspiration, an overpower- 
ing debility, and a pain as if the whole intestines were wrung 
together with strong hands, as washerwomen wring out cloth- 
ing. Not being willing to take medicine, at least for a while, 
and no ice being presently obtainable, at the first stopping- 
place I ate ice-cream, or rather endeavored to swallow it before 
it could melt. I ate large quantities of it continually, until 
the thirst was entirely abated. The bowels acted but once or 
twice after I began to use it, I fell asleep, and next morning was 
at my office, as usual, although I was feeble for some days. 
This may not have been an actual case of Asiatic Cholera, 
although it was prevalent in the city at that time ; but it was 
sufficiently near it to require some attention, and this is the 
main object of this article, to wit : attention to the first symp- 
toms of Cholera when it prevails. 

According to my experience, there is only one objection to 
the ice-cream treatment, and that is, you must swallow it with- 
out tasting how good it is ; it must be conveyed into the stomach 
as near an icy state as possible. 

The second step, then, in the treatment of an attack of Cho- 
lera, is to quench the thirst by keeping a plate of ice beside 
you, broken up in small pieces, so that they may be swallowed 
whole, as far as practicable ; keep on chewing and swallowing 
the ice until the thirst is most perfectly satisfied. 

PRACTICAL RESULTS. 

The first step, then, to be taken where Cholera prevails and 
its symptoms are present, is : 
To lie down on a bed. 



What is Cholera f 173 

2d. Bind the abdomen tightly with woollen flannel. 

3d. Swallow pellets of ice to the fullest extent practicable. 

4th. Send for an established, resident, regular physician. 
Touch not an atom of the thousand things proposed by brains 
as "simple" as the remedies are represented to be, but wait 
quietly and patiently until the arrival of your medical at- 
tendant. 

But many of my readers may be in a condition, by distance 
or otherwise, where it is not possible to obtain a physician 
for several hours, and where such a delay might prove fatal. 
Under such circumstances, obtain ten grains of calomel and 
make it into a pill with a few drops of cold water ; dry it a 
little by the fire or in the sun and swallow it down. If the pas- 
sages do not cease within two hours, then swallow two more of 
such pills, and continue to swallow two more at the end of 
each two hours until the bowels cease to give their light-colored 
passages, or until the physician arrives. 

WHY? 

In many bad cases of Cholera, the stomach will retain noth- 
ing fluid or solid, cold water itself being instantly returned. A 
calomel pill is almost as heavy as a bullet ; it sinks instantly 
to the bottom of the stomach, and no power of vomiting can 
return it. It would answer just as well to swallow it in pow- 
der ; but the same medium which would hold it in suspension 
while going down, w r ould do the same while coining up. 

THE FIRST OBJECT 

Of a calomel pill in Cholera, is to stop the passages from the 
bowels. This is usually done within two hours ; but if not, 
give two next time, on the principle if a certain force does not 
knock a man down the first time, the same force will not do 
it the second. Hence, to make the thing sure, and to lose no 
time — for time is not money here, but life — give a double por- 
tion. ISTot one time in twenty will it be necessary to give the 
second dose — not one time in a thousand the third. But as 
soon as your physician comes, tell him precisely what you 
have done, w T hat its apparent effects, and then submit yourself 
implicitly to his direction. 

When the calomel treatment is effectual, it arrests the pas- 



174 HalVs Journal of Health. 

sages within two hours ; and in any time from four to twelve 
hours after being taken, it affects the bowels actively, and 
the passages are changed from a watery thinness to a mushy 
thickness or consistency, and instead of being the color of rice- 
water, or of a milk and water mixture, they are brown or yel- 
low, or green or dark, or black as ink, according to the violence 
of the attack. Never take anything to " work off" calomel, if 
there is any passage within ten hours after it is taken ; but if 
there is no passage from the bowels within ten, or at most 
twelve hours after taking calomel, then take an injection of 
common water, cool or tepid. Eating ice or drinking cold 
water after a dose of calomel, facilitates its operation, and 
never can have any effect whatever towards causing salivation ; 
that is caused by there being no action from the bowels, as a 
consequence of the calomel, sooner than ten or twelve hours 
after it has been swallowed. 

WHAT ARE THE FACTS? 

I have been between two and three years in the midst of 
prevalent Cholera, continuously, winter and summer, the deaths 
being from two to two hundred a day. In all that time I had 
no attack, never missed a meal for the want of appetite to eat, 
ate in moderation whatever I liked and could get, and lived in 
a plain, regular, quiet way. During this time I had repeated 
occasions to travel one or two thousand miles, or more, in 
steamboats on the Mississippi, with the thermometer among 
the eighties in the shade and over a hundred on the deck, with 
from one to three hundred passengers on board, many of whom 
were German emigrants, huddled up around the boilers of a 
Western steamer — boatmen, Dutchmen and negroes, men, wo- 
men and children, pigs and puppies, hogs and horses, living in 
illustrated equality. These persons came aboard from a 
hot and dusty levee, crammed with decayed apples, rotting 
oranges, bad oysters, and worse whisky ; and almost invariably 
the report of the first morning out would be Cholera among the 
deck passengers, and the next thing, Is there a physician on 
board ? Sometimes I was the only one ; at others there were 
several, and we would divide. Practice of this kind is always 
gratuitous, and is attended with much personal labor, discom- 
fort and exposure. On the last occasion of this kind I treated 



What is Cholera? 175 

eighteen cases, all of whom were getting well, apparently, 
when landed along the river at their various homes, my destin- 
ation being usually as far as the boat would go. There were 
only two deaths — one during the first night, before it was 
known that the cholera was aboard, the other occurred just as 
the boat was landing at the young man's home ; how anxious 
he was to reach that home alive, no pen can ever portray. I 
did nothing for him. Before I knew he was sick, he was in the 
hands of a stranger who came aboard, and who had a remedy 
which was never known to fail. During the voyage, my 
patients slept around the steamboilers in midsummer, or on 
the outer guards, exposed to the rain which several times beat 
in upon them and their bedding ; being every night just at the 
water's edge, and no protection against its dampness, nor 
against the sun in the heat of the day. And yet with these 
unfavorable attendants, not one of the eighteen died on board 
the '' Belle Key," in her six days' journey. In all these cases 
the treatment was uniform : quiet, ice, and calomel pills, 
which last I was accustomed to carry with me. Some of them 
had been made five years, but lost none of their efficacy. 
"Whether it was the ice, or the quiet, or the pills, or faithful 
nature which kept these persons from dying, I do not pretend 
to say ; I merely state the doings and the result. 

My own views as to the cure of Cholera, as far as I have 
seen, are, that when calomel fails to cure it, every thing else 
will fail, and that it will cure every curable case. 

PREMONITORY SYMPTOMS OF CHOLERA. 

The cure of this scourge depends upon the earliness with 
which the means are used. It can be said with less limitation 
than of all other diseases together, that Cholera more certainly 
kills, if let alone, and is certainly cured, if early attended to.; 
What, then, is the earliest and almost universal symptom of 
approaching Cholera ? I have never seen it named in print 
as such. During the two years above referred to, I could tell 
in my own office, without reading a paper, or seeing or speak- 
ing to a single person, the comparative prevalence of tlie dis- 
ease from day to day, by the sensation which I will name, and 
I hope to the benefit of thousands, and perhaps not a single 
reader will fail to respond to the statement from his own ex- 



176 HdWs Journal of Health. 

perience. The bowels may be acting but once, or less than 
once, in twenty -four hours, the appetite may be good, and -the 
sleep may be sound ; but there is an unpleasant sensation in 
the belly — I do not, for the sake of delicacy, say " stomachy' 1 
for it is a perversion of terms — it is not in the stomach, nor do 
I call it the abdomen. Many persons don't know what abdo- 
men means. Thousands have such good health that they have 
no "realizing sense" of being the owners of such " ajyparati," 
or " usses," as the reader may fancy, and it is a great pleasure to 
me to write in such a manner that I know my reader will 
understand me perfectly, without having the head-ache. Who 
wants to hunt up dictionary words when the thermometer is a 
hundred at the coolest spot in his office ? It is bad enough to 
have to write what you know, at such a Fahrenheitical eleva- 
tion as I do now, but it is not endurable to be compelled to 
find the meaning of another by hunting over old lexicons, and, 
after all, running the risk of discovering that the word or 
phrase was, in its application, as innocent of sense as the nog- 
gin was of brains which used the expression. 

Speaking then of that sensation of uneasiness, without acute 
pain, in the region named, it comes on more decidedly after an 
evacuation of the bowels. In health, this act is followed by 
a sense of relief or comfortableness, but when the cholera 
influence is in the atmosphere, even a regular passage is fol- 
lowed by something of this sort, but more and more decided 
after each action over one in twenty-four hours. The feeling 
is not all ; there is a sense of tiredness or weariness which 
inclines you to take a seat ; to sit down and maybe, to bend over 
a little, or to curl up, if on a bed. This sensation is coming 
cholera, and if heeded when first noticed, would save annually 
thousands. The patient should remain on the bed until he felt 
as if he wanted to get up, and as if it would be pleasurable 
to walk about. While observing this quiet and while swallow- 
ing lumps of ice, nothing should be eaten until there is a 
decided appetite, and what is eaten should be farina, or arrow- 
root, or tapioca, or corn-starch, or what is better than all, a 
mush made of rice-flour, or if preferred, common rice parched 
as coffee, and then boiled, as rice is usually for the table, about 
twelve minutes, then strain the liquid from the rice ; return 
the rice to the stew pan and let it steam about a quarter of an 



What is Cholera ? 177 

hour, a short distance from the fire ; it will then be done, the 
grains will be separate ; it may then be eaten with a little 
butter, at intervals of five hours. 

There can be no doubt that thousands upon thousands have 
died of cholera who might now be living had they done nothing 
but observed strict bodily quietness under the promptings of 
nature, the greatest and the best physician. 

WHAT IS "A LOOSENESS ?" 

An indefinite description or direction in reference to health 
is worse than none at all. Physicians very generally, and 
very greatly err in this respect, and much of their " want of 
success" is attributable to this very omission. A patient is 
told he " mustn't allow himself to become costive," mustn't 
eat too much, must take light suppers, mustn't over exercise. 
These things do much mischief. The proper way to give a 
medical direction is to use the most common words in their 
ordinary sense, and in a manner not only to make them easily 
understood, but impossible to be misunderstood, and to take 
it for granted that the person prescribed for knows nothing. 
How many readers of mine have an easy and complete idea of 
the word " expectorate" in medicine, or regeneration in religion? 
and yet the terms expectoration and regeneration are used as 
glibly by preacher and physician as if their meaning were 
self-evident. Why shoot above people's heads and talk about 
justification and sanctification and glorification, and a great 
many other kinds of " ations," when the terms do not convey 
to one ear in a dozen any clear, well-defined, precise idea ? 
And so emphatically with the words looseness and costiveness 
when applied to the bowels. They are relative terms, and a 
practical idea of what they are is only to be conveyed by 
telling what they are, and what they are not. One man will 
say he is very costive, that he has not had an action from the 
bowels in three or four days or more ; but a failure of the 
bowels to act in 24 or 48 or 72 hours is not of itself costive- 
ness, for the person may have had four or five passages in a 
single day ; then nature requires time to make up, so as to 
average one a day. Costiveness applies to the hardness and 
dryness of the alvine evacuations, and not to relative frequency. 

A more indefinite idea prevails in reference to the more 



178 HalVs Journal of Health. 

important (in cholera times at least) terms looseness, loose 
bowels, and the like. The expression must be measured by 
color and consistency of the discharges in reference to cholera. 
We have heard and read a great deal about rice water dis- 
charges. Reader of mine, physicians, nurses, and cooks ex- 
cepted, lay this down a moment, and say if you ever saw rice 
water in your life. Then again how is the reader. to know 
whether the cholera rice water is applied to rice water as to 
color, or consistence, or taste, or smell. The term " looseness" 
as applied to Asiatic cholera as a premonitory symptom, is 
simply this : if in cholera times a man passes from his bowels 
even but a single time, a dirty, lightish-colored fluid, of con- 
sistence and appearance, a few feet distant, of a mixture of half 
and half milk and water, that is a premonition of cholera 
begun, and he will be dead in perhaps twenty-four hours at 
farthest, and as the passages become less frequent and of a 
darker or greener or thicker nature, there is hope of life. It 
does not require two such passages to make a looseness ; one 
such is a looseness, and a very dangerous one. Nor does it 
require a gallon in quantity ; a single tablespoonful, if it 
weakens, is the alarm-bell of death in cholera times. 

But do not suppose that if looseness of bowels is a premoni- 
tory symptom of cholera, costiveness, that is, an action of the 
bowels once in every two or three days, is a preventive, or an 
evidence that you are in no danger ; for constipation is often 
the forerunner of looseness. Some of the most fatal cholera 
cases I have seen were characterized by constipation previous 
to the looseness — the patient having concluded that as there 
was nothing like looseness, but the very reverse, he was in no 
danger, and consequently had no need of caiefulness in eating 
or drinking, or anything else. Unusual constipation, that is, 
if the bowels during the prevalence of cholera act less fre- 
quently than usual, or if they even act with the same fre- 
quency, but the discharges are very hard or bally, then a 
physician should be at once consulted. That is the time when 
safe and simple remedies will accomplish more than the most 
heroic means, a few days or even a few hours later. 

THEORY OF CHOLERA. 

It is in its nature common diarrhoea intensified, just as yellow 
fever is an intensification of common bilious fever — a concen- 



What is Cholera f 179 

trated form of it. But what causes this loose condition of the 
bowels, which is not indeed a premonitory symptom of cholera 
but which is cholera itself? 

That which precedes the loose bowels of diarrhoea and 
cholera is liver inaction ; the liver is torpid, that is, it does not 
abstract the bile from the blood, or if it does, this, bile instead 
of being discharged drop by drop from the gall bladder into 
the top or beginning of the intestines, where the food passes 
out of the stomach into the bowels proper, is retained and more 
or less reabsorbed and thrown into the general circulation, ren- 
dering it every hour thicker and thicker, and more and more 
impure and black, until at length it almost ceases to flow 
through the veins, just as w r ater will very easily pass along a 
hose pipe or hollow tube, while mush or stirabout would do so 
with great difficulty ; and not passing out of the veins, but still 
coining in, the veins are at length so much distended that the 
thinner portions ooze through the blood vessels. That which 
oozes through the bloodvessels on the inner side of the stomach 
and bowels, is but little more than water, and constitutes the 
rice water discharges, so much spoken of in this connection ; 
that which oozes through the blood vessels on the surface con- 
statutes the sweat which bedews the whole body shortly before 
death, and it is this clogging up of the thick black blood in the 
small veins which gives the dark blue appearance of the skin 
in the collapse stage. 

What is the reason that the liver is torpid — does not work — 
does not withdraw the bile from the blood ? 

It is because the blood has become impure, and being thus, 
when it enters the liver it fails to produce the natural stimulus, 
and thus does not wake it up to its healthful action, just as the 
habitual drinker of the best brandy fails to be put " in usual 
trim" by a " villainous article." 

But how does the blood become impure ? It becomes impure 
by there being absorbed into the circulation what some call 
malaria, and others call miasm. But by whatever name it may 
be called, this death-dealing substance is a gas arising from the 
combination of three substances, heat, moisture, and vegeta- 
tion. Without these three things in combination there can be 
no " cholera atmosphere," there can be no epidemic cholera in 
these ages of the world. Yegetable matter decomposes at. a 



180 HalVs Journal of HealtJi. 

heat of between seventy and eighty degrees, and that amount 
of heat in combination with moisture and some vegetable sub- 
stance must always precede epidemic cholera. 

The decomposition in burial grounds, in potters' fields, or of 
animal matter in any stage or form, does not excite or cause 
cholera ; if anything, it prevents it. I have no disposition to 
argue upon these points. I merely give them as my views, 
which, I think, time and just observation will steadily cor- 
roborate. There are many interesting questions which might 
be discussed in this connection, but the article is already longer 
than was designed. The reader may think that he could state 
some strong facts in contravention of those given, but I think 
it quite likely that on investigation these facts of his will t>e 
corroborants. For example : how is it that cholera has raged 
in latitudes where snow is on the ground five or ten feet deep ? 
The people in such countries are generally poor ; myriads of 
them live in snow houses, which are large spaces dug in the 
snow, with no outlet but one for the smoke, and in this house 
they live with their domestic animals, and all the family offal 
for months together, so that in the spring of the year there is 
a crust of many inches of made flooring, while the interior 
heat from their own bodies and from the fire for cooking pur- 
poses is often eighty or ninety degrees. 

THE THEORY OF CUBE. 

I have said that a torpid liver is an immediate cause of 
cholera, that it does not work actively enough to separate the 
bile, the impure particles, from the blood. Whatever then 
wakes up the liver, removes this torpidity, or in plainer lan- 
guage, whatever stimulates the liver to greater activity, that is 
curative of cholera. Calomel is a medicine which acts upon, 
which stimulates the liver to action with a promptness and cer- 
tainty infinitely beyond all the other remedies yet known to 
men, and the use of any other medicine as a substitute in any 
plain case of cholera, is in my opinion a trifling with human 
life ; not that other remedies are not successful, but that this 
is more certain to act upon the liver than all others ; and what 
sensible man wants to try a lesser certainty in so imminent a 
danger. 

My whole view as to cholera and calomel is simply this, that 



What is Cholera? 181 

while cholera is arrested and cured by a variety of other 
agents, calomel will cure in all these and thousands of others 
where other remedies have no more effect than a thimbleful 
of ashes ; that calomel will cure any case of cholera which any 
other remedy cures, and that it will cure millions of other 
cases which no other remedy can reach ; that when calomel 
fails to cure all other things will inevitably fail. 

HOW DO WE KNOW ALL THIS ? 

The natural color of healthy and properly secreted bile is 
yellowish, hence that is the color of an ordinarily healthful 
discharge from the bowels ; but as the liver becomes torpid, 
tl£ bile becomes greenish, and still farther on, black. If you 
give calomel under such circumstances, black, green, or yellow 
discharges result, according to the degree of torpidity. When 
the liver gives out no bile at all, the passages are watery and 
light colored. The action of a calomel pill in cholera is to 
arrest the discharges from the bowels, and this it does usually 
within two hours, and in five, eight, or ten, or twelve hours 
more it starts the bowels to act again, but the substance dis- 
charged is no longer colorless and thin, but darker and thicker 
and less debilitating, and the patient is safe in proportion as 
these passages are green or dark-colored. I have seen them 
sometimes like clots of tar. 

PREVENTIVES OF CHOLERA. 

There are none, there never can be, except so far as it may 
be done by quietude of body and mind, by personal cleanli- 
ness, by regular and temperate habits of life, and the use of 
plain accustomed nourishing food. 

Anything taken medicinally as a preventive of cholera will 
inevitably, and under all circumstances, increase the liability 
to an attack. 

WHY? 

Nothing can prevent cholera in a cholera atmosphere, beyond 
the natural agents of nutrition, except in proportion to its 
stimulating properties. The liver takes its share of the general 
stimulus and works with more vigor. Where the system is 
under the effect of the stimulus, it is safer, but it is a first 
truth that the stimulant sooner or later expends its force, as a 



182 Hairs Journal of Health. 

drink of brandy, for example. That moment the system be- 
gins to fail, and fails as far below its natural condition as it 
was just before above it, and while in that condition is just as 
much more susceptible of cholera as it was less liable under 
the action of the stimulant, until by degrees it rises up to its 
natural equilihrium, its natural condition. You can, it is true, 
repeat the stimulus, but it must be done with the utmost regu- 
larity, and just at the time the effects of the previous one 
begins to subside. This it will at once be seen, requires a 
nicety of observation, and correctness of judgment which not 
one in a multitude can bestow, saying nothing of another 
nicety of judgment, that of gradually increasing the amount 
of the sti mulant, so that the effect shall be kept up to the regular 
notch ; for a given amount of one stimulant will inevitably 
fail, after a few repetitions, to produce the same amount of 
stimulation, and the moment that amount fails to be raised, 
that moment the person is more susceptible of cholera than if 
he had taken aothing at all. 

He who takes any medicinal agent, internal or external, for 
the prevention of Cholera, commits an act of the most consum- 
mate folly ; and I should consider myself an ignoramus or a 
knave were I to concoct a professed anti-cholera mixture. 

THE SUMMING UP. 

When Cholera is present in any community, each person 
should consider himself as attacked with Cholera. 

1st. If the bowels act less frequently than usual. 

2d. If the bowels act often er than twice in twenty-four 
hours. 

3d. If the discharge from the bowels is of a dirty white in 
color, and watery in its consistence. 

4th. If he have any indefinable sensation about the belly, 
which not only unpleasantly reminds him that he has such an 
article, but also inclines him to sit down, and makes sitting 
down a much more pleasant operation than usual. 

Some persons may think that this fourth item is putting " too 
fine a point" on the matter, and that it is being over careful ; 
but I know that these very feelings do, in a vast majority of 
fatal cases of Cholera, precede the actual "looseness" so uni- 
versally and so wrongfully regarded as the premonitory symp- 



What is Cholera? 183 

torn of cholera; "looseness," is not a premonitory symptom of 

Cholera. . 

S^ LOOSENESS IS CHOLERA BEGUN! ! 

Whenever Cholera is prevalent in any community, it is as 
much actual Cholera, under such circumstances, as the first 
little flame on the roof of a house constitutes " a house on 
fire." 

When Cholera is present as an epidemic — as a " falling upon 
the people," which is the literal meaning of the word epidemic, 
in a liberal translation — a person may have one regular action 
every twenty-four hours ; it may not be '.ard and dry, it may 
not be in lumps or balls, and it may K, consistent enough to 
irfaintain its shape and form, and this s neither too costive noi 
too loose, and is just what it ought t be in health ; but, at the 
same time, if a person in a cholera atmosphere has such a pas- 
sage from the bowels, and it is followed not merely by an 
absence of that comfortableness and sense of relief with which 
all are familiar in health, but by a positive sensation, not 
agreeable, not painful, but unpleasant, inclining to stilness, and 
there is a feeling as if a slight stooping or bending forward of 
the body would be agreeable, — these are the premonitories of 
Asiatic Cholera ; and it is > wonderful that they have never, as 
far as I know, been published in book or newspaper for popu- 
lar information. At such a stage no physician is needed, no 
physic is required, only quietude on the back, ice to be eaten 
if there is any thirst, and no food but toasted bread, and tea of 
some kind, green, black, sage, sassafras, or any other of the 
common herbs. Keep up attention to these things until you 
can walk without any uncomfortableness whatever, and even 
feel as if it were doing you good, and until you are not sensi- 
ble of anything unpleasant about the belly. 

If you get tired of tea and toast, or if it is not agreeable 
to you, use in their place boiled rice, or sago, or tapioca, or 
arrow-root, or corn starch, or mush made of rice Hour. With 
all these -articles a little boiled milk may be used, or they may 
be eaten with a little butter, or syrup of some kind, for a 
change. 

If, under the four circumstances named on page 172, there 
is not an improvement in the symptoms within a very few 
hours, by the three things there named, to wit : 



184 HalVs Journal of Health. 

1st. Quietude on your back, on a bed. 

2d. Eating ice, if thirsty.. 

3d. A diet of tea and toast, or boiled rice, or some of the 
starches : 

Then do not trifle with a holy, human life by taking any 
medicine on your own responsibility, nor by the advice of any 
unprofessional man; but, by all means, send for a physician. 
But if you have violent vomiting, or have a single lightish- 
colored, watery passage, or even a thinnish passage every hour 
or two, and no physician can be had in several hours, do not 
wait for him, but swallow a ten-grain calomel pill, and repeat 
it every second hour until the symptoms abate or the physician 
arrives; or, if at the end of two hours after the first pill has 
been taken, the symptoms have become aggravated, take two 
calomel pills of ten grains each and then patiently wait. If 
the passages stop, if the vomiting ceases, you are safe ; and if, 
in addition to the cessation of vomiting, or looseness, or both, 
the passages become green or dark, and more consistent within 
eight, or ten, or twelve hours after the first pill, and, in addi- 
tion, urination returns, you will get well without anything else 
in addition beyond judicious nursing. 

The most certain indication of recovery from an attack of 
Asiatic Cholera is the return of free urination ; for during the 
attack it ceases altogether, — a most important fact, but not 
known, perhaps, to one person in ten thousand, and is worth 
more than all other symptoms together. 

CAUSES OF CHOLERA. 

A very great deal has been uselessly written for public 
.perusal about the causes of Cholera. One person will tell you 
that a glass of soda gave him cholera, or a mess of huckleber- 
ries, or cucumbers, or green corn, or cabbages, which is just 
about as true as the almost universal error, that a bad cold 
causes consumption. A bad cold never did nor ever can 
originate consumption, any more than the things above named 
originate cholera. A bad cold excites consumption in a per- 
son whose lungs are already tuberculated, not otherwise, cer- 
tainly; and so green corn, or cucumbers, or cabbages, or any 
other food, whatever it may be, which is not well digested when 
it passes into the stomach, will excite cholera, when a persos 



What is Cholera? 185 

is living in a cholera atmosphere, and the atmosphere is made 
" choleric " by its holding in suspension some emanation which 
is the product of vegetable decomposition. 

LIMESTONE WATER. 

Much has been written about this agent as a cause of Cho- 
lera. Those who know least are most positive. It may be 
true to some extent, and, under some circumstances, it may be 
an excitant of Cholera ; but I cannot think it is " per se" — 
that it is remarkably or necessarily so. It is known that the 
whole South-west has suffered from Cholera, New Orleans 
especially ; yet there is scarcely a decent dwelling there which 
has not a cistern attached to it, above ground, and wholly sup- 
plied by rain water ; and this is the usual drink, and it is the 
same case with multitudes of the better class of dwellings in 
the Southern country. 

As to escaping prevalent Cholera, the great general rules are : 

1st. Make no violent changes in your mode of life, whether 
in eating, or drinking, or sleeping, or exercise. 

2d. Endeavor to attain composure of mind, quietude of 
body, regularity of all bodily habits, temperance in the use of 
plain, substantial, nourishing food ; and let your drinks be a 
moderate amount of tea, and coffee, and cold water. If accus- 
tomed to use wine or brandy, or any other beverage or alco- 
holic stimulant, make no change, for change is death. If any 
change at all, it should be a regular, steady, systematic in- 
crease. But as soon as the Cholera has disappeared, drink 
no more. 

FRUITS, IN CHOLERA TIMES, 

Are beneficial, if properly used. They should be ripe, raw, 
fresh, perfect, — should be eaten alone without cream or sugar, 
and without fluids of any kind for an hour after , and they 
should not be eaten later in the day than the usual dinner hour 
of two p. M. 

In Cholera times, nothing should be taken after dinner, 
except a piece of cold bread and butter, and a cup of tea of 
some kind. This, indeed, ought to be the rule for all who wish 
to live long and healthfully. 

The indefinite unpleasantness in the bowels, which I have 
fco much insisted upon as the real premonitory symptom of 



186 HalVs Journal of Health. 

Asiatic Cholera begun, whether there be looseness or constipa- 
tion, most probably precedes every acknowledged attack of 
Cholera, from hours up to days. There are no means for 
proving this, certainly ; for the mass of people are too unob- 
serving. But it most certainly is a safe rule in cholera times, 
to regard it as a premonitory, and to act accordingly. 

Whatever I have said of Cholera in the preceding pages, I 
wish to be understood as applicable to what has come under 
my own observation during the general prevalence of Cholera 
in a community. 

In different States and countries there are circumstances 
which modify the disease, its symptoms, and everything con- 
nected with it, such as locality, variety of exciting causes, 
their different degrees of virulence or concentratedness, the 
different habits and modes of life. These things constitute the 
reason of the various modes of treatment, and the great error 
has been the publishing of a successful remedy in one locality, 
and relying upon it in another. But the treatment by quietude, 
ice, and calomel, is equally applicable on every spot of the 
earth's surface, wherever a case of Epidemic Cholera occurs, 
since the essential cause of Cholera is everywhere the same, 
to wit, the miasm of vegetable decomposition, the effects of 
that cause are the same, to wit, a failure on the part of the 
liver to work with sufficient vigor to withdraw the bile from 
the blood and pass it out of the system ; and the mode of re- 
moving that effect is the same, to wit, the stimulation of the 
liver to increased action. And although, in milder forms, a 
variety of agencies may stimulate the liver to work, and thus 
restore health, yet inasmuch as calomel is infinitely more relia- 
ble than all other liver stimulants yet known, it is recommended 
as having precedence of all others, on the ground previously 
named, that when danger is imminent and a few hours makes 
the difference between life and death, it is unwise to trust to a 
less certain agent when the more certain one is equally at 
hand and is the easiest medicine known to be taken, as it has 
no appreciable taste, its bulk is exceedingly small, and by 
reason of its weight it sinks to the bottom of the stomach and 
cannot be rejected except in rare instances. 

Some of my views are peculiar, perhaps. They were formed 
from observations made in 1832, '3 and '4, my first experiences 



What is Cholera f 187 

being on board a crowded steamboat which left Louisville, 
Kentucky, in October, 1832. In twenty-four hours the cholera 
broke out. It had just reached the west from Canada. JS T o 
one knew anything about its nature, symptoms, or treatment, 
practically, and the panic was terrible. I had retired early. 
A Virginia gentleman was lying on the floor suffering from an 
attack. At midnight I aw T oke and found the cabin deserted, 
not a living creature in it, nor on the boat either, as well as 1 
now remember, and every berth but mine was entirely divested 
of its bedding. The man had died, and they were airing the 
boat, while a few were engaged in depositing him at the foot 
of a tree in a coarse wooden box, on the banks of the Ohio. 
The boat was bound for St. Louis, but few of her passengers 
to that port, or officers, lived to reach their destination. I was 
young then, had perfect health, and knew no fear. Ever since 
that terrible " trip," and the experiences of the following years, 
everything that I have seen or read on the subject, of cholera 
has seemed to me to confirm the views advanced in the pre- 
ceding pages, and I trust that general readers, as well as pro- 
fessional men, who may chance to see this article, will hereafter 
direct their attention to all facts bearing upon cholera, and 
notice how far such observed facts will bear them out in con- 
cluding, 1st, that epidemic Asiatic cholera cannot exist aside 
from moisture, heat, and vegetable matter ; 2d, that quietude, 
ice, and calomel will cure where anything else will, and will 
succeed in multitudes of cases where all things else have sig- 
nally failed. 

CALOMEL PREJUDICES. 

If, then, calomel is such an admirable agent in cholera, why 
is it not universally used ? I might as well ask, if honesty is 
the best policy, why are not the majority of men honest from 
principle? It is because men are ignorant or misinformed. 
Many persons do not know the power of calomel in curing 
cholera, while others are afraid of it because it sometimes sali- 
vates. Suppose it does — better to run the risk of salivation 
than to die. And even if salivated, a man is not necessarily 
permanently injured by salivation. I have been badly sali- 
vated several times very many years ago, but I believe I have 
as good health as most men. I do not recollect to have lost 



188 HalVs Journal of Health. 

three meals from sickness in fifteen years past, except from sea 
sickness, and no doubt there are tens of thousands of persons 
who have been salivated can speak similarly. But the objec- 
tion is perfectly childish when it is remembered that perhaps 
a thousand persons in succession may take calomel and not two 
in the thousand be salivated. I might say not two in ten 
thousand, and that in a vast majority of those who are not 
designedly salivated, this salivation is the result of injudicious 
administration ; thus, 

Salivation is caused by keeping the system too long under 
the influence of calomel, in two ways : 

1st, By giving small doses at short intervals. 

2d, By giving an amount so small that it fails to work itself 
off in ten or twelve hours. 

3d, By giving a larger amount, but mixing opium in some 
form or other with it ; for in all cases the more opium or other 
anodyne you give with a dose of calomel, the longer it will be 
in producing its legitimate action. 

The best method of administering calomel is to give enough 
at one time to make it act of itself within twelve hours, and 
if it does not act within that time, take an injection of half a 
pint of tepid water, or of a tablespoonful of salts in a half 
pint of warm water every hour until the bowels do act. Any 
action of the bowels at all after six hours since taking the cal- 
omel may be set down as an action from calomel, and nothing 
need be done to " work it off." 

If salivation is not designed, it is not best to give a dose of 
calomel oftener than once a week. 

By observing the two rules just stated, I do not believe that 
any general practitioner will have one case of undesired sali- 
vation in ten years practice. 

It is important for the reader to remember that there are 
sporadic cases, that is., scattering cases of cholera which may 
not be preceded by a constipation, or looseness of bowels, or 
uneasiness sufficiently decided to have attracted the observation 
of the patient ; for in many cases the patient declares that 
he "felt" as well as he ever did in his life, or acquaintances 
remark that he " appeared " to be in perfect health, and yet 
to-day he is dead of cholera. Yet, I very much doubt if a 
case of cholera ever occurred without the premonitions above 



What is Cholera? 189 

named in a greater or less degree. Still, for all practical pur- 
poses, and to be on the safe side, let no one who has looseness 
to-day in cholera times, conclude that it cannot be cholera, 
because he " felt" so and so the day before, or because no pre- 
monitions were observed ; rather let him conclude they were 
slight or unobserved, and act as he should do if he were per- 
fectly assured that he had at that moment in his own person, 
undisputed epidemic Asiatic cholera. The truth is, it is as im- 
possible for a man in perfect health to be stricken down in a 
moment with a dangerous disease, as it is for a man who has 
been honest from principle for a lifetime, to become in a day 
a forger or a swindler. 

As far as my observation has extended, I believe that the 
most frequent of all exciting causes of cholera is going to bed 
too soon after a hearty meal, whether it be a late dinner or 
merely a -supper of fruits and cream or milk, with sugar. I 
think that eating freely of fruits or berries, ripe, raw, and 
perfect, with any fluid after them, and then going to bed in an 
hour or two, will excite cholera in cholera times. lam inclined 
to think that huckleberries with cream or milk, except in very 
small quantity, make a dangerous dish in cholera times. 

It may subserve a good purpose to- remark that I have writ- 
ten on this subject not to support a theory, but to draw atten- 
tion to the suggestions, and least of all to obtain a cholera 
practice. I never treated a cholera case except gratuitously. 
I do not visit persons out of my office, except in rare cases. I 
prescribe only for those who come to see me and who write to 
me, and my practice is closely confined to ailments of the 
throat and lungs, and has been for ten or fifteen years. 

I will close the subject with answering an inquiry which no 
doubt has occurred to the reader as a conclusive refutation of 
all that I have said as to the fundamental cause of cholera, to 
wit: 

If cholera is the result of heat, moisture, and vegetable 
matter in combination, why has it not prevailed from time 
immemorial ? Because the climates of the world, and of the 
various countries of the earth, the constitutions, and habits of 
life, and modes of living are constantly changing ; hence new 
diseases are making their appearance from time to time, while 
others have vanished from the world. And when a single ele- 



190 HalVs Journal of Health. 

ment of many is changed, an entire new combination may be the 
result. But whatever may be that new or changed element, 
it can no more, as far as our present knowledge extends, excite 
epidemic cholera without the aid of vegetable decomposition, 
than powder can be ignited without the aid of lire. 

CONCLUDING OBSERVATIONS. 

While Cholera prevails, no marked change should be made as to the general habits 
of a regular temperate life — as long as the person feels entirely well — but the mo- 
ment the great premonitory symptom is observed even in a slight degree, to wit, an 
indefinable uncomfortableuess in the belly, inclining to rest, then an instantaneous 
change should be made from physical activity to bodily rest — from mental activity 
to mental relaxation — from the habitual use of wines, or malt, or other alcoholic 
drinks to total abstinence — from everything of the kind ; using ice or ice-water as a 
substitute, or cold spring water, a few swallows only in any twenty minutes; but if 
ice is to be had, and there is thirst, it may be eaten continuously from morning unti' 
night. 

Whatever may have been the diet before, it should be changed at once to tea 
and toast, or cold bread and butter, with plain meat, salted or fresh, whichever is 
relished most — 1 mean that these changes should be made on the first appearance 
of belly-uncomfortableness, and if in six or eight hours you are not decidedly better, 
send for a physician. If you are better, continue your own treatment until the feeling 
in the belly has entirely disappeared and you have a desire to walk- about, and ex- 
perience a decided relief in doing so. 

If you have over two (or three at most) passages within twenty-four hours, do 
not make an experiment on your life by taking even a calomel pill, simple as it is, 
unless it be wholly impracticable to obtain a physician within three or four hours. 
DIET IN CHOLERA TIMES. 

If you have no special liking for one thing more than another, and have not even 
the premonitory symptom, to wit, the belly-uneasiness, then the following diet will 
render you more secure: 

Breakfast. — A sirgle cup of weak coffee or tea, with toasted bread, 01 cold bread 
and butter, and a email piece of salt meat, ham, beef, fish, or the like, and nothing 
else. Dinner — Cold bread, roasted or broiled fresh meat of some kind, potatoes, 
rice, hominy, samp, or thickened gruel. For Dessert — Rice, or bread pudding, or 
sago, arrow root, tapioca, farina, corn starch, prepared in the usual manner, and no- 
thing else fluid or solid. Tea, 0:1 Supper— A single cup of weak tea of some kind, 
or coffee, with cold bread and butter— nothing else. 

Eat nothing between meals ; go to bed at a regular early hour, not later than ten 
o'clock ; attend to your business with great moderation, avoiding hurry, bustle, wor- 
riment of mind ; wear thin woollen flannel next the body during the tlay, air it well 
at night, sleeping in a common cotton night garment; remain in bed of mornings, 
after you have waked up, until you feel rested in all your limbs; but do not by any 
means take a second nap. Do not sleep a moment in the day time, and let all your 
enjoyments and recreations be in great moderation. 

Fruits have not been named, because it is to d fficuit to get them fresh, ripe, per- 
fect—many looking so, are woimy. Except potatoes, no vegetables are named, 
because they more readily sour on the stomach, lequire more power of digestion, 
while they do not afford as much nutriment and etrei gth to the body in proportion. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



VOL. I.] SEPTEMBER, 1854. [NO. IX. 



OBSERVATIONS ON CHOLERA. 

In the August number, I have insisted mainly on 

1st. An uncomfortdbleness about the belly as the very earliest 
premonition of approaching Cholera, in cholera times. 

2d. That at this stage, an almost infallible and immediate 
cure is effected by prompt and perfect quietude on the back, 
on a bed, satisfying the thirst, if any, by swallowing pellets of 
ice, and eating, only if decidedly hungry, farinaceous food, tea 
and toast, or thickened gruel ; and that this course should be 
continued until the feeling in the abdomen has entirely disap- 
peared, and until there is a desire to walk about, and a sensa- 
tion of pleasure or relief in doing so. 

3d. That if in cholera times, there has been no passage from 
the bowels in two or three days, or if there be three passages 
from the bowels in any twenty-four hours, or a single passage 
of a watery and light-colored substance, or an unaccountable 
feeling of weakness, amounting almost to prostration, without 
an}r noticed looseness, or constipation, or nausea, or abdominal 
uncomfortableness, in either of these four conditions, most 
especially the last, a resident physician, in whom high confi- 
dence is reposed, should be at once consulted. 

4th. That if the symptoms are urgent, such as two or three 
lightish-colored, painless, watery passages, in the course of &ve 
or six hours, or vomiting or cramps, and a physician cannot be 
had in the course of three or four hours, then, in addition to the 
quietude on the back, a flannel bandage firmly fastened around 
the abdomen, and eating ice, if there is thirst, as a precau- 
tion, and to be on the safe side, and to save time which may 
be infinitely valuable to the patient, a calomel pill of ten 
grains should at once be swallowed ; and if the vomiting or 



194 HalVs Journal of Health. 

purging do not cease within two hours, and a physician does 
not arrive, then swallow two of the calomel pills. 

If the patient is afraid of being salivated, then let him take 
twice as much super carbonate of Soda as he has taken calomel, 
in pills, or dissolved in a tablespoon or two of cold or warm 
water. It is not necessary that the calomel should be in the 
form of a pill ; if there is no vomiting or decided nausea, the 
next best method of taking it is to put it on the end of a spoon- 
handle or case-knife, put it in the mouth, and, suddenly turn- 
ing it over, spread or plaster the calomel on the back part of 
the tongue, and wash it down with ice-water. Then chew af- 
terwards any tough substance, such as a piece of dried beef, or 
tough bread crust, so as to clean the teeth and mouth from 
any particles of calomel which may have obtained a lodgment 
— and, even after that, rinse the mouth out well, otherwise the 
teeth may be injured. The prejudices against calomel have 
arisen from its indiscriminate and careless use. In precisely 
the same manner have prejudices quite as strong arisen against 
the use of tea and coffee, and roast beef, and fruits, until our 
whole dietetic table is reduced to grapes and cold water. 

Intelligent men have written against the use of calomel in 
jholera ; but in every case I have lately seen reported, as proof 
of the inefficacy of calomel, one of two things invariably at- 
tended that case — either other things were done or given with 
the calomel, such as opium, or salts, or ipecac, or jalap, or 
rhubarb, — or the patient died in spite of all subsequent treat- 
ment, bringing us back to the admitted point, that where calo- 
mel fails all other things will fail. All that I have said jn 
reference to the good effects of calomel in cholera, is to be 
considered as applicable to cases where nothing else has been 
given but pure calomel — where nothing else has been done but 
lying on the back on a bed, and eating ice, if thirsty. When 
calomel does not arrest the watery passages, it is because 
enough is not given ; or it is a fatal case. Since writing the 
Cholera article, an intelligent gentleman connected with one 
of our oldest and most respectable publishing houses in Broad- 
way, has informed me that a medical gentleman in the eastern 
part of the city has made a large amount of money at five dol- 
lars a case, and that, from his success, his whole time is fully 
occupied. His main treatment is from twenty to forty grains 



Observations on Cholera. 195 

of calomel at the first dose, and bathing the feet in hot water 
saturated with the salt of a fish barrel. 

I have said nothing about the subsequent or convalescing 
treatment of cholera, diet, &c, as it is a disease so critically 
dangerous that it is madness not to secure the services of a re- 
gular practising physician, even when the treatment advised 
has been followed with the happiest results. 

I wish it to be distinctly understood, that in the calomel 
treatment, everything else taken or done beside the ice and 
quiet, is a positive injury, unless under the direction of a phy- 
sician ; for any prescription however familiar — and these are 
the things which we denominate "simple, andean do no harm, 
even if they do no good*' — even a mustard plaster over the sto- 
mach or abdomen may excite an irritation in the system diffi- 
cult to control ; and sometimes, as I have seen, it produces un- 
utterable torture : a patient once begged with dying earnestness 
to have it removed, if it were " but for five minutes." 

Another "simple" is paregoric, a household medicine, the 
common destroyer of the health and lives of young children in 
the hands of ignorant mothers and lazy, unprincipled nurses. 
Ten, twenty, fifty drops of paregoric have been so often given 
under various circumstances, that it, too, is so familiar as to 
have become one of the simples, and it does faithfully act to- 
wards arresting the passages, and life too, by convulsions, apo- 
plexies or fatal congestions. A grain of opium, twenty drops 
of laudanum, or a teaspoon of paregoric, — either one is capable 
of causing convulsions immediately, when they act so as to 
arrest the looseness, suddenly. 

It is the use of opiates in loose bowels which explains the 
fact that among the eleven hundred and thirty-nine deaths in 
New York city, for the last reported week in July of this year, 
five hundred and thirty-three were from bowel affections, and 
one hundred and seventy-nine, besides, from congestions of 
various kinds, — opiates acting uniformly in one of two ways, 
soothing the disease for the moment, to break out with greater 
aggravation in a short time ; or, on the other hand, to act in a 
more summary manner, causing congestions and more sudden 

death. 

The startling fact forces itself on our attention, that now, in 
August, 1854, every other death in New York is from disorder 



196 EalVs Journal of Health. 

of the bowels, bringing us back to the point, that the very 
slightest bowel affection in cholera times, demands instanta- 
neous attention. One week later : total deaths, 1148 ; con- 
gestions, 133 ; disease of the bowels, 645 — more than one-half. 

In the week ending July 22d, there were nine hundred and 
fifteen deaths, four hundred and twelve of which were from 
diseases of the bowels, and ninety-seven more of convulsions 
and congestions. One of our most estimable citizens recently 
died with a short sickness, reported of cholera, but his three 
attending physicians certified through the papers that "he died 
of congestive fever." If this distinguished gentleman had loose 
bowels at first, as the papers stated, and took anodynes in any 
form to arrest the looseness, then it was death from cholera, 
badly treated ; and the statement that he died of " congestive 
fever " is not full, and misleads. Let my readers remember 
whenever they see a death recorded from convulsions, apoplexy, 
or congestion in any form, in cholera times, that such a death, 
in nine cases out of ten, has followed some anodyne or high sti- 
mulant taken into the stomach. I have no objection to the use 
of an injection of two or three teaspoonfnls of laudanum in 
as many tablespoons of water, or introducing into the rectum a 
plug of opium half the size of a common hazlenut or filbert, 
to quiet the straining or constant desire to stool, or to compose 
the bowels, at the time the calomel pills are taken, or any time 
before the physician arrives ; it saves time, gives repose, and 
has none of the ill effects of such things introduced into the 
stomach. 

It is a great mistake that calomel is slow to operate, and 
that mistake consists in not knowing what its first operation is, 
which is to arrest the action of the bowels within two hours, 
and if enough is given it will do so, in any curable case, with the 
certainty almost of a specific. Some physicians hesitate, be- 
cause they fear it will excite irritation — that is, aggravate the 
condition of things already present ; they thus think, because 
they have seen calomel given and the symptoms soon after be- 
come worse. So have I : — first, because it is the nature of 
Cholera to get worse constantly — get worse every hour ; and 
second, because so little was given, that it was simply power- 
less — all the injury it could effect was negative. While I am 
writing this, the former health officer of the port of New York 



Observations on Cholera. 197 

during the first cholera, states that they tried every thing, and 
his conclusions were, that " calomel cured as often as any thing 
else, and if any thing was to be done it was by calomel." 

While the more immediate effect of calomel in cholera, is to 
arrest the looseness more or less within two hours, then its 
stimulating energies begin, and at the end of six, eight, or ten 
hours, colored, consistent dejections appear, and then, simply 
with good nursing, the patient is safe, with ordinary attention. 

As it is malaria, from the combination of heat, moisture and 
vegetable matter uniting with some unusual constituent of the 
atmosphere, which generates cholera ; and, as this malaria is 
heaviest nearest the earth, persons are safer from cholera who 
live, or at least sleep in the upper stories of houses, as explained 
in my publication on Bronchitis and Kindred Diseases, eighth 
edition, page 317, strongly corroborated by the fact recently 
published, that in London, in 1848-9, epidemic cholera was 
fatal in the inverse proportion to the elevation of the houses 
above the general level — that is, from houses erected on a 
piece of ground forty feet higher than the general level, 
sixteen died of cholera out of every hundred thousand ; from 
forty to sixty feet, eleven in every hundred thousand ; from 
sixty to eighty, four in every hundred thousand ; from eighty 
to one hundred, only three deaths in a hundred thousand ; 
while in houses not over twenty feet above the general eleva- 
tion, thirty-one persons died of cholera in every hundred 
thousand ; and, without giving a special reason for it here, I 
only remark that temperate persons may have almost an entire 
immunity from cholera during an epidemic, by sleeping thirty 
feet or more above the ground, by eating breakfast before 
going out of doors in the morning ; and, thirdly, by having a 
good fire kindled at sundown, and not going out of doors after- 
wards, as explained at page above quoted. 

Although the whole August number was taken up with the 
subject of Cholera, and a great part of this number, yet I feel 
it important to say something towards counteracting a general 
and most dangerous error, disseminated and constantly repeated 
by newspaper editors, — very particularly so by some of the 
New York Daily press, and that, too, in face of the fact, that 
some of these papers have medical editors in their department. 
This fatal error is, that Cholera is a very mysterious disease, 



198 Rail's Journal of Health. 

and, in the main, falls upon its victim with the suddenness and 
fatality of a thunderbolt. The inevitable and practical result 
is, that a species of terror attends an attack of Cholera, in a 
vast number of instances, having a more injurious effect than 
the disease itself. A case in hand is given in the Buffalo Be- 
public of the 27th July : 

" A strong, healthy laboring man was seized with Cholera. 
The moment he became aware that the disease was upon him, 
he grew excited, calling for all the medical aid that could be 
got around him. They came, administered remedies, and con- 
sulted together, and were earnest in their endeavors to do every- 
thing in their power to save him. The man was still frantic 
with fear, and called upon them individually to save him. 
6 Save my life,' said he, ' and I will give you one thousand dol- 
lars.' His physicians tried to calm his feelings and subdue his 
fears, assuring him that it was absolutely necessary that he 
should be calm and tranquil in order to give effect to the me- 
dicine and check the disease. Fear, however, had taken such 
tirm hold of him that he could not refrain from continued cries 
for help until prostrated and unable to speak, w T hen death put 
an end to his sufferings and fears." 

Let it be remembered by all, that there is no positive evi- 
dence that any man ever dies w r ithin twenty-four hours after 
the first onset of the disease. I make the statement with great 
deliberation, and certainly not without many searching inqui- 
ries and close observations. I have never yet, in a single in- 
stance, failed to find, that even days before, something was 
amiss, but so slight as not to fix attention, and almost to be un- 
remembered in a dozen hours afterwards. I earnestly trust 
that educated physicians — men of age and character in the 
community — will make observations in this direction, and come 
out openly, under their own proper signatures, and let the peo- 
ple know something tangible, something practical on this 
death-dealing subject. How is it that in twenty years medical 
men have not arrived at some few general principles, practical 
in their nature — some few principles so intuitively truthful as 
to command the unanimous assent of the commonest observers. 
Such principles do exist, and they ought to he searched out 
and published by authority. For example, in the first stages 
of cholera in actual existence, there is a wanting to rest; nature. 



Observations on Cholera. 199 

reason, common sense, instinct — all teach that rest of the most 
perfect kind should be observed ; and yet what physician does 
not know how fruitlessly men fight against this inclination and 
perish in the contest. All classes or sects of physicians claim 
the successful treatment of cholera, and no doubt all are more 
or less successful — those who bleed and those who do not ; 
those who give calomel and those who deprecate its employ- 
ment as useless, if not fatal ; those who give nothing but inter- 
nal remedies ; those who do nothing but make external appli- 
cations ; those who starve and those who feed ; those who 
drown with water and those who deny a drop. It seems to me 
quite apparent that the reason all modes of treatment are 
more or less effectual, does not lie in the fact that cholera is 
not a dangerous or a critical disease, but that there must be 
some general principles of treatment which run through all 
the modes practised. If these general principles could be 
culled out, and, in addition, some really first symptom of cho- 
lera were fixed on, far earlier than the painless looseness, then 
not a creature need die where millions now do ! 

Reader of mine, in the shades of the forties, you have found 
more than once or twice, that in times of real difficulty, if you 
could not help yourself, you had to go unhelped. This is as it 
should be — it makes men self-reliant ; he who is always helped 
remains a baby always, and his name and memory rot in 
" ninety days after" his body. This being so, let us help our- 
selves, in the present dearth of help amid such myriads of doc- 
tors and certain infallible cures for cholera, and endeavor to find 
some two or three or more things which all " pathies " attend 
to in the treatment of the fearful scourge. 

1st. It is becoming a matter of universal assent, that in cho- 
lera times, a painless, weakening, inodorous, watery, light- 
colored looseness of the bowels is actual cholera. Few die 
who instantly call in competent medical aid. 

2d. All admit the imperative, the absolute necessity of per- 
fect quietude from the instant the first symptom is noticed. 

3d. So few deny, over their own proper names, that swal- 
lowing ice is beneficial, or, if not attainable, ice-cold water, m 
one or two swallows only at a time, repeated every few minutes 
when there is thirst, we may safely take this as a third general 
principle. 



200 HalVs Journal of Health. 

4th. No one denies that the looseness should be arrested 
without delay. 

♦5th. That it is madness not to secure the services of a regu- 
lar practising physician at the earliest moment. 

6th. If at all possible, make a positive arrangement that the 
medical attendant shall see you once an hour, until the crisis 
is past. 

Now, if instead of the first general principle above named, 
mine is substituted — that, in cholera times, the first symp- 
tom of the onset of cholera is simply a weakening uncomfort- 
ableness about the belly — then cholera will become one of the 
least fatal of all known diseases. 

If newspaper editors were to cause these items to be univer- 
sally known and believed — as the press only can do — then 
would I be willing that every cholera prescription ever pub- 
lished, except in standard medical works, should be blotted 
from the memory of man ; and certain I am that human life 
thereby would be an infinite gainer. 

I have now occupied some thirty pages of my Journal in 
giving my views on Cholera ; but no subscriber will think I 
have given too much importance to the subject, should he be 
attacked himself, or have a dear child just on the verge of col- 
lapse, as the Editor had, while penning the August article on 
the subject, waiting until the last safe moment, in his unwil- 
lingness to give medicine, yet having an unfaltering confidence 
in the value of pure calomel, judiciously given, and well 
watched. 

To sum up, then, all I have said, in a few words, 

If you have, in cholera times, any reason to believe that it 
is attacking you, the first prescription is — and it is of immea- 
surable importance — send for your physician ; or, rather, if 
you happen to be from home, at your office or counting-house, 
get a carriage, and call on him on your way home. 

2d. As soon as you enter your house, do not wait to undress, 
but lie down on the first bed you come to, undressing at your 
leisure, and let nothing pass your mouth but ice, or, if not 
attainable, cold water, — one or two swallows at a time, and 
not oftener than as many minutes apart ; but if you have ice, 
you can eat it as voraciously as you desire, — but take neither 
ice nor water unless you are thirsty. 



Observations on Cholera. 201 

3d. Tin's third item is conditional. If the symptoms are 
urgent, or you find yourself becoming nervous, and a physician 
cannot possibly be had within two hours, — then swallow ten or 
twenty grains of calomel, in pill, if there is sickness at stomach ; 
if not, it will do you more good to take it on the end of a 
spoon-handle or case-knife, and plaster it over the back part 
of the tongue, washing it down with cold or iced w T ater, taking 
at the same time, if so disposed, at least as much super-carbon- 
ate of Soda, as an apparent preventive, in some instances, of 
salivation, and wait until your physician comes. 

It requires a philosopher to march up to the cannon's mouth 
while the match is just descending on the touch -hole, in spite 
of the gunner's assurance that he will not fire it off; and not 
less a quantum of firmness does it require to resist the inces- 
sant importunities of those we love, to be doing something ; if 
you have any disposition to gratify them, without injuring 
yourself, and yet do some additional good, introduce into 
the rectum a long piece of opium, which, in the shape of a 
ball, was half as large as a common-sized filbert, or, as called 
by others, hazlenut. 

" Do let me alone," is the very frequent petition of a cholera 
patient, unless he is a stranger and has no money ; in that case, 
there is no kind of necessity for a repetition of the prayer. 

Since the first four pages of this September article on Cho- 
lera were put in type, I have purchased the August number 
of the New York Medical Gazette, the regular exchange not 
having come to hand ; and having read it since its first publi- 
cation, I did not wish to be without it — and such, I hope, will 
be the feeling of the subscribers to the Journal of Health for 
years to come — for somehow or other, any man who takes and 
pays regularly for a periodical, gets to like it and the editor 
too ; or, at the very least, to feel out of sorts if he does not get 
it at the appointed time. The Gazette says of our August No.* 
as an ofi'set to its commendation, that it regards, 

1st, The definition of Cholera as defective. 

2d, The theory radically inadequate. 

3d, The treatment imperfect. 

This criticism is correct in the main ; for as to the definition, 
designing it for popular use, we wanted to present one main,, 
easily understood, and easily remembered idea. I did pre- 



202 IlaW* Journal of Health. 

cisely as I have a thousand times wished our ministers would 
do, that is, to give in each sermon one clear and grand idea, im- 
pressed in such a manner, that on his way home, the hearer is 
not inclined to talk or think of anything else. Time nor the 
daily hattle with the world will ever burn that idea out. If 
clergymen would do this, they would not run out of ideas in 
every five or six years, and resign on account of ill health. I 
name this as an incidental preventive of Cholera ; for it is 
enough to cause more than cholera to be in the chase of new 
ideas in mid-summer, for weeks at a time, and yet not a single 
one be caught — not in a whole year. Whose health wouldn't 
give out under such circumstances ? The one-idea sermon has 
two great advantages — it would be necessarily short, and being 
to the point, too, there would not be a sleepy or "forgetful 
hearer of the word" in all the congregation. So in my defini- 
tion of Cholera, I wanted the unprofessional reader to see, and 
feel, and remember the one main, practical idea, that Cholera 
was excessive motion of the bowels, and that its cure, except 
in advanced stages, was perfect quietude. 

2d. " Theory inadequate." I often think myself that theory 
is a fool, and theorizers foolees. But whatever may be the 
respective merits of my theory, and that of the Gazette, both 
lead to the same practice ; for in answer to the question, 
"What shall we do in Cholera?" proposed by many city 
friends, subscribers, and former pupils, the Gazette advises four 
things : 1st, a physician ; 2d, laudanum ; 3d, ice ; 4th, " all 
previous treatment being palliative" calomel in quantity pro- 
portioned to the violence of the attack, taken by being plas- 
tered on the tongue and washed down with ice-water. Now, 
if the Editor of the Medical Gazette had not have been old 
enough to be our greaty -great-grandfather, and forgotten, per- 
haps, more than we ever knew about general medicine, we 
might have concluded that the advice he gave in his August 
number, issued August 1st, was taken from the August num- 
ber of the Journal mailed to exchanges, 20th July. 

3d. " Treatment imperfect." And so it was purposely de- 
signed. I wished the patient to know no more than what it 
was necessary to do while his physician was coming ; and al- 
though, as the Gazette admits, " in very many cases there 
could be no better practice," and nothing more would be 



Observations on Cholera. 203 

needed, there are some cases which require more ener- 
getic means than ten or fifteen grains of calomel. My ob- 
ject was not to cause the patient to feel that he was fully 
armed at all points ; for then he would not send for a physi 
cian at ail ; and one of the main objects of the article would 
have been wholly frustrated, that is, the early call of the family 
physician, which the editor himself insists upon, is the very 
first and most important thing to be done in every instance. I 
think one of the best points in the August number is the scan- 
tiness of the advice in reference to the actual medical treat- 
ment. It is not my intention that this Journal shall ever con- 
tain an article that, by any torture, can be made to take the 
administration of medicine out of the hands of the regularly 
educated and honorable allopathic practitioner, except in cases 
where the delay of an hour or two would be death. I do not 
say that I will even do this, except in very rare cases, which, 
indeed, I might do in justice to those of my subscribers who 
reside in the country, and may not be, as many are, within ten 
miles of a physician. 

I should have been glad, and the public would have been 
instructed, if the Editor of the New York Medical Gazette had 
given his opinion as to the truth of the main idea of my Cho- 
lera article, to wit : that, in cholera times, any " weakening, 
abdominal uncomfortableness " should be regarded as the fore- 
runner of actual cholera, and that, at that point, quietude is a 
prompt, perfect, and permanent cure. Dr. Rees is a veteran 
in the Medical Profession, an author of celebrity, and of large 
and long opportunities of observation, — and these, combined 
with a classical education, entitle his opinions (as they really 
receive) to the respectful consideration of educated practition- 
ers, and he, and Dr. Mott, and Horace Green, and Mussy, and 
AVarren, and Jackson of Philadelphia, are the very men who 
ought to have come forward long ago and popularized the 
nature, first symptoms, and the un-medical treatment, while 
waiting for the physician's arrival. The public has honored 
and enriched these men, and had a right to look to them when 
the scourge came ; but, as far as I know, they have kept in the 
shade, while younger men have been afraid ; and thus, with- 
out a light or a guide, the people have died grasping at straws, 
which anonymous scribblers and ignorant or unprincipled 



204 Hall's Journal of Health. 

vendors of cholera preventives and cholera specifics have 
thrown in their way. 

Another last word as to the value of calomel, alone, in cho- 
lera. Taking allopathic practice as our guide, may we not cull 
out a seventh first principle in the management of Cholera, as 
follows: Very few, indeed, of regular practitioners ever 
attempt the treatment of a single case of cholera without the 
use of calomel, or of mercury in some other form ; some com- 
bine opium, others use calomel alone — both are unquestion- 
ably successful. Cannot the unprejudiced general reader see, 
then, that after all, calomel is the efficient agent, — and, inas- 
much as opium undeniably produces fatal effects, sometimes 
in the form of convulsions, congestions and water on the brain, 
while by detaining the calomel in the system too long, it causes 
salivation, mercurial fever, loosening the teeth, eating away 
the gums, and sometimes large holes in the cheeks of children, 
which nothing but death can arrest, — I ask the simple ques- 
tion, is it not imprudent, to say the least of it, to advise any 
one not a physician to take opium in any form, or opium in 
combination with calomel, for cholera, or anything else, unless 
the physician is by to superintend its administration ? What I 
glory in, as a medical practitioner, is to be on the safe side — 
my motto, from earliest practice, has been, rather let a patient 
die without medicine, than with too much. 

I know of no paper published on the subject of Cholera, 
which has been so largely and so generally copied from, as 
that of our August Number. Physicians from different parts 
of the couniry have applied for it. The secular newspapers 
have, as far as I have seen, given it a unanimous and friendly 
commendation ; while the Medical press has also regarded it 
with favor, one of them declaring, that as a general rule, 
" there could be no better practice," and that " it is greatly to 
be preferred to any newspaper article" that has come under its 
notice. To my medical brethren I desire to say, that they will 
be disappointed in it. It was not designed to instruct them, 
but to present to the people for practical observance, some 
general, main principles, intuitively seen, readily understood, 
and easy to be remembered. Medical men entertain different 
views as to the theory of the disease, — but that is pretty much 
like the "how" of the origin of a fire ; the fire is there, and 



Observations on Cholera. 205 

all agree that water mast be applied to put it out. So all 
classes of physicians admit that the " looseness " must bo 
speedily arrested ; and the main reliance of legitimate medi- 
cine is calomel and its combinations. Where I stand-out from 
them, is in the manner of using the calomel. Now, there is 
something so curious in this, that I wish to draw editorial at- 
tention to the subject ; for it must be admitted, that a new 
profession has arisen among men, and that the Press vies with 
the Pulpit in the regulation of the world ; reforms cannot pro- 
gress without its aid — prejudices cannot be annihilated, and 
newer and more truthful views substituted, without its co- 
operation. Christian men, especially, ought to understand 
that a united tripod will sweep before it the Faculty, the Pul- 
pit, and the Bar, as the whirlwind sweeps the chaff of the 
threshing-floor ; and the time has already come when young 
men should be educated for the sanctum with as much direct- 
ness as they are educated for law, physic, or divinity. It used 
to be said, with resistless truth, "like people, like priest;" and 
not less so is it to-day, as the papers, so are the people. For 
example, look at German newspapers — look at German prin- 
ciples in the United States, — infidel in sentiment, they openly 
propose in practice the abolition of the Sabbath, the marriage 
tie, and, in effect, all commercial municipal law. But what 
has this to do with Cholera ? Much, every way. I want the 
Press to understand its position, its power, and its duty, — and, 
feeling its high responsibility, lend me a hand in ameliorating 
human suffering, by widely diffusing correct and consistent 
views as to the nature of a disease, which, since its malignant 
appearance at Jeddore, in eighteen hundred and seventeen, is 
estimated to have destroyed about eighteen millions of the 
human family. Let the press, then, join in diffusing knowledge 
among men, as to four great points: The Nature, The Causes, 
The Prevention, The Early Treatment of Epidemic Cholera. 

Its Nature, a weakening condition of the bowels. 

Its Causes, di/rt and intemperance, in eating, quite as much 
as in drinking. 

Its Prevention, cleanliness, temperance, and a quiet mind. 

Its Early Treatment, quietude, and the prompt call of a 
physician. 

I believe that on these four points there is a perfect unani- 



206 HalVs Journal of Health. 

mity among all classes of physicians, everywhere ; but the 
people, the masses, somehow or other, do not feel its truth, 
and that is because they have not been informed with a pre- 
cision and consistency sufficient to arrest the attention and 
secure the assent of the understanding. 

Another reason for the digression made awhile ago, is, I 
wished the attention of editors drawn to the fact, that while a 
proper self-respect and common policy should prompt them to 
leave purely medical questions to be discussed by medical 
men, yet there are some points, of a practical character, upon- 
which they may very properly exercise a dignified and judi- 
cious observation, and one of these points is the administration 
of calomel in cholera. 

If I were attacked with undisputed cholera, I would do four 
things : 

1st, Lie down ; 2d, eat ice, if thirsty ; 3d, bind a piece of 
woollen flannel tightly around the abdomen ; 4th, take calomel. 

This fourth item requires a more extended mention. I would 
take an amount supposed to be sufficient. If it did not arrest 
the passages within two hours, I would double that amount, 
and continue to double each last dose at the end of each second 
hour, until the disease w T as arrested. 

Now it is the reason for this, to which I wish to direct edi- 
torial attention, as entirely competent to decide whether the 
practice is wise or not. 

Since calomel, or calomel with opium are given as a stand- 
ard prescription in allopathic practice, and both with success, 
it seems plain that calomel is the efficient agent. 

Dr. Jackson, who, for a long period, was in the service of 
the Hon. East India Company, says, that pure calomel was " a 
leading, indispensable remedy in the treatment of malignant 
cholera, none other being thought of in India" where the cho- 
lera has raged with all its terrible malignity for more than 
thirty-five years. 

Why, then, do some physicians m this country combine with 
the calomel some form of opium ? To " anchor it,'! they ex- 
press themselves ; to hold it in the system ; to keep it from 
passing off without accomplishing anything. The argument is 
this : a small force held on, against a larger force at once ap- 
plied. Fire makes water boil — a greater fire makes it boilei. 



Observations on Cholera. 207 

The East India practice, where cholera is seen in a more furi- 
ously malignant form than can be witnessed here, is to increase 
the force of the agent — that is, give larger doses ; and if near 
forty years' experience, in the most violent forms of the dis- 
ease, has led to the general adoption of the practice, in the 
most enlighten d part of India, — that is, under the more imme- 
diate eye of the East India Company, — the fair presumption 
is, that being " the " practice in severer forms, it is the better 
practice in milder cases. 

But why do not physicians here increase the force — that is, 
the quantity of calomel ? They are afraid. I do not mean to 
say of my brethren, that they are afraid of popular prejudice, 
or of pecuniary loss by abatement of practice, — because the 
true physician knows no mortal fear ; it is the fear of humanity, 
that he may injure his fellow-citizen, his neighbor, his friend, 
who has placed his life in his hands — higher confidence than 
this, can no man place on earth. But what is he afraid of? 
The baseless fabric of a vision. 

The ground of this fear is, that by a few grains of calomel, 
comparatively speaking, consequences severely injurious have 
sometimes taken place — effects which last for life ; reasoning, 
that if a small amount of gunpowder occasions disastrous results 
when fire is applied, a greater amount of powder would be 
attended with proportional injury. Reasoning by comparison 
is always dangerous. A gentleman, reading the August No., 
concluded he would carry a few ten-grain calomel pills in his 
pocket, and applied to a German apothecary to put up half-a- 
dozen for him. " What are you going to do with ten-grain 
calomel pills ?" in evident astonishment. " I will swallow 
them, if necessary." " Are you going to kill yourself?" And 
when it is remembered that German apothecaries are scien- 
tific men, educated expressly for the purpose, the reader may 
see the extent of the general prejudice when it pervades the 
intelligent classes. 

Will any physician in New York, or out of it, who opposes 
ten, twenty, fifty-grain pure calomel doses, inform me by mail, 
at my expense, if he ever knew a man to take a hundred grains 
of calomel at a time ; if not, then all that he imagines as to 
large doses of calomel being injurious, is purely hypothetical. 

Calomel in a man is, in some respects, like sugar in a cup of 



208 HaWs Journal of Health. 

coffee : you can sweeten the coffee to a certain point — beyond 
that you cannot go ; the coffee takes up no more, and the sugar 
falls to the bottom, and no use is made of it. In a state of 
disease, the human system will take up a certain required 
amount of a single dose of calomel, and will take up no more ; the 
remainder is hurtless and useless, and passes from the system 
mainly unchanged. This was the principle adopted by John 
Estin Cook, our honored preceptor, who had, in our opinion, 
one of the greatest purely medical minds of this or any other 
age or nation : but he was considered, on the subject of calo- 
mel, as mad as a March hare, or as the Apostle Paul, and for 
the same reasons, that is Paul, not the hare : 

1st. He was fifty years ahead of his time. 

2d. He, like most minds of mark, was not understood. The 
fog of prejudice was so thick, that his express declarations 
would be interpreted to the very reverse of his intentions. The 
impression became so general, that he " gave so much calomel^ 
he was scarcely able to make a living by the practice of his pro- 
fession. The same is said of the immortal Harvey. The actual 
facts were, that in any given case, he would, in the course 
of his treatment of it, give less calomel than other physicians. 
" Young gentlemen," he would say, with his manuscript lec- 
ture in one hand, and his spectacles astride the fore-finger of 
the other, sawing the air with great earnestness, " the differ- 
ence between us is this : I give a man a single dose of calomel 
— you call it a large one — and I cure him up in a day or two ; 
you give a little at a time, often repeated, and at the end of 
many days he is convalescing, — you, in the mean time, having 
given in the aggregate five times as much as I would. " 

In general practice, he did not often give more than five or 
six grains at a time ; but in urgent cases, where danger was 
imminent, he was a perfect Napoleon — he feared nothing 
when his patient's safety was involved — and I have known 
him to give from one hundred to three hundred grains of pure 
calomel at a single time, with the most triumphant success, in 
the restoration of the patient to perfect health, without saliva- 
tion or any appreciable subsequent ill result. It is known, too, 
that Southern physicians, thrown as they often are by frequent 
and great exposures, into desperate situations, have been known 
to grope their way at midnight to the calomel jar in their 



Observations on Cholera. 209 

offices, and catch it tip in their fingers, as men do flour from a 
barrel, and swallow it down, and be visiting their patients 
within the next twenty-four hours. If the reader will turn to 
one of the old dispensatories, he will find that five grains of the 
sub-nitrate of Bismuth was considered a dose which might be ! 
increased gradually to twelve or fifteen grains at a time ; and 
it was considered dangerous, becanse poisonous, to go much 
beyond that. I use it in certain forms of loose bowels, in 
doses of a teaspoonful, or a hundred grains, three times a day, 
and that with admirable advantage, apparently without any 
medicinal effect whatever, seeming to do good by acting as a 
mechanical coating over the tender surface of the intestines. 
And yet for generations it had been dribbled out in doses of 
five and ten grains, — the tyrant Authobity wielding, as it al- 
ways does, the sceptre of a despot. Here is a case parallel 
with that of calomel. Men have drawn back with consterna- 
tion at large doses, without ever having had the courage to 
take or give a large dose, and see for themselves what its 
effects would be, basing their practice on mere conjecture 
from the effects of small doses, or in combination with other 
remedies. 

In an able historical article in the New York Herald of the 
2d August, the writer says that he " was, at one time, in 1834, 
attacked in a most violent manner with Asiatic Cholera, when 
he took about six or seven even teaspoonsful of calomel before 
one remained on his stomach. Reaction then commenced, and 
he was next day enabled to walk out. The only external re- 
medy used was the temporary application of a mustard plaster 
over the stomach. The only inconvenience he felt was a slight 
ptyalism, from his susceptibility to the influence of mercury. 
But this was nothing to dying. He then tried the same treat- 
ment in other violent cases with the most uniform and perfect 
success. In 1840 he experienced another attack of cholera in 
Liverpool, and again cured himself by similar treatment. He 
became acquainted with Dr. Jackson, who had enjoyed great 
experience in the treatment of the disease during a long period 
in the Hon. East India Company's service. He informed us 
that the calomel practice, in the form and manner we have 
described it, formed the most successful practice of any 
other." 



I 

210 Halls Journal of Health. 

While such are my sentiments as to giving calomel, largely, 
in desperate cases, I do not advocate its free use in general 
practice, where I have seldom given over four grains at a time, 
and not oftener than once a week ; and with certain nauseants 
not necessary to be named in a popular Journal, I find that it 
does not fail once in a thousand times to act within the twelve 
hours, and hence nothing is given afterwards to carry it off, as 
it takes care of itself. It is the weak-minded admirer of a great 
theorist who runs the principle into the ground, making the 
step from the sublime to the ridiculous so short, that the preju- 
diced and the hide-bound " have it all their own way." 

Gentlemen of the Press, having taken a common-sense view 
of the statements I have made, do you feel prepared to abide 
by the pure calomel treatment, administered with a bold hand, 
in case you are seriously attacked yourselves ? Then let me 
arm you with a succinct statement of the advantages of it. 

1st. Calomel is tasteless, and therefore can be easily taken 
by small babies and grown ones. 

2d. It will remain on the stomach when even water is ejected 
with a powerful force the moment it is swallowed. Can't you 
see the utter inutility of every other remedy, of even a specific 
that would cure every case in ten minutes after it was swal- 
lowed, when you can't keep it in the stomach a half minute ? 

3d. Calomel costs almost nothing, is to be had at every drug 
store, and is furnished without charge at the dispensaries. 
What is the use of talking about the advantages of pure brandy 
to the multitudinous poor, who seldom have a shilling ahead ? 
Then again, where is that. brandy? Besides, every physician 
knows it will kill any man who relies upon it in any case of 
actual Cholera. 

4th. A double or tenfold dose of calomel can't kill you. 
Death, simply by an overdose of calomel, is impracticable. 
But if you take an overdose of opium, in any of its forms, 
alone or with calomel, or with any other medicine, a very 
speedy death is certain ; while in a quantity not considered a 
very large dose, it very frequently, when given for loose bowels 
in children, gives water on the brain, — and, in adults, causes 
convulsions, congestion, typhoid fevers, and death — death, too, 
in one of its worst forms, — allowing you to linger for hours 
and days in an unconscious stupor, and in that state to pass 



Observations on Cholera. 213 

from all we love. Let not such a death be mine ; let my eyes 
be open, and my intellect as clear as the dewdrop of the morn- 
ing, when that great hour comes to me. 

Trusting that what I have said will invite the unprofessional 
reader to reflection, to think for himself, and that medical men 
may be stimulated to renew their investigations, with a view 
to more truthful and more practicable ideas on a subject 
which involves the lives of unborn millions, I here introduce 
two or three articles from other sources, not endorsing what is 
said of anodynes, stimulants, or the infinitessimal dilutions, — ■ 
the last*being as yet a terra incognita, an unexplored country, 
a domain where I would like to travel, had I the time which 
thousands have so much of, yet do not use, except in studying 
how to kill it often. What a murder — what a profanation. I 
am inclined to think there is something in Homoeopathy ; for, 
as far as my observations have gone, it acts on the principle of 
the bread-pills of the regulars — they give their bread-pills with 
a serious face and a confident anticipation of good results ; and 
I see no reason why the little white ones should not do as well 
— they certainly go down easier. 

POPULAR TREATMENT OF CHOLERA. 

Suppose our profession should arouse and make a combined 
movement to help the community to an accurate discrimina- 
tion of the disease in its early stage. Why don't our editors 
instruct the public 1 The distinction between Asiatic Cholera 
and common domestic diarrhoea is palpable and easy, and every 
man can carry that distinction in his memory. Cannot an un- 
educated man tell certainly if he has an evacuation which is 
copious, watery, colorless, painless, and inodorous? Any man 
of ordinary talents can ascertain, in two minutes, that some- 
thing has happened to him which he never experienced before. 
I said painless. It is this quality of the evacuation which leads 
men to the amazing apathy so common, and permits them to 
let hours, even days elapse before the physician is at his post. 

As this Asiatic destroyer has now become Americanized, 
our people must be able to make an early discrimination, and 
our profession must learn how to prevent the fatal collapse. 
Why will not the editors instruct their readers that they can 
better afford to lose a pint of common red blood than a pint of 



212 Halt's Journal of Health. 

this colorless blood of cholera? How hopeless is the state of 
the patient from whom gallons of liquid, colorless nutriment 
have escaped ! 

If the editors, and especially my medical brethren, could 
feel as I do on the subject of incipient cholera, and lend us 
their facts and thoughts through the medical journals, in short, 
condensed paragraphs, my hopes would be answered. 

Having been watching every movement since this disease 
first broke out near Calcutta, in 1817, I have- seen no scheme 
so rational as that fixed on by the Army Board of Surgeons of 
Bengal, and, according to reports, more successful when taken 
in the early stage. It consisted of heroic doses of calomel, 
combined with opium sufficient to anchor the calomel and re- 
tain it in the bowels. The formula was a combination of 15 
grains of calomel and 4 grains of opium. Possibly it was five 
grains of opium. Fifteen or twenty grains of calomel every 
four hours, with opium only sufficient to control the bowels, 
must have a powerful and rapid effect in changing the secre- 
tions. But if every business man would keep a powder of the 
above description in his pocket to swallow if occasion required, 
it would scarcely do harm, and would greatly aid the efforts of 
the physician employed. 

M. L. North. 

Saratoga Springs, July 6th, 1854. 



BODENHAMEE ON CHOLEEA. 

The following article in relation to the Epidemic Cholera, as 
it appeared in New Orleans in the winter of 1848, is from the 
pen of Dr. Bodenhamer,now of this city. It is copied from the 
Louisville Democrat of June 12th, 1&49. Dr. Bodenhamer has 
retired from the general practice of medicine altogether, and 
is now consulting surgeon for fistulous affections and kindred 
ailments, therefore what he says may well be regarded as the 
unbiassed observations of a lover of truth. 

Gentlemen : — As our city may sooner or later be visited by 
the malignant epidemic which is evidently on our borders, 
permit me to make a few practical remarks relative to its 
causes and its prevention. It is not my intention to enter into 
any protracted scientific details or analysis, but merely submit 



Epidemic Cholera. 213 

such reflections as have occurred to my mind since my return 
from New Orleans, where this dread scourge prevailed in a 
most fatal form for some time previous to my departure. 

The local predisposing causes of malignant cholera are so 
well known, and have of late been so ably discussed here, 
that it is scarcely necessary to repeat them. A marked com- 
bination of these was eminently conspicuous in that unfortu- 
nate and afflicted city, inducing the " epidemic constitution" 
and tending greatly to develop the disease there, both in 
numbers and in intensity. For some time previous to the out- 
break of the malady, and during its early prevalence, the 
mercury ranged at summer heat, varying sometimes within 
the twenty-four hours a few degrees above and below that 
temperature. There was most of the time a drizzling, soaking 
rain, which completely saturated the earth, kept the streets in 
a most miserable condition, and drenched all who were exposed 
in the open air. Indeed there was a diversity of climate, of 
season, and of other causes, during the time, sufficient almost 
for the production of any disease. The streets, the alleys, 
the yards, the levee, the lots, &c, were in a most shock- 
ing filthy condition, filling the atmosphere with a poisonous 
exhalation unsurpassed, perhaps, by the banks of the Ganges ; 
so much so that the effluvia and the emanations of the 
city became a subject of general complaint and of universal 
notoriety. Now, it is an admitted fact, that nothing so pow- 
erfully predisposes to malignant cholera as the combination 
of humidity with impurity of the atmosphere; humid and 
contaminated air being the medium in which the poison chiefly 
lurks and propagates ; hence, in no other city, perhaps, in the 
United States, was the disease ever so fatal in proportion to 
the number attacked, and perhaps no other city in our country 
was ever so notoriously deficient in hygienic precautions and in 
sanitary measures. 

The appalling mortality, however, at the Charity Hospital, 
was obviously owing to the exposed state of the patients pre- 
vious to admission, and to the fact that none but the worst 
cases, from among the poorest and most abandoned or degraded 
of the population, were taken there. They were persons of 
exposed life, of intemperate habits, and who subsisted on 
miserable or raw kinds of food, and who entirely neglected 



214 HalVs Journal of Health. 

the premonitory stage of the disease. There being no other 
institution in that large city in which the indigent could be 
admitted, many of these poor and unfortunate creatures had 
to be conveyed in open vehicles for upwards of a mile, under 
the influence of alarm and exposed to the inclemencies of the 
weather, and to the jolting motions of a cart or dray ; all of 
which are well calculated to increase the diarrhoea and preci- 
pitate the state of collapse : hence many cases were admitted 
some hours after the disease had been fully developed, the 
pulse being imperceptible, or nearly so, the skin cold, damp 
and livid, and the features sunken. 

The deplorable state of things that existed at New Orleans, 
on the advent of the epidemic there, should admonish us to 
guard against, and to avoid as much as possible, the same 
causes. We, as well as our municipal authorities, should 
remember the important fact, that this mortal disease acquires 
magnitude and strength in proportion to our ignorance and 
neglect of its causes and prevention. It is true the constituted 
authorities of our city cannot bar-out cholera by any quarantine 
regulations, however rigidly enforced ; they cannot limit it by 
cordons and by baricades, but they can do very much to 
weaken its force, if not prevent it altogether, by adopting and 
rigidly enforcing good and substantial sanitary measures. 
They can give us uncontaminated air and pure water, by 
giving us clean streets, clean alleys, clean yards, clean 
sewers, &c. They, however, already deserve the highest com- 
mendation for their valuable and praiseworthy efforts towards 
the accomplishment of this all important object; the beneficial 
results of which, I am well convinced, will be very evident, 
very apparent, whether the epidemic visits us or not. They 
only need, for the completion of their excellent regulations, an 
efficient plan for checking the ravages of the disease amongst 
the poor and unfortunate — for the rich will take care of 
themselves — and that is, the establishment, at the first out- 
break of cholera, of temporory ward hospitals or receiving 
houses, with properly qualified physicians to attend to them. 
These houses should be sufficiently numerous, and at such 
distances as to allow as little time as possible to be lost by 
those who are attacked. 

As it is now a settled point that cholera is not a contagious 



Epidemic Cholera. 215 

disease in the strict sense of that term, and as its causes and 
its propagation are now rendered so much more definite and 
uniform, having been subjected to the keenest discussior^-and 
as its treatment, likewise, is now so much better understood 
by the profession — what good reason can be assigned, then, 
for the great excitement and the great alarm which so usually 
prevail wherever the epidemic appears ? It must be evidently 
owing in part to the rapid and fatal effects of the disease, but 
doubtless much more so to the unmanly fear of contagion, 
which always brings alarm and terror in its train, producing 
a panic or species of " clioler 'aphobia" which is scarcely less 
to be dreaded than cholera itself, being a powerful predisposing 
cause. Let no person then be frightened into cholera by un- 
necessary excitement, fear or alarm, but let each one have a 
firm and an abiding belief that it is entirely in his own power 
to prevent an attack, by attention to diet, to warm clothing, to 
cleanliness of person, to the use of baths and other means of 
ablution, to moderation in exercise, both mental and corporeal, 
to the ventilation of sleeping apartments, to the avoidance of 
undue exposure in wet or damp clothes ; and, in short, to 
everything that conduces to tranquility of mind and to sound- 
ness of body. By observing these strictly, with a hopeful 
disposition and a peaceful and cheerful conscience, a person 
may with propriety Consider himself comparatively secure 
from an attack. All should reflect seriously how much easier 
it is to prevent than to cure cholera. The idea, however, of 
preventing an attack by taking any medicine whatever, when 
feeling perfectly well, is too absurd for a moment's considera- 
tion. Nothing is better calculated to invite an attack than 
such a pernicious practice. In what better condition could a 
person be to resist disease than in perfect health ? But during 
cholerap/tobiu many persons are not satisfied with this ; they 
must needs be teazing their stomachs continually with some 
villainous compo'und or other to make themselves better than 
well. All such should remember the significant epitaph 
inscribed (at his own request) upon the tomb of the Italian 
Count, who, like themselves, experimented with his health 
under the apprehension of disease : 

K I was well ; 
Would be better ; 
Took physic, 
And died. 7 '' 



216 HalVs Journal of Health. 

The best preventive is to pursue a temperate course in all 
things, shunning all cholera medicines as preventives while in 
health As soon, however, as any of the symptoms of the dis- 
ease appear, then, and not till then, should any medicine be 
taken. The patient should at once send for his own family 
physician or for some one in whose skill and knowledge he has 
full confidence, for faith and confidence are powerful adjuncts 
in overcoming disease. The advice of such a physician should 
also previously be obtained with regard to the domestic treat- 
ment of this malady in its earliest stage, in case of sudden 
attack and while waiting for him. The premonitory diarrhoea, 
almost invariably a precursor of the disease, may, however, 
often at once be arrested by remaining at home, maintaining 
the recumbent or horizontal posture, living on crackers and tea 
and taking some very mild medicine. Nothing will so soon 
check this diarrhoea, or any other, as confinement to bed, ex- 
ternal warmth, perfect quietude and starvation, with some of 
our common opiates, cordials or astringents. The constant at- 
tendance of a physician is, however, indispensably necessary 
in all the stages of this fearful, rapid, and too often fatal dis- 
ease ; for to counteract it, the treatment must be prompt, the 
medicine must be quick, powerful and permanent in its effect. 
It must be quick, lest the disease shall have progressed beyond 
medical jurisdiction ; it must be powerful, lest it be carried 
before the progress of the disease as a straw in the current of 
the ocean ; and it must be permanent, lest the disease, after a 
short and deceptive remission, return with greater violence 
than at first. 

It is injurious to make any great change in the ordinary 
mode of living, with the exception of fruit and vegetables ; 
and reason and experience dictate the propriety of refraining 
from these altogether, or to be very sparing indeed in their 
use. Vinous, malt or fermented liquors should be avoided, 
but the very best quality of brandy, rum, gin, or " old Bour- 
bon " might, in moderation, be used. It is, however, very far 
from my wish, by this, to recommend intemperance, either 
directly or indirectly ; but I do not hesitate to state that the 
occasional use of such stimuli might be found highly ser- 
viceable during the prevalence of this mortal pestilence. 
I need hardly remark, that the habitually intemperate lose 



Epidemic Cholera. 217 

all the benefits of this remedy. The use of large quantities of 
fluids during the epidemic is also objectionable; therefore, 
persons should be careful " not to take too much water in their 
brandy." No purgative medicines whatever, (especially the 
saline) unless absolutely necessary, should be used for the pur- 
pose simply of obviating constipation of the bowels. This con- 
dition, if possible, should be obviated simply by diet and by in- 
jections. Persons should also shun as they would the pesti- 
lence itself, all cholera nostrums of which they neither know 
the nature nor the composition ; and should physicians recom- 
mend such articles to their patients without any knowledge, they 
would thereby indirectly admit that they themselves had no 
confidence in their own prescriptions, and that they were igno- 
rant of the healing art. 

With many apologies for having occupied so much space, I 
have the honor to be, 

Gentlemen, your obedient servant, 

W. BODENHAMER, M. D. 



As our Journal is taken in some families who favor Homoeo- 
pathy, we publish for their benefit the following article entire. 
It certainly contains sound advice, and may be safely and pro- 
fitably followed by all, provided every effort is made to ensure 
the earliest attention of a physician : 

HOMOEOPATHIC INSTRUCTIONS FOR FAMILIES WITH REFERENCE TO 

THE CHOLERA. 

At a meeting of the Hahnemann Academy of Medicine, 
held July 16, 1854, the Committee on Cholera reported the fol- 
lowing instructions for the domestic management of this dis- 
ease : 

1. Avoid crowded assemblies and crowded sleeping apart- 
ments, and as much as possible shun the presence of filthy 
persons, for the disease is mostly developed in crowded dwell- 
ings, ships, prisons, camps, &c. 

2. Observe cleanliness of person and enjoin the same upon 
your household. 

3. Dwellings — especially the sleeping apartments — should in 
all cases be thoroughly ventilated. 



218 HalVs Journal of Health. 

4. Pursue jour ordinary course of diet, observing some mo- 
deration as to vegetables and fruits. Night meals are to be 
avoided. Regularity in the hours of eating is very desirable. 
Alcoholic drinks are objectionable, the intemperate being par- 
ticularly liable to this disease. Ice-water and ices should be 
used with extreme moderation. Articles of diet known to dis- 
agree with the regular action of the bowels should be most 
scrupulously avoided. 

5. Avoid mental or bodily excitement or fatigue. Keep the 
person warmly clad. 

6. Cathartics and laxatives must be wholly avoided. No 
means should be taken to remove constipation, except such as 
are prescribed by a physician. The use of laudanum, opium, 
or cholera mixtures of any kind is hazardous. 

7. It is better to take no medicine as preventative of cholera, 
but the slightest derangement of the bowels should be met by 
appropriate treatment. 

8. Should there be oppression or sickness at the stomach, 
shiverings or dizziness, with or without relaxed bowels, Ipecac 
of the second or third trituration or dilution, may be taken 
every two or three hours. 

9. If there be watery looseness of the bowels, with or without 
nausea, pain or cramps, take one drop of Veratrum, first dilu- 
tion, every half hour or hour. 

10. If the diarrhoea should become profuse, with or without 
pain or vomiting, discharges very frequent, being watery or 
resembling rice-water, with or without cramps, coldness, and 
blueness, with rapid sinking, take one or two drops of the spir- 
its of camphor every live or ten minutes until reaction takes 
place. 

From the moment the diarrhoea becomes urgent, the patient 
should go to bed and be well wrapped with blankets. Bottles 
of hot water should be applied to the feet, and medical aid at 
once be summoned. No external use of camphor is advisable 
while other remedies are employed. 

Published by order of the Hahnemann Academy of Medi* 
cine, New York, July IT, 1854 



The Human Teeth. 219 



THE HUMAN TEETH. 



I have to record here an example of the success of genius, 
added to that indomitable perseverance which genius only can 
command, in reference to the subject which heads this article. 
I do it the more readily, as in one of the first numbers of the 
Journal an intimation was given that an occasional page would 
be devoted to the preservation of the Teeth, as an important 
means not only of preserving the health, but of maintaining 
personal beauty. Has the reader ever seen Queen Yictoria, 

and a squirrel ? What would she not have given to have 

had a set of teeth less like the front ones of the lively little 
animal named ? 

' Some long years ago, I knew Dr. A to be laboring after 

the ne 'plus ultra of dentistry ; but week after week, month 
after month, year after year, he labored on in his little work- 
shop, where the white heat of his furnace seemed almost suffi- 
cient to burn his eyes out or blind them with its glare : and, 
whether in December or July, there was the same toil, — the 
same cheerful hopefulness, if not actual confidence of success, 
as his motto seemed to be, that " what ought to be done, could 
be done," and that he was going to do it. Since I knew him 
to be thus engaged, he has grown bald, and age and wrinkles 
have come, but they have brought with them an enduring tri- 
umph. But, after all, what is it ? He has found a silicious com- 
pound, of an exactly equal linear expansion and contraction, 
under the application of heat, to that of the metal upon which 
it is fused. Now, this is worse than Greek to the unscientific 
reader ; but if he should live to the age of sixty years, or more, 
and does not care to look as old by a score or two, then this 
discovery will be to him a truth whose value in agreeableness 
and satisfaction cannot be accurately computed. The result 
of this discovery and invention, for it is both, is simply this : 
that false teeth can be made, including gums, more beautiful — 
because more regular — than the natural ones, more durable, 
more untarnishable, and more indestructible than they. These 
teeth can be used with comfort in eating ; the acids of the 
mouth cannot corrode them, while the teeth themselves are so 
strongly clasped by the artificial gum, that it is altogether im- 
practicable for a particle of food or the most penetrating liquid 



220 HalVs Journal of Health. 

to get between them ; hence, the mouth and the breath can 
be kept sweeter and cleaner than if the teeth were all natural. 
This cjose-fitting has never been accomplished before, because 
of the different expansibility of the material of w T hich the 
teeth were made, and that into which the teeth were fitted, — 
as also of the artificial gum which was used to bind them to- 
gether. In fact, a set of artificial teeth, with gum, is made, 
which for beauty, endurance, cleanliness, distinct articulation, 
comfortableness in mastication, expression, length, form and 
shade, has never been equalled in this or any foreign country 
I have ever visited. As a matter of personal convenience, agree- 
ableness, and satisfaction to those who wear them, the discovery 
is literally invaluable ; and if the inventor could only be in- 
duced to lay aside the diffidence which is inseparable from true 
talent, a career of successfulness w r ould open before him which 
would satisfy his largest desire. The whole Dental world, if 
they could see its full truth, will be delighted to know that — 
Dr. John Allen, of Bond-street, New York, has made a dis- 
covery by which Artificial Dentures can be so constructed, that 
in point of strength, cleanliness, life-like appearance, and adap- 
tation, a degree of perfection has been attained never hitherto 
equalled. None of the ingredients employed admit of being 
tarnished or corroded in the mouth, while the fusing substance, 
capable of any desired tint of artificial coloring, renders the 
whole as firm as a solid bone : and, when necessary, can be so 
formed as to restore sunken cheeks to their natural rotundity, 
and can be worn without appreciable discomfort, being Tcept in 
place wholly by atmospheric pressure. 



CHEEEFULNESS. 



Reader, if you would be loved by those around you, be cheerful, — it will be like 
sunshine upon the clouds. Cheerfulness qualifies us the better for society, promotes 
health, enlivens beauty, lengthens life, and increases usefulness. A cheerful face 
may hide a bleeding heart ; but grief ought eometimes to be forgotten in the desire 
to hide our own sorrows and bring sunshine instead of shade to those we meet ; — 
thus we shed a pure ray of joy on our own path, and lighten life's journey to others. 
Be buoyant, then, — look on the bright side of the picture— cheer up yourself and 
those around you too. What a treasure is a house made happy by each member of 
the family contributing a pleasant smile and a cheerful look, — bringing peace and 
quietude and gladness where else contentions reign. The writer has often felt that 
the happiest hours of her life were those spent at the evening fireside, surrounded 
by her little family, engaged with book or work, teaching them cheerfulness, content* 
ment, and piety — thus preparing them for usefulness here, for a dying hour, and the 
Judgment Day ! Mahala. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 

VOL. I.] OCTOBER, 1854. [NO. X. 

OUR FOOD AND DRINK 

It is worth the effort of a lifetime, to be able to die well ; 
to die without pain, and in a well-grounded hope of happiness 
beyond. To die without pain, we must live in health, and live 
a long time. As a very general rule, those who live to great 
age, pass away without apparently suffering, as if they were 
going to sleep. The great secret of a long and healthful life, 
lies in the judicious use of what we eat and drink. What is 
"judicious ■," we propose to discuss ; but not in such a way as 
to dictate dogmatically what this or that one shall use, but to 
let each one decide for himself, under the guidance of a few 
general principles; founded on observed facts, not on imagined 
fallacies. 

On the sixth day of June, eighteen hundred and twenty- 
two, a robust, hearty French Canadian of eighteen years, was 
accidentally shot in the left side ; the wound healed, but left 
an opening in the stomach, which allowed the physician to see 
at any time what was passing inside, and for the space of fif- 
teen years, a great variety of experiments were made and 
observations taken ; and, in the light of these we make our 
way. 

In clear, cool, dry weather, a thermometer introduced into 
the stomach, settled at one hundred degrees Fahrenheit. In 
raw, damp, cloudy weather, it remained stationary at ninety- 
four. 

One point gained, then, is, that the temperature of an empty 
and healthy stomach in good weather, is about one hundred 
degrees. 

Soon after a meal is eaten, the temperature of the stomach 
is slightly increased, digestion goes on healthily and well, and 
in four or five hours, the stomach is empty again. By diges- 



226 Mall's Journal of Health. 

tion here we mean that what was eaten, whether meat, bread, 
vegetables or other food, is gradually changed, until it becomes 
whitish, and thinnish, and sweetish, like milk \ it matters not 
what we eat, or of how many different kinds, it is the same in 
color, taste and consistence, that is, when digestion is healthy. 
When digestion is not perfect, the food ferments, becomes 
sour, rises in the mouth, generates wind, causes belching, and 
the like familiar symptoms. Digestion being a process of na- 
ture, whatever arrests digestion, is a direct interference with 
nature, always does wrong, and if persevered in, destroys 
health and life, inevitably. 

It was further observed, that cold water, swallowed during 
the progress of digestion, instantly arrested it, and the process 
was not resumed, until the water had been there long enough 
to be warmed from the temperature at which it was drank, to 
that of the stomach ; or from some forty degrees, to a hun- 
dred ; to accomplish this, the heat must be abstracted from 
the general system, chilling it. Strong, robust persons may 
not feel this, but if a man in feeble health drink cold water at 
a meal, at all largely, he rises from the table chilly, and soon 
has fever, while the stomach being kept that much longer at 
work in digesting the food, loses its vigor, the digestion is im- 
perfect, and the food becomes impure, thus laying the founda- 
tion of disease. The inevitable inference from these facts is, 
that 

COLD WATER IS INJURIOUS TO HEALTH, 

if taken at meals. Injurious to the most robust, if taken large- 
ly, and to persons in feeble health, if taken at all, beyond a 
few swallows at a meal. 

I therefore set it down, as a clearly established fact, that a 
glass or more of cold water, drank habitually at meals, or soon 
after, is a pernicious practice, even to the most healthy. 

Injury is done in another manner ; water, or any other 
fluid, dilutes the gastric juice, and thus weakens its power to 
dissolve the food. The amount of gastric juice is not lessened, 
but its power is diminished by its dilution. The finger will be 
scalded by dipping it into a vessel of boiling water ; but if 
an equal amount of cold water is added, it may be thrust in 
with impunity, although there is as much heat in the mass as 
before ; but it is more diffused. A glass of brandy will almost 



Our Food and Drink. 227 

strangle a person not accustomed to it, but if largely diluted, 
it gives no discomfort, although all the brandy is there that 
was there before. We have then made another advance, that 

Any kind- of fluid largely taken at a meal, or soon after, is 
positively injurious to health. 

Largely, is a relative term. An advance of fifty per cent. 
in the price of any thing is " large," and when it is remem- 
bered that but a few table-spoons of gastric juice are furnished 
at a meal, a glass of cold water, or two or three cups of coffee 
or tea, is a " large " amount of fluid for one meal. Thus, a 
standing item of advice to my patients is — Take hut half a 
glass of water at a single meal, or a single cup of weak coffee 
or tea, never increasing the strength or quantity, and drink 
nothing within an hour after eating. 

If cold drinks are injurious at meals, cold food is for the 
same reason also injurious ; thus it is, that some of the most 
terrible forma of disease are brought on by persistence in eat- 
ing cold food, exclusively, especially in winter time. If cold 
fluids are injurious at meal, we naturally conclude that warm 
fluids, in moderation, are beneficial, and rightly so. The 
young of the animal creation are furnished with sustenance 
warmed by nature ; and the choice morsel is warmed in the 
beak of the parent bird, before arriving at the nest of her 
young. "We instinctively, almost, prepare something warm 
for the weary or the invalid, hence the virtue oft times 
ascribed to drinking milk, warm from the cow, not a very 
palatable idea, it must be confessed. It then follows, that 

If we drink any thing at meals, it should he first warmed. 

We may safely admit, that the universal custom of a coun- 
try is founded on common sense, common sense being the 
teachings of experience. Common consent, and the experience 
of the civilized world is, that a cup of good hot coffee for 
breakfast, and a cup of good hot tea for supper, is " whole- 
some" If a person is prejudiced against " store tea and coffee," 
then any of our common garden herbs may be substituted, as 
balm, sage, sassafras, and the like ; it is the warmth that comes 
first in importance, and there must be the taste of something 
palatable in it, or the stomach will loathe it. I am well aware 
that some persons consider tea and coffee poisonous, as did an 
enthusiastic young " theological " at New Brunswick, a few 



228 HalVs Journal of Health. 

years ago, and demonstrated it, as he thought, to the old 
Domine, then in his eighty-sixth year, and still an efficient 
laborer in the vineyard. " It may be a poison as you say," 
replied the old veteran, as the sly mischief twinkled out of the 
corner of his eye, " but it must be a very slow poison, for I 
have taken it regularly night and morning for these eighty 
years, and am, as you see, not dead yet." The same has been 
said of Dr. Johnson. 

But how comes it that so many sensible people believe that 
tea and coffee are poisonous? Just as they have come to the 
adoption of any other fallacy. Somebody who had nothing 
else to do, imagined it, then hunted up facts and parts of facts 
to prove it ; and what with adding a little to one fact, and 
suppressing from another, a really plausible case was made 
out, to every reader or hearer, who had rather admit a state- 
ment, than take the trouble thoroughly to sift its truth, and 
there are many such. 

The first temperance lecture I ever heard was before an old- 
fashioned temperance society, when they allowed us to drink 
as much cider, and beer, and ale, and wine as we pleased, only 
the stronger sorts were forbidden, such as whisky, gin, rum, 
brandy, and the like. The main argument ran as follows : 
" Spirituous liquors were composed of certain elements, and 
these elements in larger quantities, were found in the most death- 
dealing-poisons." We were old enough then to understand, 
that the air we breathed contained oxygen, add a little more 
with water, and it became aqua fortis ; the shallowness of the 
argument made such an impression, that we never attended a 
temperance lecture afterwards, except once to hear Barnum, 
when it was the man who drew, not the subject. The conse- 
quence was, that we have never joined any of the temperance 
societies of the times, and never will, unless we somerset 
hugely ; not that we are enemies to temperance, or friendly 
to the habitual use of spirituous liquors as a beverage. But 
we never have been personally friendly to the " temperance 
principles," so called. We have always considered it unmanly 
to give " the pledge" anti-Christian,* and inefficient. Un- 
manly, because a true man, that is, a man in moral courage, 

* Not un-Christiaii, but simply opposed to the spirit of Christianity. 



Our Food and Drink. 229 

and a man in Christian principle, has always that self-com- 
mand, which will control his actions at the moment it becomes 
necessary to act. If it is only the rod of a pledge hanging 
over him, which restrains him, then is he virtuous not from 
principle, but from compulsion, and consequently not virtuous 
at all. My idea of a true man is, one who is prompted to act 
right, when the moment for action arrives, purely hecause it is 
right, and he loves right acting. 

I have considered it anti-Christian for any church member 
to join a temperance society, because it is an implied acknow- 
ledgment of the inefficiency of the Christian system to meet 
the emergencies of the age ; whereas, I believe His " com- 
mand is exceeding broad," embraces every good principle, 
and will reach every emergency of man, to the last hour of 
recorded time. 

For outsiders, it may be proper enough to join a temperance 
society, founded on true principles ; but for a church member 
to do so, is a degradation of his profession ; for when a man 
professes to be a Christian, he professes to be and to do all 
that he is capable of, in the way of right, and higher than this 
he cannot go. 

I do not think that it required much sagacity to foresee that 
drunkenness was not to be rooted out of the land by all the 
paraphernalia of badges, and pledges, and processions of tee- 
totallers, Washingtonians, " Sons/' " Daughters," and the 
like. If we needed proof of all this, beyond what our own 
observation affords, the reported assertion of Gough, the Na- 
poleon of temperance, is confirmatory, that of the five hundred 
thousand who have taken the pledge in the United States, four 
hundred and fifty thousand have violated it. Another great 
fact, elicited by the excise statistics of Ireland, is, that in 
eighteen hundred and fifty- three, more liquor was consumed 
in Ireland with a population of a little over six millions, than 
there was before Father Matthew administered the pledge to 
fanatical thousands, in a population of eight millions. 

I lay it down as a universal and infallible fact, that success 
m accomplishing any great reform is to he attained in one of 
two ways — the individual must eefoem either feom a high 
and abiding sense of kight, oe feom necessity. Therefore, as 
to the temperance purpose, the end must be attained by the 



230 RalVs Journal of Health. 

high sense of right, on the part of Christians and others of 
high moral principles, and by the " necessity " on the part of 
all others, and that necessity is fundamentally 

THE MAINE LAW. 

I believe that, at this age of the world, nothing can eradi- 
cate drunkenness and its myriads of woes but the Maine Law, 
in essence ; and I believe its enactment and execution will. 
When the millennium comes, that is, when true religion gen- 
erally prevails, no Maine Law will be needed. 

While writing the above, the inquiry came across me, will 
not these announcements lose me subscribers ? Styling it 
" anti-Christian for a member of the church to join a temper- 
ance society ?" A classmate of mine, who sits in his little 
sanctum, and wields an influence throughout this wide repub- 
lic, and will leave it to be felt long after he has passed away, 
said in a confiding hour, " I am afraid to publish all that I 
believe to be true." I wondered at it, too, for I knew him, 
just out of his teens, to brave the indignation of a class of 
three hundred young men, rather than make a pledge to some 
principle of a secret organization which he did not consider 
right. Has battling with the cold, hard world bowed his 
proud young heart ; or has age brought with it its "fears in 
the way" its "policy" and its concealments? Alas, that it 
should be so ! that we cannot remain through age, and penury, 
and sickness, and to the latest hour of life, the same proud, 
fearless, independent spirits we were, when glorious youth was 
ours. 

If fearing to say what we believe to be true, in a proper 
place, time and manner, is a sign of age, then am I not old, 
then on the contrary am I growing younger, for constantly some 
new shackle is falling off me, and constantly is public opinion 
having less influence over me, because I have known public 
opinion to be wrong, and it was one of the secret promptings 
to publish this journal, to call in question some of these public 
opinions, for the purpose, not of denouncing, but of stimulating 
scientific reinvestigation as to health, bodily, mental, social. 

Before this temperance digression we were legitimately dis- 
cussing the subject of drinks in relation to health, and were 
saying that men had been led astray as to use of tea and coffee 



Our Food and Brink. 231 

as they had been led astray as to other things, giving tempe- 
rance as an example, that it had ran off into fanaticism in con- 
sequence of the ignorance of some of its over zealous un- 
fledged advocates. The grand starting point of all the friends 
of " Temperance" so called, is that " a mere stimulus is useless 
and pernicious, coffee is nothing more than a mere stimulus, 
tea is nothing more than a mere stimulus : therefore, tea and 
coffee are useless and pernicious ; it is a sin to practice what is 
pernicious, therefore the use of tea and coffee is a sin : no chris- 
tian can possibly live in the habitual commission of any sin, 
therefore, to use tea and coffee is unchristian," so runs the 
argument as to the use of ardent spirits, and so as to slavery. 
However conclusive this mode of reasoning may be as to rum 
and slavery, it is evidently the reverse as to the use of tea and 
coffee, and demonstrably so, because the premises are false as to 
fact ; hence all that follows, fails. 

" Once upon a time," not very long ago, a party of men left 
Salt Lake City for St. Louis, with the United States mail, to be 
delivered at Independence or " St. Joe." It was winter. They 
found the prairies covered with snow, and finally their " ani- 
mals" perished with hunger; at this stage the six men found 
themselves utterly destitute of food ; the game had taken to 
the woods, there were no rivers, the ground was covered with 
snow, they were still hundreds of miles from their journey's 
end, while the bleak winter winds whistling across the wide 
prairies in unobstructed fury, froze them sometimes almost to 
the heart's core. All, absolutely all they had to subsist upon 
under these desperate circumstances, was snow water and a 
quantity of green coffee ; this they burned and boiled in snow 
water, and upon it travelled for six days, until they reached 
a place of help. These are the bare facts of the case, as re- 
ported to government, and demonstrate that coffee, alone, is a 
sustenant, as well as a stimulant, that it contains the elements 
of nutrition, consequently it is not a mere stimulant, and all 
that has been said of " mere stimulants," is not applicable to 
it. Coffee then being of itself nutritious, capable of sustain- 
ing life for days at a time, under circumstances of severe cold 
and the labor of travelling on foot, and it being customary to 
use it with cream and sugar, which are themselves concentrated 
nutrients, and withal, being drank hot, the conclusion appears 



232 HalVs Journal of Health. 

to us legitimate as one of Euclid's corollaries, that coffee as 
generally used in this country is a valuable, nutritious, health- 
ful and comfortable item. 

Chemical analysis, has of late, under the direction of the 
most competent and intelligent minds of the age, arrived at the 
point just stated, and declares that coffee is a nutrient and that 
its essential principle, although one hundred and .twenty-five 
per cent, less, is identical with that of the tea of commerce ; 
and when facts, universal custom, and science, all unite in one 
point, surely we may feel safe, and hereafter take our cup of 
coffee and tea " in peace and quietness." 

Reader, will you not show your gratitude for this comforting 
announcement by sending, by return mail, one dollar for the 
Journal for eighteen hundred and fifty-five, and another dol- 
lar for it to be sent to the address of your clergyman ? We 
have other as comfortable announcements to make to you in 
the progress of the next year, but the January number of the 
Journal must have a messenger dollar or you will never see it 
more, out of New York city. 

Having said so much about a cup of tea and coffee, it is 
proper to say something of its preparation. Individuals and 
nations have their preferences, but some things must be laid 
down as of universal application : 

The first cup of coffee is the best. 

The last cup of tea is the best. 

Never take more than one cup at a meal. 

Never increase the strength. 

If it were a mere stimulant, then, after a while, it might, if 
not increased in strength or quantity, produce no sensible effect, 
might do no good, as brandy, opium or any other mere stimu- 
lant ; but as tea and coffee are nutritious, the more so as they 
are used with milk and sugar, a cup of the " self same" is 
likely to do you as much good and as little harm twenty years 
hence as to-day. 

It has been justly said that " In the life of most persons a 
period arrives when the stomach no longer digests enough of 
the ordinary elements of food to make up for the natural daily 
waste of the bodily substance. The size and weight of the 
body, therefore, begin to diminish more or less perceptibly. At 
this period tea comes in as a medicine to arrest the waste, to 



Our Food and Drink. 

keep the body from falling away so fast, and thus enable the 
less energetic powers of digestion still to supply as much as is 
needed to repair the wear and tear of the solid tissues. No 
wonder, therefore, that tea should be a favorite, on the one 
hand, with the poor, whose supply of substantial food is scanty, 
and on the other way the aged and infirm, especially of the 
feebler sex, whose powers of digestion and whose bodily sub- 
stance have together begun to fail. ISTor is it surprising that the 
aged female, who has barely enough of weekly income to buy 
what are called the common necessaries of life, should yet spend 
a portion of her small gains in purchasing her ounce of tea. 
She can live quite as well on less common food when she takes 
her tea along with it ; while she feels lighter, at the same time 
more cheerful and fitter for her work, because of the indul- 
gence. 

The use of tea became general in China about the year six 
hundred, A. D., and after a dozen hundred years' use, they 
seem to live as long as the Anglo-Saxons do, with whom, a 
thousand years later, it was so costly, that the East India Com- 
pany considered the present of two pounds of it to the Queen 
of England a rare gift ; and now, the average length of life 
in Great Britain is greater than when that present was made, 
although the inhabitants consume fifty-five million pounds of 
tea every year. 

The effect of tea is to enliven ; it produces a comfortable 
exhilaration of spirits, it wakens up, and increases the working 
capabilities of the brain, and brings out the kindlier feelings 
of our nature in moderation, having them always under our 
control. Alcohol, in any of its combinations, intoxicates,, 
makes wild, places a man out of his own power, he gets be- 
side himself, he can't control himself, nor can any one else 
control him, except by brute force. Upon some persons it has. 
the effect of eliciting the darkest and deadliest passions of our 
nature. Whoever heard of a cup of tea inciting its sippers* 
to " treasons, stratagems and spoils ?" In certain irritated 
states of the body, it soothes the whole system, allays inflam- 
mation, cools fever, modifies the circulation, and counteracts g 
the stupor of opium and brandy. 



234: Hall's Journal of Health. 

HOW THE CHINESE USE TEA. 

They put a few leaves in a porcelain cup, pour boiling water 
upon it, and cover the cup with a lid ; in about a minute depress 
one edge of the lid, to keep the leaves in, and sip the tea : the 
moment the cup is emptied, the cup is filled with hot water. 
This refilling is continued at pleasure, without putting in jnore 
leaves. One may in this manner have several nice cups of 
tea, from one supply of the leaf. The Chinese add nothing 
to their tea. The English added cream and sugar, at first, to 
make it more palatable ; this, in time, became a custom — the 
addition, however, by imparting increased nourishment, adds 
to its value as an item of daily diet. 

The crusader against tea and coffee will tell you that the 
main element of both is composed of the same constituents as 
strychnine, a sixth of a grain of which will kill a dog in half a 
minute, while less than a grain will kill a man. The main 
elements of strychnine and the elements of the main principle 
of tea and coffee are oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen and carbon, 
but these elements are in different proportions, and that makes 
all the difference in the world ; for, as was intimated before, 
the air we breathe is composed of nitrogen and oxygen, and so 
is aqua fortis, but in different proportions, with water added. 
Alcohol is composed of oxygen, carbon and hydrogen, and so 
is sugar. Morphine, a dozen grains of which will kill a man 
in a few hours, is composed of nitrogen, carbon and hydrogen, 
and so is the extract of tea ; but the different proportions of 
the ingredients change the very nature of the product ; hence 
we are not to judge of the wholesomeness of an article from 
its elementary constituents, but from its observed effects on 
the system in the course of a life time, or a generation ; and 
as the average duration of human life has been considerably 
lengthened, notwithstanding the enormous increased consump- 
tion of tea and coffee during the same time, their general ef- 
fect on the human system is not certainly discouraging. 

No doubt some persons are injured by the use of tea and 
coffee, but to argue that because one in a million is injured, 
the remainder of the million must also be injured, and should 
therefore forego its agreeable effects, is a tyranny not to be 
submitted to ; it is a positive folly, especially when it is quite 
certain, that the very persons who are injured by it, are those 



Our Food and Drink. 235 

who have abused its use; and to reject an article of food or 
drink because its Use may be abused, and such abuse lead to 
disastrous results, is simply ridiculous. 

TEA AS FOOD. 

Through all the wastes of Asia, the use of tea is universal; 
not its infusion, as with us, but the leaves are matted together 
like flaxseed oil cake, and as hard almost as a piece of wood ; 
these hard cakes or balls, when wanted, are dissolved in water, 
then mixed with the blood of animals, enriched with the fat 
of beef or mutton, and then eaten with a spoon like thick soup. 

THE TIME TO DRINK TEA 

is at supper, when the lightest meal of the day is taken ; for, 
by its exhilarating effects, it destroys the sense of hunger, and 
enables a person to go to sleep without having much in the 
stomach to keep it working all night, and so prevent sound 
refreshing sleep. 

One of the great secrets of health is a light supper, and yet 
it is a great self-denial, when one is hungry and tired at the 
close of the day, to eat little or nothing ; let such an one take 
leisurely a single cup of tea and a piece of cold bread with 
butter, and he will leave the table as fully pleased with him- 
self and all the world, as if he had eaten a heavy meal, and 
be tenfold the better for it next morning. Take any two 
men under similar circumstances, strong, hard working men, 
of twenty-five years ; let one take his bread and butter with a 
cup of tea, and the other a hearty meal of meat, bread, pota- 
toes, and the ordinary et ceteras, as the last meal of the day, 
and I will venture to affirm, that the tea-drinker will outlive 
the other by thirty years. 

TO MAKE A CUP OF TEA. 

The teapot itself should be as perfectly plain and even in 
shape, inside and out, as possible ; it will thus throw off less 
heat, and consequently keep hot longer, and be more easily 
kept thoroughly clean. A level teaspoon for one cup. 

When the pot is perfectly clean, and dry, put the dry tea in 
and stand it before the fire for at least ten minutes ; then pour 
on the boiling rain or soft water, let it stand five minutes, and 



236 HdWs Journal of Health. 

it is ready for use ; then put your sugar and milk in the tea- 
cup, and pour the tea upon it. 

TO MAKE A CUP OF COFFEE. 

As soon as the coffee is parched, scarcely brown, grind as 
much as you will want to use for that time ; put it in the 
coffee-pot, and pour on boiling water ; stir, place it on the fire, 
bring it to a boil ; as soon as four or five bubbles appear, 
take it off the fire, pour out a tea-cupful and return it, then 
set the pot down for one minute, next pour gently over it a 
tea-cup of cold water, let it stand another minute to allow the 
heavy cold water to sink to the bottom and carry the grounds 
with it, then put your usual amount of sugar in your coffee- 
cup, and as much boiling milk as you desire, then fill it from 
the coffee-pot. 

A FRENCH CUP OF COFFEE. 

When in Paris in eighteen hundred and forty-four, I learned 
the French method of preparing coffee, and prefer it to any 
other. 

Imagine a large tin pepper-box inverted with the bottom 
knocked out : put into this as much coffee as you desire, hold it 
over your coffee-pot, which should be large enough in circum- 
ference to receive about an inch of the quondam pepper-box, 
pour on boiling water in a stream as large as a common quill, 
and as soon as the water has passed through the ground coffee, 
it is fit for use without any special need of clearing. 

As much ground coffee as can be taken up with a dessert 
spoon is sufficient for one person. 

As coffee, when roasted, ground and exposed in an open ves- 
sel, is a more powerful deodorizer than chloride of lime, with- 
out its disagreeable smell, it is reasonable to conclude that it 
will act in the same manner in the human stomach, and by 
antagonizing disagreeable odors there, would remove foul 
breath. 

A SUBSTITUTE FOR COFFEE. 

From chemical analysis it appears that the seeds of the As- 
paragus when dried, parched and ground, make a full flavored 
coffee, but little inferior to Mocha, containing in common with 
tea and coffee, the principle called taurine. Dry the asparagus 



Our Food and Drink. 237 

berries well, after being thoroughly ripened, then rub them on 
a sieve, thus the seeds are readily separated. 

While on this subject of aliment I wish to make some sug- 
gestions as to the quality of certain articles of food, their pre- 
servation, cooking, &c, for there is perhaps even more in pre- 
paring food for the table, than in the quality itself. 

HOW TO COOK A POTATO. 

Wipe it carefully without breaking the skin, and cut from 
the thickest end a piece the size of a dime, and when the water 
is boiling, put in the potatoes. If the potatoes are watery put 
a piece of fresh lime in the water, as large as an English wal- 
nut to each dozen of good sized potatoes, then bring the water 
to a boil, put in the potatoes with the skin on as before, and in 
either case they will come out perfectly dry and mealy, if as 
soon as they are sufficiently boiled they are removed from the 
water and placed on the dish for the table, without covering 
them for a single second. 

BROILED POTATOES. 

Cut cold boiled potatoes in slices a quarter of an inch thick, 
dip each slice in wheat flour, place them on a griddle over a 
fire of bright coals ; when both sides are browned place the 
slices on a hot dish, and butter, pepper and salt to suit your 
taste, and place them hot on the table. 

FRIED POTATOES. 

Wash, peel and slice quite thin, put, say a quart of these 
slices in a quart of lard as hot as it can be made without burn- 
ing. 

TO PRESERVE CRANBERRIES. 

As the cranberry is a delightful dish in winter, it may be 
well to know that if dried a short time in the sun and placed in 
bottles, filled with them, and then closed with sealing-wax, the 
berries will keep in good condition for several years. 

TO BAKE HAMS. 

The usual mode of preparing hams for the table is by boil- 
ing ; they are tar richer if baked as follows : 

Soak the ham in clean water for an hour, then wipe it dry, 



238 HalVs Journal of Health. 

and spread it all over with thin batter, lay it in a deep dish 
with sticks under it to keep it from the grease. When fully 
done, remove the skin, and the batter which has crusted on the 
flesh side, and set it away to cool in the open air. 

PICKLES. 

As it is now the pickling season, and pickles are a very health- 
ful article of diet, it may be well to know how to prepare them 
properly. Some persons have a great horror of pickles, not 
that they have any reason for it beyond having a " notion" to 
that effect ; this has possibly arisen from the fact that young 
girls not in good health relish them very much, and eat them 
in large quantities perhaps; the superficial observer then sets it 
down as a clearly established fact that the pickles are the cause 
of the ill health, while the fact is, that anunal instinct called 
for something sour as a means of counteracting forming dys- 
pepsia, calling for something sour to aid the stomach in per- 
forming its work of digestion, vinegar being more like the gas- 
tric juice in its properties than any other known fluid, hence 
delicate persons may take them to advantage at the close of 
a meal, not swallowing the solid parts. 

Pickles should never be kept a moment in any vessel except 
it be of stone, wood, porcelain or glass ; in most other vessels, 
earthen or metallic, they soon become poisonous. 

To each three gallons of vinegar of moderate sharpness add 
a tea-spoonful of powdered alum and a tea-cup of common 
salt, then put into it a bag of pepper and such other spices as 
you desire, then it is ready to receive any kind of pickling ; 
stir them occasionally, and if there are soft ones, take them out, 
scald the vinegar and pour it hot over the pickles, and always 
let the vinegar cover the pickles well. Yinegar should not be 
boiled longer than five minutes. 

There are few subjects relating to health of greater import- 
ance than the proper regulation of the bowels without the use 
of medicine ; the judicious use of fruits will accomplish this 
to a considerable extent in many persons ; but there are times 
and places and seasons when ripe fruits, and fresh, are not at- 
tainable ; and as those preserved in spirits or sweets do not 
answer the purpose, I here introduce an anonymous article, 
which embraces much useful information on the subject of 



Our Food and DrinJc. 239 



PRESERVING FRUITS WITHOUT SUGAR. 

"We have received numerous applications for information 
about the modus operandi of putting up fruit so as to preserve 
it in a fresh state, without cooking, drying, or packing in sugar. 
It is a business that cannot so well be done in families as in 
large manufactories, where everything is arranged for conve- 
nience .; but still with a little experience and careful attention, 
every family can save enough of the various fruits of the sea- 
son to furnish their tables with a great delicacy during that 
portion of the year when they can get nothing of the kind. 
The whole secret consists in expelling the air from bottles or 
cans, by heat, and then sealing up the contents hermetically. 
If the article to be preserved is peaches, select such as you 
would for sweetmeats, and pare and cut them so they can be 
put in the bottle, and you must do this with the least possible 
delay, or they will be colored by the atmosphere. Some per- 
sons who want them to retain their natural whiteness, put 
them under water. "When the bottle is full, cork it tight and 
wire down the cork with very little projection above the glass. 
"When you have bottles enough to fill a kettle, such as may be 
most convenient, put them in and boil with the water all 
around up to the nozzle, for about fifteen or twenty minutes, 
or until the bottle appears to be full of s' earn — the atmosphere 
having been forced out through the cork. As soon as the bot- 
tles are cool enough to handle, dip the corks in sealing-wax so 
as to cover them quite tight. An additional precaution is 
used by some in putting tin foil over the wax. 

Another plan is to cook the fruit slightly in a kettle, and 
then put it in cans or bottles, and pour hot syrup of sugar in 
to fill up the interstices, and then cork and seal. The heat of 
the fruit and syrup answering to expel the air. But the less 
they are cooked, or sweetened, the more natural will be the 
taste, like fresh fruit, when opened. We have eaten peaches 
a year old that we could not tell from those sugared an hour 
before. 

Tomatoes are very easily preserved, and retain their fresh- 
ness better than almost any other fruit. The small kind are 
only used. Scald and peel them without breaking the flesh. 
Bottles should hold about a quart only, because when once 



240 HalUs Journal of Health. 

opened, the contents must be used up at once. Bottles made 
on purpose, with large throats, and. a ring on the inside are 
the best, and are better than cans for all acid fruit. The cans, 
however, are more easily secured by solder than the bottles by 
corks and wax, as the air is let out through a small puncture 
after the large opening is soldered up and cans heated, and 
that hole stopped with a single drop of solder. 

Every article of fruit will keep fresh if the air is exhausted 
and the bottle sealed tight. The least particle of air admitted 
through any imperfection of the sealing will spoil the fruit. 
If the air could be driven out without heat, there would be 
no need of any cooking, and only just enough should be given 
to expel the air and not change the taste. Many persons pre- 
fer to add syrup made by about one pound of sugar to a quart 
of water to all suitable fruits. Green corn, beans, peas, toma- 
toes, pie plant, currants, gooseberries, cherries, plums, rasp- 
berries, strawberries, peaches, are the most common things put 
up in this way. They add greatly to the pleasures of the ta- 
ble, and to the health of those who consume them ; quite 
unlike, in that respect, the common preserves. 

We have known fruit for pies put up in three-quart cans, 
by partially cooking in an open kettle, in a syrup just sweet 
enough for use, and putting the fruit in the cans hot and sol- 
dering immediately. It kept thus perfectly. 

Some fruits keep much better and with less heating than 
others. Peas are among the hardest articles to keep ; they 
contain so much fixed air. 

We advise every family in the country to try this plan of 
putting up fruits for winter use, on a small scale this year, and 
if successful, enlarge upon it next year. 

As an article of diet, as to its nutritive and medicinal quali- 
ties, not second to any known, is 

THE TOMATO. 

To many persons there is something unpleasant, not to say 
disgusting, in the flavor of this excellent fruit. It has, how- 
ever, long been used for culinary purposes in various countries 
of Europe, and has of late years been extensively cultivated, 
and become a general favorite in this country. Dr. Bennett, 
.a professor of some celebrity, considers it an invaluable arti 



Our Food and Drink. 241 

cle of diet, and ascribes to it very important medical proper- 
ties. He declares : 

1. That the tomato is one of the most powerful deobstruents 
A the Materia Medica, and that in all of those affections of 
the liver and other organs where calomel is indicated, it is 
probably the most effective and least harmful remedial agent 
known in the profession. 

2. That a chemical extract will be obtained from it, which 
will altogether supersede the use of calomel in the cure of 
disease. 

3. That he has successfully treated serious diarrhoea with this 
article alone. 

4. That when used as an article of diet, it is almost a sover- 
eign remedy for dyspepsia or indigestion. 

5. That persons removing from the east or north to the 
south or west, should by all means make use of it as an ali- 
ment, as it would in that event, save them from the danger 
attendant upon those violent bilious attacks to which almost all 
unacclimated persons are liable. 

6. That the citizens in ordinary should make use of it, either 
raw, cooked, or in the form of a catsup, with their daily food, 
as it is the most healthy article in the Materia Alimentaria. 

Professor Rafinesque, of France, says, "It is every where 
deemed a very healthy vegetable, and an invaluable article of 
food." 

Dungleson says, "It maybe looked upon as one of the 
most wholesome and valuable esculents that belong to the 
vegetable kingdom." 

Professor Dickens asserts that, " It may be considered more 
wholesome than any other acid sauce." 

A writer in the Farmer's Register says, " It has been tried 
by several persons, with decided success. They were afflicted 
with chronic cough, the primary cause of which, in one case, 
was supposed to be diseased liver — in another, diseased lungs. 
It mitigates, and sometimes effectually checks, a fit of cough- 
ing." 

The method most commonly adopted in preparing this fruit 
for daily use, is to cut them in slices, and serve with salt, 
pepper, and vinegar, as you do cucumbers. 

To stew them, remove them ripe from the vines, slice up, 



242 HaWs Journal of Health. 

and put them in a pot over the stove or fire, without water. 
Stew them slowly, and, when done, put in a small piece of 
good butter, and eat them as you do apple-sauce. Some add 
a little flour bread, finely crumbled, or a couple of crackers 
pulverized. 

The tomato is a fruit very easily raised. If the seed be sown 
in May, in good rich soil, of a warm nature, with a sufficiency 
of old, well-rotted manure, there will rarely be any danger of 
failure. When the vines begin to lean, they should be provi- 
ded with a trellis, or tied to stakes fixed in the soil, to keep the 
fruit from being injured by coming in contact with the dirt. 

PRESERVED NATURAL TOMATOES. 

Pack them in jars — laying alternately a layer of tomatoes 
and a layer of sand, until the vessel is full. Cover them closely 
to prevent the introduction of air, and place them where they 
will remain cool. Thus packed, they will last a whole year. 

TOMATO KETCHUP. 

The following, from long experience, we know to be the 
best receipt extant for making tomato ketchup : 

Take one bushel of tomatoes, and boil them until they are 
soft. Squeeze them through a fine wire sieve, and add — 

Half gallon of vinegar ; 

One pint and a half of salt ; 

Two ounces of cloves ; 

Quarter pound of allspice ; 

Three ounces of cayenne pepper ; 

Three table-spoonsful of black pepper; 

Five heads of garlic, skinned and separated. 

Mix together and boil about three hours, or until reduced 
to about one-half. Then bottle without straining. 

TOMATO FIGS. 

We have seen several recipes for putting up tomato figs, but 
the following from the Royal Gazette — Bermuda — appears to 
rest upon very reliable authority, and is no doubt valuable. 
Let our lady readers preserve it until the coming tomato sea- 
son, and then give it a trial. 

It will be noticed that Mr. J. B. Heyl, chemist and druggist 



Out Food and Drink. 243 

of this town, obtained a prize at the Show held at Mount 
Langton last Wednesday, for tomato figs. As the tomatos pre- 
pared according to Mr. Heyl's plan are very delicious, and 
may be made an article of export, we have obtained from him 
a copy of his recipe, which we subjoin for general information. 

Take six pounds of sugar to one peck — or sixteen pounds — 
of the fruit, scald and remove the skin of the fruit in the 
usual way, cook them over a fire, their own juice being suffi- 
cient without the addition of water, until the sugar penetrates 
and they are clarified, they are then shaken out, spread on 
dishes, flattened, and dried in the sun. A small quantity'of 
the syrup should be occasionally sprinkled over them whilst 
drying, after which pack them down in boxes, treating each 
layer with powdered sugar. The syrup is afterwards concen 
trated and bottled for use. They keep well from year to year, 
and retain their flavor surprisingly, which is nearly that of the 
best quality of fresh figs. The pear-shaped or single tomatos 
answer the purpose best. Ordinary brown sugar may be used, 
a large portion of which is retained in the syrup. 

Between the opening of spring and the close of summer, 
looseness of the bowels is very prevalent, the employment of 
salted ham broiled, two or three times a week, in warm weather, 
is a preventive to a considerable extent, in persons of temperate 
regular habits ; it becomes then a matter of interest to know 
of the best methods of 

CUBING HAMS. 

After the meat is cold, rub the flesh side well, and fill the 
hock with fine salt. Leave it in this state from one to three 
days, according to the size of the hams. Then pack in a cask, 
and make a pickle of salt and water, strong enough to bear a 
potato ; of sufficient quantity to cover the meat. Add to this 
pickle four ounces of dissolved saltpetre, and two quarts of 
West India molasses, for every 100 pounds of meat, and then pour 
the liquid over the meat. Should you find the quantity of 
pickle too small, add enough strong salt and water to cover the 
meat. 

Small pieces may be taken out at the end of a month, and 
smoked. Large pieces should be left in pickle six weeks. 

When the hams are very large, a portion of the thigh bone 



244 HalVs Journal of Health. 

should be removed before salting. The finest hams a refrom 
hogs not over one year old. Many persons are unable to dis- 
pose of the spareribs, feet, &c, when the weather is moderate. 
I put mine on the top of the hams, and pour the pickle over the 
whole. Then, towards spring, soak them a few hours in cold 
water before using, and we find them a delicacy rather than a 
drug. 

There is a class of invalids and weakly persons who find a 
fresh egg, taken in the morning, both grateful and strengthen- 
ing ; to such, as well as families in general, it will be well to 
know 

HOW TO KEEP EGGS FRESH. 

As detailed in the Maine Farmer, the following very simple 
plan we have never tried, and know nothing practically whether 
it be effectual or not. We found it in the " Farm Journal," 
quoted from the " English Agricultural Gazette." We pass it 
over to our readers for their consideration. 

Take a half inch board of any convenient length and breadth, 
and pierce it as full of holes, (each one and a half inches in 
diameter,) as you can. I find that a board two feet and six 
inches in length, and one foot wide, has five dozen in it, say 
twelve rows of five each. 

Then take four strips two inches broad, and nail them to- 
gether into a rectangular frame. Nail this board upon the 
frame, and the work is done, unless you choose to nail a beading 
around the top. 

Put your eggs in this board as they come from the poultry 
house, the small end down, and they will keep good for six 
months, if you take the following precautions : — Take care that 
the eggs do not get wet, either in the nest or afterwards. (In 
summer, hens are fond of laying among the weeds or grass, 
and any eggs taken from such nests in wet weather, should be 
put away for immediate use.) Keep them in a cool room in 
summer, and out of the reach of frost in winter. If two boards 
be kept, one can be filling while the other is emptying. 

The writer accounts for the preservation of eggs in this way, 
by supposing that the yolk floats more equally in the white, 
and has less tendency to sink down against the shell, than when 
the egg is laid on one side — certainly, if the yolk touches the 
shell it spoils immediately. 



Our Food and Drink. 245 



HOW TO COOK AN EGG. 



An egg should not be boiled ; it should only be scalded — 
vulgo, coddled. Immerse your egg in, or, what is better, pour 
upon your egg boiling water. For time, proportion the same 
to the size and number of your eggs, and the collateral acci- 
dents. If you cook your eggs upon the breakfast table, more 
time will be required. But if you station your apparatus on a 
good wholesome hob, where there is a fire, and so the radiation 
of heat is less positive, less time will suffice. The latter way 
is mine, winter and summer, and the difference of the surround- 
ing circumstances equalize, or nearly so, the time. I keep one 
egg under water nine minutes ; two, nine and a half ; three, 
ten ; and four, nearly eleven minutes. The yolk first owns the 
power of the caloric, and will be even firmly set, while the 
white will be milky, or at most tremulously gelatinous. The 
flavor superior to anything which a plover ever deposited will 
be that which the egg of the gallinaceous domestic was intended 
to have ; the substance, that which is delectable to the palate, 
and easy of digestion. There is perfect absence of that gutta 
percha quality, in the white especially, at once the result and 
the source of dyspepsia. I believe that eggs would be much 
more patronized and much more wholesome, if boiling were 
discarded. 

HOW TO PREPARE DIGESTIBLE TOAST. 

A highly philosophical description is given in the Household 
Almanac for 1853, of the proper mode of toasting bread. It 
is as follows : — " Chestnut brown will be far too deep a color 
for good toast ; the nearer you can keep it to a straw-color the 
more wholesome it will be. If you would have a slice of 
bread so toasted as to be pleasant to the palate, wholesome to 
the stomach, never let one particle of the surface be charred. 
To effect this is very obvious. It consists in keeping the bread 
at the proper distance from the fire, and exposing it to a pro- 
per heat for a due length of time. By this means the whole of 
the water may be evaporated out of it, and it may be changed 
from dough — which has always a tendency to undergo acetous 
fermentation, whether in the stomach or out of it — to the pure 
farina wheat, which is in itself one of the most wholesome 
species of food, not only for the strong and healthy, but for the 



246 HalVs Journal of Health. 

delicate and diseased. As it is turned to farina, it is disinte- 
grated, the tough and gluey nature is gone, every part can be 
penetrated ; it is equally warm all over, and not so hot as to 
turn the butter into oil, which, even in the case of the best 
butter, is invariably turning a wholesome substance into a 
poison. The properly toasted slice of bread absorbs the but- 
ter, but does not convert it into oil; and both butter and farina 
are in a state of very minute division, the one serving to ex- 
pose the other to the free action of the gastric fluid in the 
stomach; so that when, a slice of toast is rightly prepared 
there is not a lighter article in the whole vocabulary of cookery." 
Having said so much on the subject of edibles we will pass 
to other items, mentioning only the best method of 

PRESERVING GREEN CORN. 

Gather the ears when in full milk, and strip off all but a 
thin covering of husk ; lay these in a moderately heated oven 
or cooking-stove long enough to scald or stiffen the milk, when 
the grains are shaved off and kept in a close bag or canister. 
When wanted for use, in the season, boil it with the inner 
husk on. 



SPEAK GENTLY AND KINDLY. 

Speak gently, lady reader, for you may have a frail young 
creature in your employ, and she may be an orphan too — and 
not at all prepossessing in her manners — and sometimes disa- 
greeable ; and often do things to displease you ; but will she 
be any the better, or you the happier, for speaking to her 
harshly or unkindly ? She may have grown up without a 
mother's advice, or a father's care — no home but that accorded 
to her by strangers — no sister to share her griefs — no brother 
to shield her from the life-blasts of adversity — wandering from 
place to place, and no one to take an interest in her welfare as 
regards this life, or the one which is to come. She may feel 
lonely and forlorn, for there is nothing in the past for her to 
look back to with a pleasing recollection. The present is 
cheerless ; the future dark and gloomy ; and it is for you to 
be her friend, and help her through the toils of the day by 
speaking gently and kindly to her ; and opening to her the 



An Afflicted Man. 247 

avenues to your heart ; and let your kindness be an oasis in 
the desert of her life, and teach her how to walk in wisdom's 
ways. Then she will be better qualified to take such course as 
will meet your approbation. But remember to speak always 
gently and kindly. 

You may have a son, whom you once thought would be a 
comfort and a support in your declining years —but he has 
wandered far from the path of rectitude, and disappointed 
your most sanguine hopes, for he now prefers the grog-shop, 
or club-room, to the home-roof that would have sheltered him 
from the storms of life. Though he is in the downward road 
to ruin, remember, if you would win him back to honor's 
path, to speak gently and kindly to him. For where is that 
son, that has a heart, that can long be steeled to a mother's 
tears and kindness? A soft word, a friendly look, will vibrate 
every nerve of his heart. Then is the time to entwine the 
cords of tenderness around him, and draw him towards his 
once loved home. Then speak gently and kindly, for may be 
he will yet become the solace and staff of your journey to the 
tomb — but speak gently and kindly. 

You may have an erring neighbor, that often gets into a 
passion, and will say and do things that astonishes you, but if 
vou would convince him of his wrong, speak to him gently 
and kindly. He may sometimes say and do that which will 
injure your prosperity and reputation, but if you would con- 
trol him, speak to him gently and kindly. " Be not overcome 
of evil, but overcome evil with good," is the command of in- 
spiration. Mahala. 

GriswoWs Mills. 



An Afflicted Man.— A few days ago, a flying bookseller 

and stationer called at a publican's house in the village of , 

and offered the landlord to sell him a copy of the " Afflicted 
Man's Companion." The landlord looked at it, and returned 
the copy, saying that he had a much better one already. The 
bookseller said he should like to see it. Come this way, said 
the publican, and, introducing him into a small parlor, showed 
the bookseller his dear wife lying on the floor dead drunk, 
with an empty whisky bottle by her side. There, said the 
publican, is my copy of the " Afflicted Man's Companion." 



248 HaWs Journal of Health. 

Unsuccessful Men. — I confess that increasing years bring 
with them an increasing respect for men who do not succeed 
in life, as those words are commonly used. Heaven is said to 
be a place for those who have not succeeded upon earth ; and 
it is surely true that celestial graces do not best thrive and 
bloom in the hot blaze of worldly prosperity. Ill success 
sometimes arises from a superabundance of qualities in them- 
selves good — from a conscience too sensitive, a taste too 
fastidious, a self-forgetfulness too romantic, a modesty too 
retiring. I will not go so far as to say, with a living poet, 
that " the world knows nothing of its greatest men," but there 
are forms of greatness, or at least of excellence, which " die 
and make no sign," there are martyrs that miss the palm, but 
not the stake; heroes without the laurel, and conquerors 
without the triumph. 

A Fruitful Neighborhood. — In Wayne County, Pennsyl- 
vania, in a circle of seven miles, there live thirteen ^families, 
which boast the aggregate number of 195 children. — They are 
distributed as follows : 



Jonathan Adams - - - 


18 


Thomas Todd - - 


- - 29 


Jacob Kellum - - - 


14 


John Phillips - - 


- - 12 


John Kellum - - - - 


10 


Oliver Bullings - - 


- - 13 


David Eaton - - - - 


15 


James Brown - - 


- - 10 


Eben Brown - - - - 


15 


William Tyler - - 


- - 10 


James Adams - - - - 


14 


Amos Tyler - - 


- - 22 


Josiah Cole 


13 







Total - - - - 






- - 1 95 


J-ULctl 






X*J *J 



The race of mankind would perish, did they cease to aid 
each other. From the time the mother binds the child's head, 
till the moment some kind assistant wipes the death damp 
from the brow of the dying, we cannot exist without mutual 
help. All, therefore, that need aid, have a right to ask it of 
their fellow mortals ; no one who holds the power of granting 
can refuse it without guilt. — Sir Walter Scott. 



The opium trade appears to be very brisk at Trenton, "N. J. 
The Gazette of that city makes the curious assertion that within 
two or three years the sale of the drug in the place has in- 
creased something like a thousand per cent. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 

VOL. I.] NOVEMBER, 1854. [NO. XL 

EFFECTS OF IMAGINATION" ON HEALTH. 

What is the nature of that mysterious bond of connection 
between mind and body we may never know, but the notice 
of the effects is sometimes interesting, startling, awful, as will 
be subsequently shown by well attested facts. The general 
lesson which I wish to inculcate, because of its bearing on the 
health and happiness of men, is the importance, practically, 
of keeping the mind constantly employed in something useful 
and agreeable. One of the great secrets of human happiness 
is to be profitably busy. Of all men, they are the most mis- 
erable, who have nothing to do ; and yet, as far as my obser- 
vation has extended, those who have nothing to do, never have 
time to do anything. The mechanic who is fully employed, 
is the very man to perform a job for you punctually. When 
nothing presses on the attention, the mind is prone to dwell on 
small things ; and strangely too, these small things are, nine 
times out of ten, among the disagreeables. The absence of a 
neighborly nod from an acquaintance or fellow-citizen, who 
never failed to nod before, instantly sets a " nothing-to-do " to 
work ; his whole soml is full of business ; so much so, that he 
can think of nothing else : the mind is tumultuously tossing,, 
and all creation is veiled in a hurting gloom. There is no 
stopping to inquire whether the offending one is near-sighted \, 
whether he was not going for the doctor, or worse than that, 
" shinning it " among his business friends to meet a note in 
bank. Mr. Nothing-To-Do gets hold of a fact, or story,. or. 
occurrence, and by its help he imagines a great wrong has 
been done him ; he pores over it, he cherishes it most pertina- 
ciously, he even wakes up in the night, and thinks about it^. 
until the mind itself is fully roused, and he cannot go to sleep 
again. The more he thinks, the more sleepless he becomes,, 



250 HalVs Journal of Health. 

and tosses and tumbles about on the bed by the hour ; and as 
the mind becomes hotter, the body begins to sweat, and he 
gets up in the morning as haggard and weary as an exhausted 
madman. 

A cousin of ours, a Friend, feeling that a kind of an excuse 
was needed for not taking our Journal, volunteered a reason, 
that she had taken a "Journal of Health" once, and that a 
new disease broke out in her family regularly once a month. 
The plan of the journal appeared to have been, to detail the 
symptoms of diseases, and with a house full of young Quaker- 
esses, too rich to make it necessary to do any thing, and who 
did nothing but study how to dart weapons of death and 
destruction among all the unfortunate singletons about town, 
notwithstanding their far-famed peace principles, it w T as an 
easy thing to spend the spare time in hunting up symptoms. 

It is a well known fact among medical men, that a young 
student of physic will have a dozen diiferent diseases in the 
first year of his novitiate. Dr. Keese says : " It would seem 
as if the study of certain diseases sometimes favored their real 
or imaginary development. (The great Lsennec, who spent a 
large portion of his life in the study of consumption, fell a 
victim to it himself. So did Wooster, of Cincinnati, and Has- 
tings, of London, who set the world agog on the use of Naptha 
as a certain cure for Phthisis, and yet he failed to cure himself 
of it.) Oorvisart made disease of the heart his study, and died 
of it. When the celebrated Professor Frank of Paria was 
preparing his lectures on disease of the heart, his own be- 
came so much disturbed that he was obliged to rest for a 
while." Men and women have often come 'to me for the treat- 
ment of consumption, when on examination the lungs were 
found to be as sound and full acting as the lungs of a race- 
horse, as was afterwards proved by subsequent permanent re- 
covery ; a slight thinness in flesh, or pain in the breast, or 
troublesome cough, from a disordered stomach or liver, or dis- 
eased spine, having been magnified to mean that they were 
falling into a fatal disease. Alas, how often are these im- 
aginings taken vantage of, by wicked men, who have only 
assumed to be physicians, and subsequent restoration is bla- 
zoned abroad, and certified to, in the newspapers as " cures of 
consumption," when the consumption never existed, but in 



Effects of Imagination on Health. 251 

the imagination of a " nothing-to-do" I often feel, in reference 
to a patient : — You are too rich to j*et well ; if you had to 
take in washing at fifty cents a dozen, or had a housefuli of 
children " to do for," and no servant to help, with a sick hus- 
band to boot, you would soon be well enough. Let the reader 
remember, then — 

" A symptom is the very last thing you should think about" 
It is related of a prime minister, that to prove to his king 
that actual bodily suffering was less destructive in its influ- 
ences than imagined danger, he took two lambs, broke the leg 
of one, placed it in an enclosure with food beside it, and left 
it ; the other, with food beside it, was placed in another en- 
closure, in which was a tiger, so confined, that he could spring 
near to the lamb, but could not possibly touch it. Next morn- 
ing, the wounded lamb had eaten all its food, while that of the 
other was untouched, and the lamb itself was dead. 

Dr. Noble, in an analytic lecture at Manchester, " On the 
Dynamic Influence of Ideas," told a good anecdote of M. 
Boutibouse, a French savant, in illustration of the power of 
imagination. M. Boutibouse served in Napoleon's army, and 
was present at many engagements during the early part of last 
century. At the battle of Wagram, in 1809, he was engaged 
in the fray; the ranks around him had been terribly thinned 
by shot, and at sunset he was nearly isolated. While reload- 
ing his musket, he was shot down by a cannon ball. His im- 
pression was, that the ball had passed through his legs below 
his knees, separating them from the thighs ; for he suddenly 
sank down, shortened, as he believed, to the extent of about a 
foot in measurement. The trunk of the body fell backwards 
on the ground, and the senses were completely paralyzed by 
the shock. Thus he lay motionless amongst the wounded and 
dead during the rest of the night, not daring to move a mus- 
cle, lest the loss of blood should be fatally increased. He felt 
no pain, but this he attributed to the stunning effect of the 
shock to the brain and nervous system. At early dawn he 
was roused by one of the medical staff, who came round to 
help the wounded. " What's the matter with you, my good 
fellow ?" said the surgeon. " Ah, touch me tenderly," replied 
M. Boutibouse, " I beseech you ; a cannon ball has carried off 
my legs." The surgeon examined the limbs referred to, and 



252 HalVs Journal of Health. 

then giving him a good shake, said, with a joyous laugh, " Get 
up with you, you have nothing the matter with you." M. 
Boutibouse immediately sprang up in utter astonishment, and 
stood firmly on the legs which he thought he had lost forever. 
" I felt more thankful," said M. Boutibouse, " than I had ever 
done in the whole course of my life before. I had not a 
wound about me. I had, indeed, been shot down by an im- 
mense cannon ball ; but instead of passing through the legs, 
as I firmly believed it had, the ball had passed under my feet, 
and had ploughed a hole in the earth beneath at least a foot 
in depth, into which my feet suddenly sank, giving me the 
idea that I had been thus shortened by the loss of my legs." 
The truth of this story is vouched for by Dr. Noble. 

A St. Louis gentleman, who had a slight affection of the 
head several weeks, became alarmed a few days since, and took 
the matter so much at heart, that he fully persuaded himself that 
his head was growing unusually large. It became a settled con- 
viction in his own mind, tnat it was absolutely swelling. A few 
nights since, after taking his wife to church, he had occasion to 
leave and attend a meeting of an association to which he be- 
longed. He was very uneasy while there, occasionally feeling 
his head, and finally bolted again to the church, to get his wife, 
and go immediately home. In the hurry of leaving, he picked 
up another man's hat, vastly too small for him, and in full run, 
clapped it on his head. What was his horror to find that it 
wouldn't begin to fit! In vain he tried to press it over his 
aching brow, but the beaver would'nt yield a particle. This 
only strengthened his conviction in relation to his growing head, 
and with the utmost speed he gained the church just as it was 
breaking up and the people retiring. The congregation were 
amazed at his absent manner in calling for his wife and then a 
doctor. 

" What is the matter?" said one. 

" Oh, matter enough ! My head is getting as large as the 
court-house door — a doctor, quick I" 

In a few minutes a physician who was present, came forward, 
but couldn't satisfy him that his head had no extra bulk. He 
finally prescribed free bleeding and cupping on the back of his 
neck. The patient and his wife started home, and called on the 
way on a cupper and leecher, to get his assistance in the matter. 



Effects of Imagination on Health. 253 

Just as the man of cups was about to commence operations, 
the lady observed that her husband had a strange hat, and im- 
mediately informed him of the fact. He looked at it carefully 
for a moment, and his strange fancy of a swelled head seemed 
to give way under the disclosure, and at once he dispensed with 
the bloody preparations to reduce it. 

Not only the body, but the mind, and the heart, become dis- 
eased by giving loose to the imagination ; in this very way 
was it, that men were once led into heathenism. Paul states, 
in the first chapter of Romans, that the old w T orld " became 
vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was dark- 
ened," that is, I presume, their judgment was blinded. The 
reader will also see, I trust, the beautiful appropriateness of 
scripture language, so often repeated as a caution against " vain 
thoughts" groundless, without reason ; these vain imagina- 
tions lead to moral and physical death, and ought to be striven 
against as a religious duty, and that the reader may be aided 
in the discharge of this duty, I will conclude this article by 
the narration of an historical incident, well authenticated, and 
I will venture to say, that when once read, it will never be 
forgotten, as showing, at least, the power of the imagination. 

" WHO MURDERED D0WND3 ?" 

About the end of the eighteenth century, whenever any stu- 
dent of the Marischal College, Aberdeen, incurred the displea- 
sure of the humbler citizens, he was assailed with the question, 
" Who murdered Downie ?" Reply and rejoinder generally 
brought on a collision between " town and gown ;" although 
the young gentlemen were accused of what was chronologi- 
cally impossible. People have a right to be angry at being 
stigmatized as murderers, when their accusers have probability 
on their side ; but the " taking off" of Downie occurred when 
the gownsmen, so maligned, were in swaddling clothes. 

But there was a time, when to be branded as an accomplice 
in the slaughter of Richard Downie, made his blood run to the 
cheek of many a youth, and sent him home to his books, 
thoughtful and subdued. Downie was sacrist or janitor at 
Marischal College. One of his duties consisted in securing the 
gate by a certain hour ; previous to which all the students had 
to assemble in the common hall, where a Latin prayer was de- 



254: Halls Journal of Health. 

livered by the principal. Whether, in discharging this func- 
tion, Downie was more rigid than his predecessor in office, or 
whether he became stricter in the performance of it at any 
one time than another, cannot now be ascertained ; but there 
can be no doubt that he closed the gate with austere punctu- 
ality, and that those who were not in the common hall within 
a minute of the prescribed time were shut out, and were after- 
wards reprimanded and fined by the principal and professors. 
The students became irritated at this strictness ; he, in his 
turn applied the screw at other points of academic routine, 
and a fierce war soon began to rage between the collegians 
and the humble functionary. Downie took care that in all his 
proceedings he kept within the strict letter of the law ; but 
his opponents were not so careful, and the decisions of the 
rulers were uniformly agaist them, and in favor of Downie. 
Reprimands and fines having failed in producing due subordi- 
nation, rustication, suspension, and even the extreme sentence 
of expulsion had to be put in force ; and, in the end, law and 
order prevailed. But a secret and deadly grudge continued 
to be entertained against Downie. Yarious schemes of revenge 
were thought of. 

Downie was, in common with teachers and taught, enjoying 
the leisure of the short New Year's vacation — the pleasure no 
doubt being greatly enhanced by the annoyances to which he 
had been subjected during the recent bickerings — when, as he 
was one evening seated with his family in his official residence 
at the gate, a messenger informed him that a gentleman at a 
neighboring hotel wished to speak with him. Downie obeyed 
the summons, and was ushered from one room into another, 
till at length he found himself in a large apartment hung 
with black, and lighted by a solitary candle. After waiting 
for some time in this strange place, about fifty figures, also 
dressed in black, and with black masks on their faces, pre- 
sented themselves. They arranged themselves in the form of 
a court, and Downie, pale with terror, was given to understand 
he was about to be put on his trial. 

A judge took his seat on the bench ; a clerk and public 
prosecutor sat below ; a jury was empannelled in front ; and 
witnesses and spectators stood around. Downie at first set 
down the whole affair as a joke ; but the proceedings were 



Effects of Imagination on Health. 255 

conducted with such persistent gravity, that, in spite of him- 
self, he began to believe in the genuine mission of the awful 
tribunal. The clerk read an indictment, charging him with 
conspiring against the liberties of the students ; witnesses were 
examined in due form, the public prosecutor addressed the 
jury, and the judge summed up. 

" Gentlemen," said Downie, " the joke has been carried far 
enough — it is getting late, and my wife and family will be 
getting anxious about me. If I have been too strict with you 
in time past, I am sorry for it, and I assure you I will take 
more care in future." 

" Gentlemen of the jury," said the judge, without paying 
the slightest attention to this appeal, " consider your verdict ; 
and if you wish to retire, do so." 

The jury retired. During their absence the most profound 
silence was observed ; and, except renewing the solitary can- 
dle that burnt beside the judge, there was not the slightest 
movement. 

The jury returned and recorded a verdict of Guilty. 

The j udge solemnly assumed a huge black cap, and address- 
ed the prisoner : 

" Eichard Downie ! The jury have unanimously found you 
guilty of conspiring against the just liberty and immunities of 
the students of Marischal College. You have wantonly pro- 
voked and insulted those inoffensive lieges for some months, 
and your punishment will assuredly be condign. You must 
prepare for death. In fifteen minutes the sentence of the court 
will be carried into effect." 

The judge placed his watch on the bench. A block, an axe, 
and a bag of sawdust, were brought into the centre of the 
room. A figure more terrible than any that had yet appeared 
came forward, and prepared to act the part of doomster. 

It was now past midnight ; there was no sound audible save 
the ominous ticking of the judge's watch. Downie became 
more and more alarmed. 

• " For mercy sake, gentlemen," said the terrified man, " let 
me home. I promise that you never again shall have cause 
for complaint." 

" Richard Downie," remarked the judge, " you are vainly 
wasting the few moments that are left you on earth. You are 



256 HalVs Journal of Health. 

in the hands of those who must have your life. ~No human 
power can save you. Attempt to utter one cry, and you are 
seized, and your doom completed before you can utter another. 
Every one here has sworn a solemn oath never to reveal the 
proceedings of this night ; they are known to none but our- 
selves ; and when the object for which we have met is accom- 
plished, we shall disperse unknown to any one. Prepare, then, 
for death ; another five minutes will be allowed, but no more." 

The unfortunate man in an agony of deadly terror raved 
and shrieked for mercy ; but the avengers paid no heed to his 
cries. His fevered, trembling lips, then moved as if in silent 
prayer ; for he felt that the brief space between him and eter- 
nity was but as a few more tickings of that ominous watch. 

" Now !" exclaimed the judge. 

Four persons stepped forward and seized Downie, on whose 
features a cold clammy sweat had burst forth. They bared 
his neck, and made him kneel before the block. 

" Strike !" exclaimed the judge. 

The executioner struck the axe on the floor ; an assistant on 
the opposite side lifted at the same moment a wet towel, and 
struck it across the neck of the recumbent criminal. A loud 
laugh announced that the joke had at last come to an end. 

But Downie responded not to the uproarious merriment— 
they laughed again — but still he moved not — they lifted him, 
and Downie was dead ! 

Fright had killed him as effectually as if the axe of a real 
headsman had severed his head from his body. 

It was a tragedy to all. The medical students tried to open 
a vein, but all was over ; and the conspirators had now to be- 
think themselves of safety. They now in reality swore an 
oath among themselves ; and the affrighted young men, carry- 
ing their disguises with them, left the body of Downie lying 
in the hotel. One of their number told the landlord that their 
entertainment was not yet quite over, and that they did not 
wish the individual that was left in the room to be disturbed 
for some hours. This was to give them all time to make their 
escape. 

Next morning the body was found. Judicial inquiry was 
instituted, but no satisfactory result could be arrived at. The 
corpse of poor Downie exhibited no marks of violence, inter- 



Characteristics of Doctors and others. 257 

nal or external. The ill-will between him and the students 
was known : it was also known that the students had hired 
apartments in the hotel for a theatrical representation — Dow- 
nie had been sent for by them ; but beyond this nothing was 
known. No noise had been heard, and no proof of murder 
could be adduced. Of two hundred students at the college, 
who could point out the guilty or suspected fifty ? Moreover, 
the students, scattered over the city, and the magistrates them- 
selves had many of their own families amongst the number, 
and it was not desirable to go into the affair too minutely. 
Downie's widow and family were provided for — and his 
slaughter remained a mystery ; until, about fifteen years after 
its occurrence, a gentleman on his death-bed disclosed the 
whole particulars, and avowed himself to have belonged to 
the obnoxious class of students who murdered Downie. 



CHARACTERISTICS OF DOCTORS AND OTHERS. 

Tasso's conversation was neither gay nor brilliant. 

Dante was either taciturn or satirical. 

Butler was sullen or biting. 

Gray seldom talked or smiled. 

Hogarth and Swift were very absent-minded in company. 

Milton was unsociable and even irritable when pressed into 
conversation. 

Kirwan, though copious and eloquent in public addresses, 
was meagre and dull in colloquial discourse. 

Yirgil was heavy in conversation. 

La Fontaine appeared heavy, coarse, and stupid ; he could 
not speak and describe what he had just seen, but then he was 
the model of poetry* 

Chaucer's silence was more agreeable than his conversation. 

Dry den's conversation was slow and dull, his humor saturnine 
and reserved. 

Descartes was silent in mixed company. 
* Corneille, in conversation was so insipid that he never failed 
in wearying. He did not even speak correctly that language 
of which he was such a master. 

Ben Johnson used to sit silent in company and suck his wine 
and their humors. 



258 HalVs Journal of Health. 

_ Southey was stiff, sedate, and wrapped up in asceticism. 

Addison was good company with his intimate friends, but in 
mixed company he preserved his dignity by a stiff and reserved 
silence. 

Junius was so modest that he could scarcely speak upon the 
most common subjects without a suffusion of blushes. 

Fox, in conversation never flagged ; his animation and variety 
were inexhaustible. 

Dr. Bentley was loquacious. 

Grotius was talkative. 

Goldsmith wrote like an angel, and talked like a poor Poll. 

Burke was eminently entertaining, enthusiastic and interest- 
ing in conversation. 

Curran was a convivial deity ; he soared into every region, 
and was at home in all. 

Dr. Birch dreaded a pen as he did a torpedo ; but he could 
talk like running water. 

Dr. Johnson wrote monotonously and ponderously, but in 
conversation his words were close and sinewy ; and if his pistol 
missed fire, he knocked down his antagonist with the butt of it. 

Coleridge, in his conversation, was full of acuteness and 
originality. 

Leigh Hunt has been well termed the philosopher of Hope, 
and likened to a pleasant stream in conversation. 

Carlyle doubts, objects, and constantly demurs. 

Fisher Ames was a powerful and effective orator, and not 
the less distinguished in the social circle. He possessed a 
fluent language, a vivid fancy, and a well stored memory. 



Disparity of age in Marriage.' — Mahomet's first wife, 
Kadyah, was at least 40, when he at the age of 25 married 
her. Shakspeare's Ann Hathaway was seven years his senior. 
Dr. Johnson's was literally double his age. The wife of Lord 
Herbert Cherbury six or seven years older than her lord. Sir 
Thomas Moore's wife was also seven years older than her 
husband. Howard, the philanthropist, at the age of 25 mar- 
ried a first wife, who was then 52. Mrs. Eowe, the authoress, 
was 15 years older than Mr. Kowe. Eapel, the German 
DeStael, was about as much older. The Countess D'Osili 
(Miss Fuller) was nearly ten years her husband's senior. 
Jenny Lind, too, is said to be eight or ten years older than 
Herr Goldsmidt. 



Half a Century in Bed. 259 

HALF A CENTUKY IN BED. 

Susan Pierson, of Bridgehampton, Long Island, died Feb. 
24th, " in her 72d year, and the 52d of her extraordinary con- 
finement." Thus was announced, in the Observer of April 
27th, the death of one of the "excellent of the earth." 

Her case was peculiar ; it is probable it has no parallel. For 
more than fifty years she did not set her foot upon the floor, 
and in all that time did not sit upright in bed. One year of 
that time was spent at a neighbor's house, with which excep- 
tion the extent of her travels in fifty years was from one cor- 
ner of her room to another, once a week, in some strong man's 
arms. This change was always attended with an almost entire 
loss of voice, from which she did not recover until after a 
night's repose. The best medical skill and all her patrimony 
were expended in vain, in endeavors to restore her to health. 
The upright posture always and immediately produced violent 
retching. All hopes of her being restored to her former health 
were long since abandoned. 

All who knew the deceased knew her as " Aunt Susie" 
and all who knew her, knew an humble, truthful, cheerful 
child of God. It was the privilege of the writer as her friend, 
as it was his duty (a delightful duty,) as her pastor, to see her 
frequently. Barely, if ever, has he seen more strongly de- 
veloped these two traits of Christian character, viz : adoring 
views of God and humble views of herself. 

All her property being consumed, she was dependent. It 
was touching to hear her speak in gratitude of the goodness of 
God in providing her so good a home and so many mercies. 

For, the most part she did not suffer pain. She had all the 
time of her confinement, excepting one year, the untiring at- 
tentions of an inseparable sister, a Christian woman who sur- 
vives her, about 80 years of age. 

" Aunt Susie " lived a quiet, retired life, but not an idle nor 
a useless life. She was industrious in the use of her knitting- 
needles, almost her only employment. Her Bible w r as her 
constant companion, and was not out of her hands or out of 
reach for half a century. Three successive pastors found it 
refreshing and encouraging to retire from the more public du- 
ties and cares of their office to spend an hour with her. Many 



260 JTall's Journal of Health. 

a time has the writer gone from such interviews with her and 
her sister, more inclined to and better fitted for his labors. She 
was useful, — for she appreciated the word of God, — she stayed 
up the hands of her pastors, — she rejoiced in the conversion 
of sinners, — and she was an instance of the divine faithfulness, 
a monument of God's mercy and a trophy of his grace. 

She has gone where there is no sickness. 

The New York Observer, from which the above was taken, 
ado's its testimony to its truth, and this history is given in 
these pages, to encourage any invalid reader of the Journal 
to labor for " Aunt Susie's " faith and patience, as well as to 
shame any of them who may be disposed to complain of such 
little sufferings as may fall to their lot, and which in compari- 
son are scarcely deserving of mention. No doubt all she 
passed through was necessary to fit her for some elevated 
sphere in immortality ; and now attained, how can she look 
back upon earth, and all it3 history connected with her, and 
count it as not worthy to be named. Header, rather be thank- 
ful that so much less is imposed on you, and even that little, 
for good. 

KEFLECTIONS UPON THE LIFE OF MEDICAL MEN. 

It is painful to reflect that, after a long life devoted to a 
pursuit full of anxiety, responsibility and personal sacrifice, 
our career is arrested by disease or premature old age. It is a 
melancholy fact that very few in the profession of medicine 
reach that common allotment of " three score and ten." The 
reason is found in the painfully rigorous and exacting nature 
of the profession. Before the physician reaches his meridian, 
there can be seen the marks of corroding care deeply furrowed 
in his face, and evidences of premature descendence. He is 
made but too conscious of this in the absence of that vigor, 
elasticity, and physical energy evinced by others, no younger 
than himself, but in different positions. His long intercourse 
with affliction, and the painful contemplation of the sorrows 
of his fellow-men, tend to subdue the spirits and destroy their 
elasticity by the austere habits of his life. Thus physically and 
mentally he pays the penalty of his choice of a profession ; 
honorable and exalted as it may be, when faithfully and hon- 
orably filled, it is nevertheless the most imperative and exacting 



Reflections upon the Life of Medical Men. 261 

of all others. He looks back upon his career, and in reflecting 
upon the scenes through which he has passed, the exposures 
he has suffered, the great injustice which too often he has been 
compelled to endure, and there is nothing but a deep sense of 
duty which he owed to benevolence and humanity which 
would induce him to retrace his history or undergo the untold 
sufferings, mental and physical, through which he has passed. 
We have often looked into the deep fissures which care and 
anxiety had furrowed in the faces of those of our brethren 
who had hearts to feel, and w T hose long experience had put 
their feelings to the test, and wondered that even a smile could 
dispel the dark cloud which overcast their countenances. It 
did appear to me that I could see the working of a mind en- 
gaged in deep retrospection upon some scenes and incidents 
which memory, ever busy, was bringing into view. The 
thought of the dying struggles of a beautiful and innocent 
babe, an only child, the fondest object of a mother's love, 
comes athwart his memory, and a pang of mental suffering 
contracts his countenance, and an irrepressible sigh is involun- 
tarily drawn. The recollection of the last moments of a young 
and an affectionate wife, over whose couch he had hang for 
days and nights together, tortured by an intensity of anxiety 
which no language can describe, and under a responsibility 
which was most crushing to his moral powers. But death had 
triumphed over the resources of art and science. These, with 
numberless other trials, are ours to encounter, and the conse- 
quence is, that he soon wears away, and finally sinks under the 
accumulated weight of care and labor which, anticipating the 
ordinary and natural law of decline and loss, grind him down, 
enervates his physical man, and soon he is driven to his repose 
in the cold and silent grave. We have been led to these reflec- 
tions upon the perusal of a letter from a distinguished medical 
friend, and one for whom we entertain the most profound es- 
teem, respect and affection. Like ourselves, he has passed 
over a rugged pathway in his professional career, and like our- 
selves too, he can look back in the past upon a picture whose 
back ground is cast in melancholy shades, with here and there 
a brighter object in relief. We will give his own thoughts in 
the following beautiful and touching paragraph. — ReesJs ffl. 
Y. M. Gazette. 



262 HalVs Journal of Health. 

" 111 health and premature decrepitude have necessarily 
drawn me into retirement, from the field of general practice. 
Although I may be said to be in the prime of life, yet such is 
the prostrated condition of my physical powers that I am 
compelled to relinquish a profession which I could not, under 
other and more favorable circumstances, leave sooner than a 
fond mother could forsake her sucking child. I have thought 
some of visiting your city to avail myself of such advice and 
counsel as the Faculty could give, in order to improve my 
health, if thought by yourself and colleagues possible. But 
for my part I am quite discouraged and depressed, and I fear 
there is not sufficient recuperative energy left me to rally un 
der the most skillful treatment, having tried faithfully every 
remedy offering the least hope of success. 

"I have now nearly crossed the i stormy sea ' of professional 
life, and may be said to be standing upon the other shore, 
awaiting the call of the ' Great Physician ' to depart hence, 
and thereby escape the afflictions of the mortal body for a life 
everlasting, free from sorrow, pain and suffering. In review- 
ing my past life as a member of an honorable profession, I am 
consoled in the belief that in my limited and humble sphere I 
never knowingly did anything calculated to impair the credit, 
or debase the dignity of the profession ; and although I am in 
a great measure retired and buried from the medical world, I 
shall always look after the honor and purity of the faculty, as 
I would watch after and protect the honor and welfare of the 
wife of my youth." 

Such sentiments are worthy of the noble, generous, and 
lofty mind that conceived them, and should be adopted by 
every member of the profession. For our part, we could not 
subdue a rising emotion which swelled our bosom and moist- 
ened the eye with a sympathising tear, when reading the letter 
containing the above extract, and of offering up a silent prayer 
that he might be relieved of his sufferings and speedily return 
to the enjoyment of health, and be allowed many years to live. 
"We cannot well spare such men from among us, even if they 
live in retiracy, for their moral influence must be felt, not only 
in the community, but particularly in the professional ranks. — 
Iowa Med. Jour. 



Bo we Ever Forget? 263 

From the German of Seguera. 

DO WE EYER FOEGET? 

One of the most startling and mysterious phenomena of our 
nature is the sudden revival of the recollection of scenes, 
events and thoughts which had apparently been long forgotten. 
In many instances we can explain this by the law of associa- 
tion; but not unfrequently the recollection flashes without 
warning upon the mind. It is as though we had been gazing 
out into the blank darkness, which lighted up all at once by a 
sudden flash, should become a theatre upon which the minu- 
test events of our past life are re-enacted. 

Phenomena of this kind, more or less distinctly marked, 
occur in the experience of every individual, in his ordinary 
and normal states. But here, as in many other cases, great 
light is thrown upon the latent capabilities of the mind by its 
action, when physical disease has induced changes in the con- 
ditions which regulate its manifestation. The bodily organs 
in the healthy state seem to act as checks and as limitations 
upon the operations of the mind, somewhat as the balance 
wheel of a watch checks and regulates the uncoiling of the 
spring. AYe do not know how rapidly the wheels may be im- 
pelled until the check is taken off. The balance wheel makes 
the watch move in time ; and it may be the limitation of the 
bodily organs only which compel the mind to act in reference 
to time. A disembodied spirit may have as little to do with 
time as with space. To all spirits, in their degree, as well as 
to the Supreme Spirit, one day may, in the literal acceptation 
of the words, be as a thousand years, and a thousand years as 
one day ; so that in the future life we may continually live 
over again every portion of our past existence, not piecemeal 
and fragmentarily, but as an undivided whole ; just as the eye 
takes in a single glance the whole prospect before it, no matter 
though it be bounded only by the remotest distance from 
which the farthest ray of light has come which has been cast- 
ing upward since creation. 

Something of this sort has been remarked by those few who 
have so nearly passed the boundaries between the present and 
the future life, that they have won a glimpse of that " undis- 
covered country, from whose bourne," the great dramatist as- 



264 HalVs Journal of Health. 

sumes, falsely perhaps, " no traveller returns." De Quincy, 
the " English opium eater," relates an incident of this kind of 
a friend who was once at the point of death by drowning. At 
the moment when she was on the verge of death, she saw her 
whole life, down to its minute and apparent trivial incidents 
arrayed before her, as if in a mirror ; and at the same time 
she felt within herself the sudden development of a faculty 
for comprehending the whole and every part. And he inti- 
mates that the possibility of this mighty development is con- 
firmed by experiences of his during that abnormal relation 
between his spiritual and physical nature which had been in- 
duced by the use of opium. Abercrombie relates the case of 
a boy, who at the age of four years, was rendered insensible 
by some violence, which fractured his skull. In this state he 
underwent the operation of trepanning. After recovery, he 
retained no recollection of the operation, or of the accident 
which occasioned it. More than ten years after he was seized 
with a violent fever, during which he became delirious. And 
now the faint traces made so long ago upon his consciousness 
— traces so faint that there was no reason to suspect their ex- 
istence — were brought out under the fierce alchemy of disease, 
with the utmost distinctness, and he related the occurrence 
with the utmost minuteness. 

One of the most common phenomena in respect to old age, 
is the re-awakening of the dormant recollections of childhood. 
Many cases are on record of emigrants who left our German 
Father land, and have sought a new home in America, at so 
early an age as to have forgotten their native language ; but 
when, often in the extremest age, they lay upon the bed of 
death, those long-forgotten words come back to their recollec- 
tion, and their latest prayers are breathed in the language in 
which their cradle hymns were sung.* 

* We were once personally familiar with a remarkable case of this nature. A 
clergyman was called to visit an aged man who appeared to be dying. He had 
been married nearly fifty years, and was surrounded by his wife and children, but 
in hie illness he began to talk to them in an unknown tongue, and could not use the 
English language, which he had spoken for half a century. It was impossible for 
him to make himself understood, and as he had led a wicked life, and seemed evi- 
dently greatly distressed with his nearness to death, it was painful to witness his 
unavailing efforts to communicate his thoughts. He was one of the Hessians who 
came to this country during the Revolutionary war, and remained at its close. He 



Do we ever Forget ? 265 

Carsten Niebuhr, the oriental traveller, father of our beloved 
historian and statesman, furnishes a striking example of the 
revived recollection of scenes and events long past. When 
old and blind, and so feeble that he had barely strength to be 
borne from his bed to his chair, the dim remembrance of his 
early adventures thronged before his memory with such vivid- 
ness, they painted themselves as pictures upon his sightless 
eye-balls. As he lay upon his bed, pictures of the gorgeous 
Orient flashed upon his darkness as distinctly as if he had just 
closed his eyes to shut them out for an instant. The cloudless 
blue of the eastern heavens bending by day over the broad 
deserts, and studded by night with eastern constellations, shone 
as vividly before him, after the lapse of half a century, as 
they did upon the first Chaldean shepherds. And he dis- 
coursed with strange and thrilling eloquence upon those scenes 
which thus in the hours of stillness and darkness were reflected 
upon his inmost soul. 

The case of Tennent, a well known American clergyman of 
the last century, opens up many interesting trains of thought ; 
but none so worthy of consideration as that of the sudden 
revival of recollection. He was attacked by a dangerous ill- 
ness, occasioned, apparently, by severe and protracted study. 
One morning, after his life had been despaired of, while con- 
versing in Latin with his brother, he suddenly became insen- 
sible, and to all appearance dead. His funeral was appointed 
after the usual interval. But his physician, who was an inti- 
mate friend, refused to believe he could be dead ; whose con- 
viction was somewhat supported by the averment of one of 
the persons who assisted in laying out the body, that he thought 
he had perceived a slight warmth in the region of the heart.. 
So earnest was the physician, that the funeral was postponed;;, 
the time was again appointed, and again and again the friends 
pleaded for a little delay — first an hour, then half an houiy. 
then a quarter — but still no signs of life appeared, and it was- 
determined that the ceremony should proceed. But just at the- 

married an American woman and spent his days here, having acquired our lan- 
guage, but in his old age and feeble state the latter years of his life were apparently 
obliterated, and his earlier days and his mother tongue revived. What made the 
caee still more remarkable was, that upon partial recovery from his illness, he com- 
menced talking in English again. (Ed. Obs.) 



266 HaWs Journal of Health. 

supreme moment, the sunken eyelids were raised for an instant, 
and the body became once more an apparent corpse. An hour 
passed away, and another groan was heard, and again the body 
sunk in apparent death. Another hour and another groan, 
followed now by slight tokens of returning life. The feeble 
spark was carefully tended, and the patient was slowly restored 
to health. But it was apparent that his memory was a com- 
plete blank. The past was as entirely forgotten as though he 
had drank of the waters of Lethe. One day seeing his sister 
reading, he asked her what it was that she held in her hand. 
On being answered that it was the Bible, he rejoined, . " What 
is the Bible ? I do not know what you mean." In every re- 
spect, as far as acquired knowledge was concerned, he was a 
child again. Slowly and laboriously he recommenced his edu- 
cation, beginning at the simplest rudiments. He was one day 
reading an elementary Latin book with the brother with whom 
he was speaking in that language at the time of his apparent 
decease, when all at once he stopped as though he had received 
a sudden shock, and declared the book seemed familiar to him. 
In a short time the veil was entirely lifted, and his past ac- 
quirements and experience became once more portions of his 
conscious being. During all this time he uniformly asserted, 
that he had the most intense and vivid recollection of all that 
transpired during the days of apparent, or as he firmly believ- 
ed, real death. He dared not, he said, relate fully what he 
had seen in that spirit land ; but an account of it would be 
found among his papers after his decease. That event, how- 
ever, took place during the disturbance of the war of the 
American Revolution, and these papers, by a series of singular 
accidents, were lost, before falling into the hands of his execu- 
tor, and so were never examined. But if his own testimony — 
the testimony of a gentleman of unimpeached veracity, who 
for more than half a century thereafter maintained a character 
of remarkable soberness and circumspection — is to be relied 
upon, his soul passed from the body, and entered the world of 
spirits, where he stood in the full presence of that ineffable 
glory upon which no man may look and live. Did he, in fact, 
pass those viewless portals, which, we are told, deny all re- 
turn ? "Was his call to life a new birth from the dead ? Who 
knows ? 



Do we ever Forget? 267 

Whatever may be the bearings of this case of Tennent upon 
the subject of dreams and trances, or apparent death, it is 
certain that a forgetfulness apparently as absolute as can be 
conceived, was in fact only apparent ; that the light from his 
past existence was invisible only because obscured by the 
brighter light from the spirit land ; just as the faint stars are 
invisible when concealed by the obscuring daylight, and wait 
to be revealed when that shall be withdrawn. It is one of 
those numerous instances which go far towards warranting the 
belief that there is no such thing as absolute forgetfulness ; 
that every impression made upon the mind is ineffaceable, 
every inscription incapable of obliteration. A veil may be 
drawn between the after-consciousness and the inscription ; 
the characters may be filled up ; but this veil is ready at any 
moment to be withdrawn, the filling up to fall away, when 
the characters will become as legible as when first traced. 

There is another well authenticated case, in some respects 
still more striking, showing as it does, how slight may be the 
impressions made upon the mind, which shall yet prove in- 
effaceable. A poor servant girl, in a German town, was at- 
tacked by a violent fever. She was unable to read or write, 
but during the paroxysms of her disease, she became possessed 
— so the priests say — by a very polyglot devil. She would 
keep spouting forth in a loud and monotonous voice, uncon- 
nected sentences of Latin, Greek and Hebrew. Sheet after 
sheet of these ravings were taken down ; but those who at- 
tempted to find the elucidation of some deep mysteries in the 
Babel of unknown tongues, got their labor for their pains. At 
length her physician determined to trace out her antecedents. 
He succeeded in ascertaining that, many years before, while a 
mere child, she had been employed as a servant by a learned 
ecclesiastic, whose habit it was to pace up and down a pas- 
sage in his house, communicating with the kitchen, and read 
aloud his favorite books. These scattered and unconnected 
phrases, caught in the intervals of her labor, were now repro- 
duced by her, after an interval of many years. Passage after 
passage of the notes taken down from her feverish lips, were 
identified among the old priest's favorite authors ; so that not 
the least doubt remained as to the origin of the girl's " pos- 



HalVs Journal of Health. 

Coleridge, in speaking of this case, adds to it one of the 
weightiest comments ever uttered. " This instance," he says, 
" contributes to make it probable, that all thoughts are in them- 
selves imperishable ; and that if the intelligent faculty should 
be rendered more comprehensive," (and that this is probable, 
the instance cited above from the " Opium-eater," shows con- 
clusively,) " it would require only a different and apportioned 
organization — the body celestial instead of the body terrestrial 
— to bring before every human soul the collective experience 
of his whole past existence. And this, perchance, is the dread 
Book of Judgment, in whose mysterious hieroglyphics every 
idle word is recorded. Yes, in the very nature of a living 
spirit it may be more possible that heaven and earth should 
pass away, than that a single act, a single thought, should be 
loosened or lost from that living chain of causes, to all whose 
links, conscious or unconscious, the free will — our own abso- 
lute self — is co-extensive and co-present." 

It is no idle question, "Do we ever forget?" 



[For the Journal of Health. 

BE KIND TO CHILDKEK 

Header, be kind to children — then your name will be held 
by them, in after years, with a grateful remembrance — for 
impressions formed in childhood, though trifling in their na- 
ture, are almost always indelible. 

If we speak an unkind word to a child, how soon a shade of 
gloom will steal over its little brow : and if they have really 
done something that deserves censure, remember they are but 
children, and you must expect they will do things inconsider- 
ately ; but it is your duty to forgive, and treat them with 
kindness, for we are satisfied, from what has come under our own 
observation, that kindness will control an obstinate child far 
better than severity. If that be true, be kind to children. 

But perhaps a mother will say, " My child is so obstinate 
that I cannot help speaking to it harshly." But remember, 
mother, your harsh words have lost their power, and if you 
would control your child, let your voice be low and soft, as 
the JEolian harp : then the nerves of its little heart will vi- 



Difference Between Doctors and Lawyers. 269 

orate pleasurably at the sound of its mother's voice ; then 
even a look will control it more easily than all the unkind 
words imaginable. 

We are ourselves often troubled with children, not our own, 
but we don't say to them, because they are a little in the way, 
go home, you are always where you ought not to be ; but 
when we wish them to leave, we make them some trifling pre- 
sent, and invite them to retire, and come again at some future 
time. They most always cheerfully leave us, with their faces 
wreathed in smiles : then they are happy, and so are we. 

Reader, be kind to children ; then, when you are absent, 

they will always think of you with pleasure and delight. 

Mahala. 
GriswoMs Mills. 



DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DOCTORS AND LAWYERS. 

Judge Daly, at a late meeting of the Society for Relief of 
Widows of Physicians, said : 

I doubt if as good an understanding subsists among mem- 
bers of the medical as among those of the legal profession, and 
this, I think, may be attributed to the different manner in 
which they pursue their different vocations. The lawyer is 
always pitted against an adversary ; he is brought at once into 
collision with a skillful and well-armed opponent, in a mutual 
struggle for victory. For the display of his powers and the 
exercise of his talents, he comes into a public arena and cham- 
pions his adversary to the combat. Now the effect of this 
collision is highly beneficial and healthful. As nothing is 
more dangerous than pent-up passion or long-nursed animosi- 
ties, an opportunity is here found to give them vent; they 
consequently evaporate in this war of words, and, whatever 
sharp things lawyers publicly say of each other, the matter 
ends with a healthier feeling and a better understanding. 
" We always have a better feeling for a man," says an old 
Greek philosopher, " after we have wrestled with him,'' and 
such is the effect of this legal wrestle. It is a kind of purging 
process, stirring up all the bile and ill humors of the system, 
and throwing them off by means of this healthy agitation. 
There is, moreover, a great advantage in having somebody to 



270 HalVs Journal of Health. 

act as an umpire between them to decide the matter, and put 
an end to the strife. But, says the world-wide adage, " who 
shall decide when doctors disagree ?" Consequently, Mr. 
Chairman, it is difficult to find a more social set, when they 
come together, than a nest of lawyers. Now, the case of the 
physician is very different. He is a silent and a solitary 
worker. The matter is entirely between himself and his 
patient. He is, consequently, more exposed to the carping of 
professional envy and to the misrepresentation of professional 
jealousy. He is more easily assailed, and less easily defended. 
He is powerless himself, for he cannot champion his under- 
valuer to the lists, and overthrow him in the contest of profes- 
sional skill. He has no shrewd and keen adversary to take 
advantage of the faults, or, what may be of more value to 
him, to appreciate and feel his ability. There are no echoing 
plaudits to hail the triumphs of his genius. For the develop- 
ment, therefore, of those social feelings that grow from profes- 
sional intercourse, his position is far less advantageous than 
that of his legal brother. 



Sulky Dignity. — "We sometimes meet with men who seem 
to think that any indulgence in an affectionate feeling is a 
weakness. They will return from a journey, and greet their 
families with a distant dignity, and move among their chil- 
dren with the cold and lofty splendor of an iceberg, surrounded 
by its broken fragments. There is hardly a more unnatural 
sight on earth than one of those families without a heart. A 
father had better extinguish a boy's eyes than take away his 
heart. Who that has experienced the joys of friendship, and 
values sympathy and affection, would not rather lose all that 
is beautiful in nature's scenery, than be robbed of the hidden 
treasure of his heart ? Cherish, then, your heart's best affec- 
tions. Indulge in the warm and gushing emotions of filial, 
parental and fraternal love. Think it not a weakness. God 
is love. Love God, everybody, and everything that is lovely. 
Teach your children to love ; to love the rose, the robin ; to 
love their parents ; to love their God. Let it be the studied 
object of their domestic culture, to give them warm hearts, 
ardent affections. Bind your family together by these strong 
cords. You cannot make them too strong. Keligion is love ; 
love to God, love to man. — Anon. 



The Aims of Life. 271 

THE AIMS OF LIFE. 

It is as true as truth, that the duties of life are more than life 
itself. To live, comprehends far more than the mere eating, 
drinking, and sleeping of every day existence. Gifted, as man 
is, with an active, inquiring mind ; endowed with intellectual 
and moral powers ; with a heart sensitive and alive to pleasure 
and to sorrow; with an immorlal soul and an after destiny ; — 
the ends and aims of his existence are certainly as lofty as the 
skies, and far above the little plans and schemes of life and 
enjoyment, which now so much occupy and engross the thoughts 
of mortals. Shakespeare speaks of " the touch of nature" 
which makes all men " kin" — uniting them together by a common 
bond of brotherhood. So to live as to benefit the human race, 
rather than to act as a bane and an injury, seems the duty of 
every one. 

There is no doubt that an act of charity or benevolence 
done to another, creates in the human bosom a melody sweeter 
than the divinest harmony, and brings a reward far more precious 
than the diamonds of the richest mines, or the wealth of the 
most golden mountains. And in pursuing the journey of life 
— a rugged and thorny pathway, truly, with few flowers to beau- 
tify and adorn it — it is well to remember that all have cares and 
troubles and sorrows, which a little kindness may alleviate if not 
remove. It is well to remember that 

" Much of care 
Every human heart must bear," 

and that true benevolence consists not alone in good wishes, 
but in active deeds. The consciousness of having made one 
heart happier during the day, might well serve as a reward for 
the performance of a good action. The promptings of a benev- 
olent nature are pure and lofty, and shed a tinge of tranquil 
happiness over the life of him who possesses it. As the morning 
dew arises to heaven rich with the fragrance of the flowers it 
has refreshed and brightened, so true benevolence ascends to 
the skies, laden with the blessings of all those upon whom it has 
shed one little ray of warm and genial sunshine. — Anon. 



272 EalVs Journal of Health, 

BEER DRINKING. 

I have been repeatedly asked whether drinking Porter would 
not be a benefit in certain cases of debility, loss of flesh, and 
the like. I have never advised the use of Beer, Porter, Ale, or 
anything of that kind, as a medicine, or for any other purpose, 
because they do not give permanent and substantial advantages. 
A person using these articles will undoubtedly in numerous 
instances "fatten up," at least in appearance, especially in the 
fall, but it is a deceptive gain ; up to a certain point, there is an 
apparent improvement from its use, but all at once that im- 
provement ceases, and the person sinks rapidly to the grave. 
There is a point at which it loses all its power, and, when it 
ceases to afford its accustomed stimulus, the person dies, pre- 
cisely as in the habitual and excessive use of Brandy, or To- 
bacco, or Opium. 

"Medical men," says Dr. Gorden, "are familiar with the fact 
that beer drinkers in London can scarcely scratch their fingers 
without risk of their lives. A copious London beer drinker is one 
vital part. He wears his heart on his sleeve ; bare to a death 
wound even from a rusty nail, or the claw of a cat." Sir Astley 
Cooper, on one occasion, was called to a drayman who had 
received an injury in his finger from a small splinter of a stone. 
Suppuration had taken place. This distinguished surgeon 
opened the small abscess with his lancet. On returning, he 
discovered that he had forgotten his lancet case ; going for this 
he found his patient in a dying state. " Every medical man in 
London," concludes the same writer, " dreads, above all things, 
a beer drinker for a patient." 

Dyspepsia and Yinegar. — As soon as food reaches the 
stomach of a hungry, healthy man, it pours out a fluid sub- 
stance, called gastric juice, as instantly as the eye yields water, 
if it is touched by any thing hard ; this gastric dissolves the 
food from without inwards, as lumps of ice in a glass of water 
are melted from without inwards. If from any cause the food 
is not thus melted, or dissolved, that is indigestion, or dysj?ep- 
■ sia. Vinegar, in its action on food, is more nearly like the 
gastric juice than any other fluid known ; thus it is that a 
pickle or a little vinegar will " settle the stomach" when some 
discomfort is experienced after eating. The best vinegar for 
that or any other purpose is made thus : Mix two quarts of 
New Orleans molasses with five quarts of warm rain water, 
;«nd four quarts of yeast : use in a few weeks. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 

VOL. I.] DECEMBER, 1854. [NO. XII. 



HEALTH, WEALTH, AND KELIGIOJST 

Are the three grand duties of life. Each additional year 
confirms me in the opinion that pulpit teachings in reference to 
money are erroneous, mischievous, and inconsistent. The 
vanity of riches, that silver and gold are dross, that wealth is a 
snare, that it is hard for a rich man to enter heaven, these are 
stereotype themes and afford scope for a beautiful display of 
words and imagination. 

If money is indeed so trashy, if its pursuit perils a man's 
soul, why is it that in some cases we never go to church on the 
Sabbath-day without having a silver plate handed round, that 
tells plainly enough whether the giver throws in a copper cent 
or a silver dollar, thus shaming the humble poor and tempting 
the ostentatious to go beyond their means ; we thus give the 
lie to our teachings, and more than this, we practically ignore 
the expressive teachings of scripture, that we must not let the 
left hand know what our right hand doeth. I will leave it to 
the reflective man of wealth, who is yet among the world's 
people, if he does not often turn away with a feeling of con- 
temptuousness at theory and practice so mal apropos. 

At one moment we are told that wealth is a canker ; how 
unavailing to procure happiness ; the next we are reminded of 
how blessed a thing it is to give, and what a large good may 
be done in the judicious use of a small amount of money. 
These inconsistencies perplex the " feeble folk " and confuse 
the lambs of the flock, for whom we ought specially to care. 
Men of New York, and Philadelphia, and Boston, and of the 
thousands of smaller cities and towns of this broad land, 
whether money be a hindrance against entering heaven or not, 
judge ye ; but this I know, its possession here is necessary to 
a seat near God's altar. We cannot sit under the droppings of 



274 HalVs Journal % qf Health. 

the sanctuary if we are not rich, at least comparatively. It is 
notorious that the radical, the distinctive principles of primi- 
tive Christianity are reversed among us. In early times, when 
the love of a recently ascended Saviour burned within the 
hearts of his followers, it was heralded abroad as something 
singular and almost miraculous, that 

" The poor have the gospel preached to them.' 1 
Such is not the case in New York. Here we must give 
a thousand dollars for a pew holding five persons, and in 
addition to that thousand we must pay seven per cent, every 
year for church expenses. In our Fifth Avenue Church, built 
at the cost of a hundred and thirty thousand dollars, there is 
not a pew or even single sitting to be had ; this is largely com- 
plimentary to our minister, one of the best of men and of com- 
manding talents, yet this is the very kind of man needed for 
the poor, for it requires all his piety to stoop so low as to wash 
their feet, and all his talents to make the hidden things of the 
Bible plain to their uncultivated minds ; but the rich bid the 
highest, and the poor must put up with any crumbs they may 
get from the tables of their richer brethren in the way of 
standing room in the vestibule or gallery, or an occasional 
vacant seat on rainy days, or very dusty, or very warm, or very 
windy, or very cold, or in the dog days when it isn't fashiona- 
ble to be seen in town ; in this last case, indeed, there is plenty 
of room, but the voice of that pious and talented man is not 
there to instruct by thoughts that breathe and words that burn ; 
still there is a voice there giving sound, coming from some 
weak brother, or practising licentiate, or high-falutin sopho- 
more. I really don't know but after all our Quaker Friends 
are nearest primitive practices in this most important respect. 
Their houses of religious meeting are very large, very plain, 
very clean, and abundantly free to all who come ; the " weary 
and the heavy laden " may indeed there literally find rest — 
rest for the weary body, rest in the decent quiet of the place, 
from the tumultuous tossings of the world's conflict with want, 
its strivings for bread, Next to them are the lovely Moravian 
.Brethren, and then our Methodist friends, but they, alas, are 
receding before so-called civilization, or falling in with the 
fashion of the world, in selling places near God's altar to the 
highest bidder. Last month I went to a church iu Arch-street, 



Who to Many. 275 

Philadelphia ; the heads of the three aisles were crowded with 
people waiting for the one sexton to show them places ; and we 
observed in several instances that when the owners came they 
took keys from their pockets and unlocked the pew doors. No 
doubt reasons are at hand for the fine church and for the pew 
system, but whether they will stand the test of universal bro- 
therhood, all being children of the same common Father of all, 
who is himself no respecter of persons, I cannot say. The 
question comes back with some power, ought I to lock my pew 
door on a waiting brother? ought I to exclude the poor from 
the kingdom of heaven, by virtually excluding them from 
receiving those teachings which guide and prepare for that 
kingdom ? These things may at least be re-investigated. 

The general impression in a christian community is, that the 
first duty of man is to become a christian. A physician is 
naturally possessed of the confidence of his patients as to health, 
and gradually that is extended to other things as dear. I am 
often consulted as to marrying, and professional duty some- 
times leads me to take the initiative as to advice on that sub- 
ject ; the first item of all is, "Let the man or woman you 
marry he healthy" If your companion for life is ignorant, 
you may instruct ; if poor, you may enrich ; if wanting posi- 
tion, you may elevate ; if lacking religion, you may place at 
hand the means of conversion — your own pious life will almost 
certainly be that means of conversion ; if lazy, or dirty, or 
unmethodical, which is just as bad perhaps, you can correct 
these by example and by judicious and encouraging teachings ; 
but if you marry a bad constitution, a radically diseased body, 
there is no effective certain remedy, and you lay the foundation 
for a life of disquietude, discouragement, and expense to your- 
self ; while if any children are born to you, they will inherit 
that misfortune in an aggravated form, and thus you will have 
a sickly child to be a canker, a festering wound, a rankling 
thorn, a weary wasting anxiety, to the latest hour of life ; for 
can anything throw one ray of sunlight across my heart when 
the child of my bosom is wasting and waning before me to a 
certain and premature grave ? I think not. 

To be truly religious, and to have true views on all subjects 
connected with religion, a man should have undisputed health, 
A sound mind in a sound body is, I believe, an axiom, a first 



276 IlaIVs Journal of Health. 

principle, and as no child is born religious, and all " go astray 
from the womb, speaking lies," a healthfully acting mind in a 
healthy body seems to be a prerequisite towards giving the 
arguments for religious truth the consideration due them ; if 
this be so, then the first parental duty to the new-born child is, 
not in reference to religion directly, but in reference to its 
health, its preservation if good, and its improvement if defec- 
tive. It seems then to follow, that good health, other things 
being equal, is a prerequisite in the investigation of religious 
truth, and rather increases the probability that the arguments 
substantiating such truth will be properly appreciated ; in 
other words, a healthy man is more likely to be brought under 
the power of religious truth, and to become a christian from 
sterling principle, than an unhealthy man. I know it is said 
by the blessed One himself, " Seek first the kingdom of God 
and his righteousness," but a search pre-supposes eyes to see, 
health to perceive the full force of exhortation, argument, 
miracle. 

I will not take it upon me to run this out, therefore I go no 
further than to say, that the preservation and the promotion of 
the highest health of body is among the very first duties of an 
immortal mind ; for, the better we can understand our duty 
here, the higher and the more glorious will be our position 
hereafter ; and to be able to comprehend our duty in its broad- 
est sense, and with the most convincing power, we ought to be 
able to bring to bear on that truth the greatest strength of 
mind which the highest health of body can secure. 

If these things be so, where stands the man who pays no 
attention to the preservation of his health f Where stands the 
parent who gives no instruction to his children, nor causes 
them to be instructed, as to the laws of health and life ? Does 
a good citizen even, let alone a christian parent, do his duty 
by his children, when he goes no further than the catechism, 
the confession, or the prayer book? 

If, then, I were required to comprise in three parts the main 
effort of life, I would say — 

Strive with all the energy God hath given you, to he healthy, 
to he religious, to he rich. The more healthy you are, the more 
truly and highly religious you can be ; and the richer you are, 
the more can you do towards placing the same glorious religion 



Fine Churches — Locking Pew Doors. 277 

within reach at least, of the perishing myriads of earth's poor. 
In view of this mode of argument, there is more truth than 
appears at a first glance, in the two following extracts from 
some of our exchanges, showing sarcastically how necessary 
wealth is to a wide influence, how it gives influence in spite of 
a bad private character, but how resistless and how wide, if 
piety and wealth went hand in hand for humanity and heaven. 

What I have said is not so much against fine churches, as 
against the very general habit of bearing hard on riches and 
rich men in theory, while in practice all that is possible is done 
to cause the rich to bestow their riches on the church and its 
professed objects. 

Another of the things to be re-investigated, as hinted in the 
November number, is simply this : — 

Is it right for the pulpit to bear so hard from Sabbath to 
Sabbath on riches, and rich men, per se ? More pains ought 
to be expended in a just discrimination between abused wealth, 
unsanctified wealth, and wealth itself. We say money is the 
sinew of war ; not less true is it that money is the sinew of the 
war spiritual. The great Head of the Church has chosen to 
ordain that religion should be extended over the world not by 
miracle, but by money, and the instrument should be honored 
at least for the uses it is put to, and not fulminated against, as 
it is, almost with spitefulness sometimes as unwise as the rail- 
ings of the rabble in the times of barricades, against the rich, 
and the titled, and the elevated. 

Our newspapers, too, make it a standing and favorite theme 
to bespatter the rich, to anathemize them. Indeed, the un- 
guarded are almost persuaded sometimes to consider it a crime 
to be rich. This is all wrong, radically wrong. Instead of 
cherishing a kind of malignant feeling against such men, we 
ought rather to go on the principle that to be rich, pre-supposes 
its possessor to have been a man of industry, of self-denial and 
of economy, therefore, in all justice, the very fact of a man 
being rich entitles him to our respect, for I am persuaded that 
more men are rich from inheritance and from economy and 
industry, than from dishonorable practices; and surely there 
is nothing discreditable in being wealthy either by inheritance 
or by industry. Away then with this railing against the rich, 
let it be preached from the pulpit, and let it be proclaimed by 



278 HalVs Journal of Health. 

the press with its million tongues, that to accumulate wealth is 
one of the first, one of the highest, one of the noblest duties of 
an immortal mind, jjgif" and then, that to use it benevolently 
makes that mind akin to Grod. 

The true Christian doctrine is, make all you can honorably, 
same all you can unmeanly, bestow all you can unostentatiously. 

There is truth then in u Lowell Philosophy," while in the 
article following it, there is that blending of the true, the 
specious and the false, which makes it almost dangerous to 
admit the majority of weekly newspapers to our centre tables. 
And although mine is a Journal of Health, yet I did not design 
originally that it should be restricted to bodily health, but con- 
templated an occasional episode for the promotion of health 
moral, social, political. And as a parent and citizen and 
church member, I throw out this incidental subject, another 
item for re-consideration. Look to your weekly newspaper 
and reflect whether it is always on the side of the Bible and 
Bible religion, or whether it does not more than semi-occa- 
sion ally, aim side thrusts against that religion as now generally 
understood. 

Philosophy at Lowell. 

Every man owes it to society to become rich, for the poor 
man's advice is never heeded, let it be ever so valuable. The 
more wise one may be, the more he owes it to his country to 
become wealthy. Every addition made to a man's fortune 
adds ten per cent to his influence. Let a man throw a 
doubloon on the counter, and every one will want to hear it 
ring. Throw a cent down, however, and its voice would prove 
no more attractive than a poor relation's. 

If you want your Talents Appreciated, get Rich. 
" That tells the whole story in a nutshell. If you wish to be 
anybody in the estimation of mankind, get rich. JSTo matter 
how pure your morality, how lofty your aspiration, how disci- 
plined your mind, unless you have a fortune you will never be 
loved, noticed or respected. But if your ancestor chanced to 
be a miser, and thus left you a goodly heritage, you are fawned 
on, courted and flattered. If you are a real knave, or a block- 
head, it's of no consequence, for you are rich. This blind 
idolatry of wealth, the worship of mammon, is enough to make 



Recipe for a Rainy Day. 279 

an honest man blush for his race. The almighty dollar is the 
whole end of existence, and the only object of life. The min- 
ister of God forgets his high calling, and preaches for a higher 
salary. His congregation following him to the costly and mag- 
nificient edifice ostensibly dedicated to God, and instead of 
meditating on the true end of life, they are absorbed in admi- 
ring their own or envying their neighbor's rich garments, and 
scheming how the morrow shall add to their store of wealth. 

Extravagance, fashion, and cheating, throng our streets, and 
jostle against honest toil. Liveried footmen and costly coaches 
hurry by and splash merit with mud thrown from the wheels 
■ — and thus it is in every phase of life. The toiling, laboring 
poor are despised and contemned. Riches are coveted, sought 
for and worshiped by the million. Honesty and truth, merit 
and talent, are sold for a ' mess of pottage.' Too often the 
most open dishonesty is forgiven and forgotten, because wealth 
blinds the eyes and obliterates the memory of the public. £ An 
honest man is the noblest work of God,' was once true ; but 
now, ' get all you can, and keep what you get,' is the great 
principle of the age." 



RECIPE FOR A RAINY DAY. 

We did not intend in the conduct of our Journal to take the 
bread out of our own mouths by telling people how they were 
to get well without calling on a doctor. Still, we made no 
promise to that* effect ; we merely stated our intention, thus 
leaving a hole for honorable exit in case of a change of views, 
for wise men do change sometimes, fools — never. We will 
take care to be always consistent and always safe by being 
lavish in the expression of our intentions, but penuriously par- 
simonious in proffering promises. As a doctor, we never 
promised to cure certainly man, woman or child of anything, 
not even of the scratch of a pin, nor do we ever expect to do 
so silly a thing. None but the verdant or the wicked ever 
make promises of cure ; but to the recipe " How tolay up money 
for a rainy day," as obtained from a Kennebec paper, it being 
kept in mind that it is healthful and agreeable to have money 
over and above what you owe and need. 

A number of years ago, Charles and Clara S were mar- 



280 HalVs Journal of Health. 

ried in the city of New York. Charles was wealthy and in 
good business — very comfortable circumstances for a young 
man, which tended, of course, to develope his naturally liberal 
disposition. Feeling thus happy and independent of the world's 
frowns, he proposed to his youthful bride, one day during the 
honey moon, to give her five thousand dollars for every " scion 
of his house " which should be engrafted upon the family tree 
— an arrangement, as may be supposed to which the lovely 
Clara made not the slightest objection. Time passed on, — 
Charles faithfully performing his agreement, and making no 
inquiries as to the disposition of her money by his better half, 
until they had been married some ten years ; fortune, which 
had smiled with constancy, suddenly turned her back and left 
him apparently high and dry among the breakers of Wall 
street. When the crisis had arrived, he went home with a 
heavy heart, to announce the sad news to his wife, that he was 
an irretrievably ruined man — that his property had all gone to 
satisfy his creditors, and nothing was left. " Not exactly so 
bad as that, my dear," said Clara. " Wait a minute, and see 
what I have been doing." Thus saying, she ran up-stairs, and 
soon returned with a deed in her own name, for one half of an 
elegant block of houses in the neighborhood, worth thirty 
thousand dollars. " You see I have been industrious," con- 
tinued she, " and have laid up something for a rainy day. If 
you had been as smart as your brother, we might have had the 
whole block, by this time !" 



COKN BKEAD AND CONSTIPATION. 

Corn Bread, the u Indian" of the North, when properly 
made and of suitable materials, is a sweet, healthful and delight- 
ful article of food. We seldom see southern corn bread on a 
northern table, because the meal is ground entirely too fine, 
and becomes soggy in the baking : to obviate this sogginess 
and its effects on the system, northerners put physic in their 
meal, and make it sometimes apparently as good as the south- 
ern bread, whose only constituents are meal itself, a little milk 
and some salt. 

One pound of Indian, that is, corn meal, one and a half pints 
of milk, five eggs, a piece of butter, as large as a hen's egg f a 



* Corn Bread and Constipation. 281 

lump of soda as large as a pea, and a teaspoonful of cream of 
tartar ; bake it three quarters of an hour. 

Keal Corn Bread. — Persons who prefer not to take physic 
in their food, may make a very superior and healthful article 
of corn bread, as follows : one quart of sour milk, two table- 
spoons of flour, three eggs, and as much corn-meal as will make 
a stiff batter. 

Indian Meal Waffles. — Boil two cups of hominy very soft, 
and an equal quantity of sifted Indian meal, a tablespoonful 
of salt, half a tea-cup of butter, and three eggs, with milk 
enough to make a thin batter. Beat altogether, and bake in 
waffle irons. When eggs cannot be procured, yeast is a good 
substitute — put a spoonful in the batter, and let it stand an hour 
to rise. 

The medicinal effects of corn bread, as also of bran bread, 
wheaten grits, &c, arise, in part, from the roughness of the 
particles of meal gently irritating the surface of the intestines 
along which it passes, causing the secretories to pour out a 
more copious supply of fluid, which gradually accumulating in 
the lower intestines, acts on the same principle as an injection, 
namely, by the distension which it occasions, and the subse- 
quent reaction of contraction, which expels the contents of the 
lower bowel, called the rectum. 

I cannot but pause here to call the reader's attention to this, 
among the multitude of other evidences of the wonderful wis- 
dom displayed in our formation by Him who made all worlds. 
The functions of the anus, considered the most despicable part 
of man, are carried on by principles, which at the expiration 
of six thousand years, man has just learned to apply to ma- 
chinery, and which when observed for the first time in the 
machine shop, strikes the beholder with wonder. It is ob- 
served in the printing-pres3, when the bed has moved to a 
certain limit, it instantly returns, apparently of itself, to its 
former position, and that too when the main wheels continue 
running in the same direction, the whole mass seeming to act 
by instinct, as if it knew how far it should go, and then return 
without bidding. It is well worth the reader's while to visit 
an establishment where steam-engines are made, to witness this* 



282 HalVs Journal of Health. 

SENSATIONS IN DKOWNING. 

To the many thousands scattered throughout this wide land, 
whose hearts were wrung by the loss of the Arctic, where, 
in five hours, three hundred souls, numbering among them 
some of the brightest and best spirits of our times, perished 
amid the remorseless waters, the following letter of Admiral 
Beaufort to Dr. "Wollaston, and originally published in the life 
of Sir John Barrow, may be read with interest : — 

" The following circumstances which attended my being 
drowned have been drawn up at your desire ; they had not 
struck me as being so curious as you consider them, because 
from two or three persons, who, like myself, have been re- 
covered from a similar state, I have heard a detail of their 
feelings, which resemble mine as nearly as was consistent with 
our different constitutions and dispositions. 

" Many years ago, when I was a youngster on board one of 
his Majesty's ships in Portsmouth Harbor, after sculling about 
in a very small boat, I was endeavoring to fasten her alongside 
the ship to one of the scuttle-rings ; in foolish eagerness 1 step- 
ped upon the gunwale ; the boat, of course, upset, and I fell 
into the water, and not knowing how to swim, all my efforts 
to lay hold either of the boat or the floating sculls were fruit- 
less. The transaction had not been observed by the sentinel 
on the gangway, and therefore it was not until the tide had 
drifted me some distance astern of the ship that a man in the 
foretop saw me splashing in the water and gave the alarm. 
The first lieutenant instantly and gallantly jumped overboard, 
the carpenter followed his example, and the gunner hastened 
into a boat and pulled after them. With the violent but vain 
attempts to make myself heard 1 had swallowed much water ; 
I was soon exhausted by my struggle, and before my relief 
reached me, I had sank below the surface ; all hopes had fled 
— all exertion ceased — and I felt that I was drowning. 

" So far, these facts were either partially remembered after 
my recovery or supplied by those who had latterly witnessed 
the scene ; for during an interval of such agitation a drowning 
person is too much occupied in catching at every passing 
straw, or too much absorbed by alternate hope and despair, to 
mark the succession of events very accurately. Not so, how- 



Sensations in Drowning: 283 

ever, with the facts which immediately ensued ; my mind had 
been undergoing the sudden revolution which appeared to you 
so remarkable, and all the circumstances of which are now as 
vividly fresh in my memory as if they had occurred but yes- 
terday. From the moment that all exertion had ceased- — 
which I imagine was the immediate consequence of complete 
suffocation — a calm feeling of the most perfect tranquillity su- 
perseded the previous tumultuous resignation — for drowning 
no longer appeared to be an evil— I no longer thought of being 
rescued, nor was I in any bodily pain. On the contrary, my 
sensations were now of rather a pleasurable cast, partaking of 
that dull but contented sort of feeling which precedes the sleep 
produced by fatigue. Though the senses were thus deadened, 
not so the mind; its activity seemed to be invigorated in a 
ratio which defies all description, for thought rose after thought 
with a rapidity of succession that is not only indescribable, but 
probably inconceivable by any one who has not himself been 
in a similar situation. The course of those thoughts I can even 
now in a great measure retrace; the event which had just 
taken place — the awkwardness that had produced it — the 
bustle it must have occasioned (for I had observed two persons 
jump for the chains) — the effect it would have on a most af- 
fectionate father — the manner in which he would disclose it to 
the rest of the family — and a thousand other circumstances 
minutely associated with home, were the first series of reflec- 
tions that occurred. Then they took a wider range — our last 
cruise — a former voyage, and shipwreck — my school — the pro- 
gress I made there, and the time I had misspent — and even all 
my boyish pursuits and adventures. Thus travelling back- 
wards, every past incident of my life seemed to glance across 
my recollection in retrograde succession ; not however, in mere 
outline, as here stated, but the picture filled up with every 
minute and collateral feature ; in short, the whole period of 
my existence seemed to be placed before me in a kind of pano- 
ramic review, and each act of it seemed to be accompanied by 
a consciousness of right or wrong, or by some reflection on its 
cause or its consequences ; indeed many trifling events which 
had been long forgotten then crowded into my imagination, 
and with the character of recent familiarity. May not all 
these be some indication of the almost infinite power of 



284 HalVs Journal of Health. 

memory with which we may awaken in another world, and 
thus be compelled to contemplate our past lives ? But how- 
ever that may be, one circumstance was highly remarkable ; 
the innumerable ideas which flashed into my mind were all 
retrospective ; yet I had been religiously brought up ; my 
hopes and fears of the next world had lost nothing of their 
early strength, and at any other period intense interest and 
awful anxiety would have been excited by the mere proba- 
bility that I was floating on the threshold of eternity ; yet 
at that inexplicable moment, when I had full conviction that 
I had crossed that threshold, not a single thought, wandered 
into the future — I was wrapt entirely in the past. The length 
of time that was occupied by this deluge of ideas, or rather the 
shortness of time into which they were condensed, I cannot 
now state with precision, yet certainly two minutes could not 
have elapsed from the moment of suffocation to that of my 
being hauled up. 

" The strength of the flood-tide made it expedient to pull the 
boat at once to another ship, where I underwent the usual 
vulgar process of emptying the water by letting my head hang 
downwards, then bleeding, chafing, and even administering 
gin ; but my submersion had been really so brief, that accord- 
ing to the account of the lookers on, I was very quickly 
restored to animation. 

"My feelings while life was returning were the very reverse 
in every point of those which have been described above. 
One single but confused idea — a miserable belief that I was 
drowning — dwelt upon my mind, instead of the multitude of 
clear and definite ideas which had recently rushed through it, 
a helpless anxiety — a kind of continuous nightmare — seemed 
to press heavily on every sense, and to prevent the formation 
of any distinct thought, and it was with difficulty that I be- 
came convinced that I was really alive. Again, instead of 
being absolutely free from bodily pain, as in my drowning 
state, I was now tortured with pain all over me ; and though 
I have since been wounded in several places, and have often 
submitted to severe surgical discipline, yet my sufferings were 
at that time far greater ; at least, in general distress. On one 
occasion I was shot in the lungs, and, after lying on the deck 
at night for some hours bleeding from other wounds, I at 



Death not Always Painful. 285 

length fainted. Now, as I felt sure that the wound in the 
lungs was mortal, it will appear obvious that the overwhelming 
sensation which accompanies fainting must have produced a 
perfect conviction that I was then in the act of dying. Yet 
nothing in the least resembling the operations of my mind 
when drowning then took place ; and when I began to recover, 
I returned to a clear conception of my real state. 

" If these involuntary experiments on the operation of death 
afford any satisfaction or interest to you they will not have 
been suffered quite in vain by 

" Yours very truly, F. Beaufokt." 



DEATH NOT ALWAYS PAINFUL. 

"We think that most persons have been ; ed to regard dying 
as a much more painful change than it generally is ; first, 
because they have found by what they experienced in them- 
selves and observed in others, that sentient beings often 
struggle when in distress ; hence struggling to them is an in 
variable sign of distress. But we may remark, that struggles 
are very far from being an invariable sign of distress ; muscular 
action and consciousness are two distinct things, often existing 
separately ; and we have abundant reason to believe that in a 
great portion of cases, those struggles of dying man which are 
so distressing to behold, are as entirely independent of con- 
sciousness as the struggles of a recently decapitated fowl. A 
second reason why men are led to regard dying as a very 
painful change, is, because men often endure great pain with- 
out dying, and forgetting that like causes produce like effects 
only under similar circumstances, they infer that life cannot 
be destroyed without still greater pain. But the pains of death 
are much less than most persons have been led to believe, and 
we doubt not that many persons who live to the age of puberty, 
undergo tenfold more misery than they would, did they under- 
stand correct views concerning the change. In all cases of 
dying, the individual suffers no pain after the sensibility of his 
nervous system is destroyed, which is often without any previous 
pain. 

Those who are struck dead by a stroke of lightning, those 
who are decapitated with one blow of the axe, and those who 



286 HalVs Journal of Health. 

are instantly destroyed by a crush of the brain, experience no 
pain at all in passing from a state of life to a dead state. One 
moment's expectation of being thus destroyed far exceeds in 
misery the pain during the act. Those who faint in having a 
little blood taken from the arm, or on any other occasion, 
have already endured all the misery they ever would did they not 
again revive. Those who die of fevers and most other diseases, 
suffer their greatest pain, as a general thing, hours, or even 
days, before they expire. The sensibility of the nervous system 
becomes gradually diminished; their pain becomes less and 
less acute under the same existing cause ; and at the moment 
when their friends think them in the greatest distress, they 
are more at ease than they have been for many days previous ; 
their disease, as far as it respects their feelings, begins to act 
upon them like an >piate. Indeed, many are already dead as 
it respects themselves, when ignorant by-standers are much the 
most to be pitied, not for the loss of their friends, but their 
sympathizing anguish. Those diseases which destroy life 
without immediately affecting the nervous system, give rise to 
more pain than those that do affect the system so as to impair 
its sensibility. The most painful deaths which human beings 
inflict upon each other, are produced by rack and faggot. 
The halter is not so cruel as either of these, but more savage 
than the axe. Horror and pain considered, it seems to us that 
we should prefer a narcotic to either. — Chas. JTnowlton, M. D. 



Animal and Vegetable Physiology. — Dr. Salisbury, of 
Albany, has communicated to the American Scientific Associ- 
ation, some experiments on plants, which illustrate the analogy 
existing between animal and vegetable physiology. He ex- 
tracted the poison of a dead rattlesnake, a small portion of 
which he inserted in the plants by moistening with it the blade 
of a knife, with which he wounded a lilac, a horse-chestnut, a 
corn plant, and a sunflower. In sixty hours after the infliction 
of the wound, they began to manifest symptoms of poisoning, 
and in a few days all the leaves above the wound were dead. 
In about fifteen days they manifested convalescence, and 
nearly all recovered from the injury. 



Brain and Thought 287 

BRAIN AND THOUGHT. 

Richmond mentions the case of a woman whose brain was 
exposed in consequence of the removal of a considerable por- 
tion of its bony covering by disease. He says he repeatedly 
made pressure on the brain, and each time suspended all feel- 
ings and all intellect, which were instantly restored when the 
pressure was withdrawn. The same writer also relates another 
case, that of a man who had been trepanned, and who per- 
ceived his intellectual faculties failing, and his existence draw- 
ing to a close, every time the effused blood collected upon the 
brain so as to produce pressure. 

Professor Chapman, of Philadelphia, mentions, in his lec- 
tures, that he saw an individual with his skull perforated, and 
the brain exposed, who was accustomed to submit himself to 
the same experiment of pressure as the above, and who was 
exhibited by the late Professor Westar to his class. His intel- 
lectual and moral faculties disappeared on the application of 
pressure to the brain ; they were held under the thumb, as it 
were, and restored at pleasure to their full activity by dis- 
continuing the pressure. But the most extraordinary case of 
this kind within my knowledge, and one peculiarly interesting 
to the physiologist and metaphysician, is related by Sir Astley 
Cooper in his surgical lectures. 

A man by the name of Jones received an injury on his head, 
while on board a vessel in the Mediterranean, which rendered 
him insensible. The vessel, soon after this, made Gibraltar, 
where Jones was placed in the hospital, and remained several 
months in the same insensible state. He was then carried on 
board the Dolphin frigate to Deptford, and from thence was 
sent to St. Thomas's Hospital, London. He lay constantly 
upon his back, and breathed with difficulty. His pulse was 
regular, and each time it beat he moved his fingers. When 
hungry or thirsty, he moved his lips and tongue. Mr. Clyne, 
the surgeon, found a portion of the skull depressed, trepanned 
him, and removed the depressed portion. Immediately after 
this operation the motion- of his fingers ceased, and at four 
o'clock in the afternoon (the operation having been performed 
at one) he sat up in bed ; sensation and volition returned, and 
in four days he got out of bed and conversed. The last thing 



288 HaWs Journal of Health. 

he remembered was the circumstance of taking a prize in the 
Mediterranean. From the moment of the accident, thirteen 
months and a few days, oblivion had come over him, and all 
recollection ceased. He had for more than one year drank of 
the cup of Lethe, and lived wholly unconscious of existence ; 
yet, on removing a small portion of bone which pressed upon 
the brain, he was restored to the full possession of the powers 
of his mind and body. 



A MODEL AND CHEAP ICE HOUSE. 

A correspondent of the New England Farmer gives a 
description of a very cheap mode of erecting an ice house, 
which he has found to keep ice the year round without any 
difficulty, and the cost of which does not exceed twenty-five dol- 
lars. The following is the description of his mode of building : 

In the first place, dig out the dirt where you wish your house 
to stand, to the depth of two feet, or more, if exposed to frost 
greatly, and fill up with stone, then put your sills on level with 
the ground, put in strong sleepers, and cover this over with 
three-inch plank. Commence upon these plank with scantling, 
sawed one and a half by four inches for your wall, laying one 
upon the other and nailing them one to the other ; inside of 
this lay up another tier, leaving a space of about four inches 
to be filled up with sawdust, or tan-bark ; so continue till you 
have it as high as you wish for ice ; then take plank and cover 
over, having them to the outer edge of your inside wall ; con- 
tinue on as before with your walls, until as high as you like, 
and cover all over with plank two inches double ; if under, no 
roof will be necessary more than this. Have two doors, one 
where the ice is, and one above where you can put in butter, 
milk, or anything you like to have kept cool. Bore these upper 
plank full of two-inch holes, the ones above the ice ; and the 
ones at the bottom of the house bore half-inch holes through 
them once in about a foot all over the bottom, and spread two 
inches or more of sawdust or tan-bark over the bottom before 
putting your ice in. Pack the ice as closely as possible, not 
having it come quite up to the top and edge of your house, 
and when full throw sawdust, or whatever you may use, over 
ithe top, and also fill up between the ice and sides of the house. 



Incurable Insanity — Valuable Table, etc. 



289 



VALUABLE TABLE, 
Containing the number of pounds in a bushel of the differ- 
ent articles named : 



Of Bran 


Twelve Pounds. 


Of Blue Grass . 


. Fourteen 


do 


Of Shorts . 


Eighteen 


do 


Of Dried Apples 


. Twenty-five 


do 


Of Oats, 


Thirty-two 


do 


Of Dried Peaches 


. Thirty-three 


do 


Of Hemp Seed, . 


Forty-four 


do 


Of Timothy Seed . 


. Forty-five 


do 


Of Castor Beans . 


Forty-six 


do 


Of Barley, 


. Forty-eight 


do 


Of Flax Seed 


Fifty-six 


do 


Of Eye . . * . 


. Fifty-six 


do 


Of Shelled Corn . 


Fifty -six 


do 


Of Onions 


. Fifty-seven 


do 


Of Wheat . 


Sixty 


do 


Of Clover Seed, 


. Sixty 


do 


Of Mineral Coal . 


Seventy 


do 


Of Salt .. 


. Seventy-five 


do 


Of Corn on the Cob, 


Seventy-five 


do 



INCURABLE INSANITY. 

To be hopelessly insane, how terrible ; a worse calamity than 
death itself. There are some singular facts in reference to 
insanity. New England gives the largest per centage of all 
sections of the Union, and the extreme Southern States the 
least. In some Northern localities, there is one insane person 
to about ev5ry six hundred of the population, while in the 
South, and especially among the negroes, there is not one in 
six thousand. 

Another striking fact is, that the asylums in this country 
have a larger number of inmates from among the farming 
population than from among any other calling. This is ac- 
counted for in the sameness, the horsemill life of a farmer ; 
he trudges around in the same track from one decade to 
another, bringing into requisition a single set of mental ener- 



HalVs Journal of Health. 

gies, while all the rest remain dormant to a certain extent and 
grow wild like an undisturbed field. The fact is, no man was 
ever made to be a loafer, not even as to a part of his faculties, 
corporeal, mental or moral. There is enough to do in these 
ages of the world, to keep every son and daughter of Adam at 
work all the time of his waking existence, not at mind-work 
alone or body- work alone, but mind and body both at work all 
the time of working hours. It is because of the partial loafer- 
ism of the multitude that so many of the truly good among us 
perish before their time. Often is it that when men find a 
competent and willing worker they impose on him the labor 
of a dozen men, and the inevitable result is that in a few years 
he is literally worked to death. We have had a near and recent 
instance of this in the untimely death of Bishop "Wainwright. 
The true lesson is, let the multitude do more and the few 
less, then will not these few die before their time, and then too 
will not the multitude overcrowd our lunatic asylums as they 
now do, no less than five hundred and sixty-one being in a 
single hospital in Massachusetts. 



CONSUMPTION— A SUGGESTION. 

In November and December of each year multitudes bear 
away to the sunny south and to the isles of the sea, leaving 
behind them dear homes which, in many instances, they shall 
never see again, sundering associations and ties and hearts and 
loves, to be reunited no more. Some, and not a few, find in a 
few days after they reach those sunny climes, that the flowers do 
indeed bloom as in the springtime, the birds sing as gladsomely, 
and the clear blue sky and the bright warm sunshine bring 
gladness and health to all — but themselves ; that the chill 
blood in their veins is not warmed, the hectic in tBeir cheek is 
not dissolved into the red hue of health, while the song of the 
bird and the fresh tint of the flower carry them back to their 
childhood's home, now far, far away, and the one ambition 
now is, to go and die at home. They find that the mild, warm 
weather of the south debilitates them just as much as their own 
summers — why did they not think of that before ? Could a 
warm day in latitude twenty impart any influences more than 
an equally warm day in latitude forty would do ? This ques- 



Concerning New York Milk. 291 

tion is discussed at length in the eighth edition of Bronchitis 
and Kindred Diseases, (one of Redfield's publications, see last 
page of cover.) 

If a man is sick and must leave home, the general suggestion 
would be to select the most healthful locality. Yermont is the 
healthiest State in the Union, and the records of mortality for 
the last thirty years in the cheery city of Portland, Maine, jus- 
tify the assertion that it is the healthiest city on this continent. 
The proof is in the fact among others, that it has never been 
visited by the cholera or suffered from any alarming epidemic. 
In spite of its proximity to the ocean, it must be a delightful 
resort for consumptives at least during the hot summer months, 
which make such large drafts upon the strength of all invalids. 



CONCERNING NEW YORK MILK. 

The New York Mirror says that, early in the morning from 
thirty to forty milkmen, with " Orange county milk," and 
other titles " tasting of Flora and the country green," blazoned 
on their wagons, may be seen filling their cans with water 
from a pump in Sixteenth-street, near tenth avenue. After the 
water is put into the cans, he says a yellowish powder is also 
put in, and the whole well shaken, in order to give the milk a 
rich creamy look ; and those early boys don't seem to make 
any secret of the thing ; it is all in the way of trade. 

A most rigid surveillance is kept up in Paris, and in all 
parts of the country from whence the capital is supplied, over 
the milk which is forwarded for the consumption of its inhabit- 
ants. Thirteen farmers have just been condemned to fines of 
one hundred francs and under, and one to eight days' impri- 
sonment, for sending milk mixed with water. 

While at our house on the Hudson last summer, we used a 
medical guage in testing the purity of unsophisticated, unadul- 
terated milk just from an excellent cow, and allowed to cool ; 
it gave a density of forty ; pure well water at our door gave jive 
only, showing that there was seven times more substance in 
pure milk than in pure water. On coming to town we thought 
it of high importance to get as good a quality of milk as possi- 
ble, and for that purpose obtained milk from different wagons ; 
some had so much water and so little cream, that it wouldn't 



Hall's Journal of Health. 

boil, consequently the mercury ballasted glass tube ranged at 
all distances between live and forty ; one man's dairy gave a 
measure of forty-jwe, thus containing one-eighth more sub- 
stance than milk known to be fresh and pure ; as it kept well 
in midsummer all day, gave no sediment, boiled easily, and 
chemical tests did not indicate any foreign admixture, we con- 
cluded it was purer milk than we had in the country, in conse- 
quence of the evaporation of the more watery particles in warm 
weather, from the time of milking to the time of measurement 
some six or eight hours, as it came to the city by the H. R. 
Railroad. So, without his knowledge or consent, and without 
hope of reward, we give our milkman's name — P. J. Gurnie, 
287 West 24th-street, New York. We trust, however, he will 
feel in gratitude bound, should he ever see this, as unfortu- 
nately for himself he is not a subscriber to the " Journal," to 
not keep our little Bob until eight o'clock every morning wait- 
ing for his breakfast, his former supply having been lately 
monopolized by a stranger. 

Healthfulness of Fruit. — Fresh, ripe, perfect, raw fruit is 
safe and healthful at all seasons of the year, and amid the 
ravages of disease, whether epidemic, endemic or sporadic, 
general, special or local. Under proper restrictions as to 
quantity such fruit as named will cure a diarrhoea, aid in re- 
moving a cold, colic, fever, or an other disease whose treatment 
requires the bowels to be kept freely open ; for this effect, fresh 
ripe fruit is acknowledged to have ; but to be used advanta- 
geously in health and disease the following rules are imperative. 

1. Fruit should be eaten ripe, raw, fresh and perfect. 

2. It should be eaten in moderation. 

3. It should be eaten not later than four o'clock in the 
afternoon. 

4. No water or fluid of any description should be swallowed 
within an hour after eating fruit. 

5. To have its full, beneficial effect, nothing else should be 
eaten at the time the fruit is taken. 

It is to the neglect of these observances that erroneous im- 
pressions prevail in many families, and to an extent too, in 
some instances, that the most luscious peach, or apple, or bunch 
of grapes is regarded as that much embodied cholera and death. 
When will men learn to be observant and reflective. 

I 



Elhow Precaution. 293 

MISCELLANEOUS ITEMS. 

Lying in bed with the Head high. — It is often a question 
among people who are unaquainted with the anatomy and 
physiology of man, whether lying with the head exalted, or even 
with the body, was most wholesome. Most, consulting their 
own ease on this point, argue in favor of that which they prefer. 
Now, although many delight in bolstering up their heads at night, 
and sleep soundly, without injury, yet we declare it to be a 
dangerous habit. The vessels through which the blood passes 
from the heart to the head, are always lessened in their cavities 
when the head is resting in bed higher than the body, therefore 
in all diseases attended with fever, the head should be pretty 
nearly on a level with the body; and people ought to accustom 
themselves to sleep thus to avoid danger. — Medical Journal. 



Elbow Peecatjtion. — A gentleman from Morrisania, had his 
elbow broken lately, while leaning his arm outside the car on 
the Harlem railroad. A similar accident befel another gentle- 
man on one of the city cars not long ago. The proper place 
for the elbow in all vehicles, as at the table and public assem- 
blies, is beside the owner's person ; a knowledge and remem- 
brance of this may save some reader of the Journal the price 
of twenty years subscription. Three-fourths of those who ride 
in the omnibusses and city cars, sit with the elbows projecting 
outside : about a year ago, a gentleman had his arm shattered 
in that position, at the corner of Centre and Canal streets. 
Another and more fatal form of accident is of almost weekly 
occurrence, which the delay of three seconds would infallibly 
prevent. I allude to jumping on and off the city horse cars 
while in motion, from the forward platform. If a man's time 
is of such immense importance that he must save a single min- 
ute at the cost of risking a limb or life, a delay of three seconds 
will give him a chance of jumping on the rear platform, while 
the car is passing ; if he misses his mark, he has only to get up 
out of the mud and give his washerwoman an extra shilling or 
two, while the same " miss" at the forward platform would 
have thrown him under the wheels and cost him his life, as 
has just been the case with a city editor, whose very last edi- 
torial was said to have been on cautioning his readers against 
that very practice. 



294 IMVs Jounud <f Health. 

How much Sugar do we Eat ! — A western paper states, that 
1853, there were consumed in this country about 705,000,000 
pounds of cane sugar, and 27,000,000 pounds of maple sugar. 
This gives more than 24 pounds of cane sugar and one pound 
of maple sugar to every man, woman and child. This does 
not include molasses or honey. If this sugar were put into 
barrels holding 200 pounds, and each barrel occupied the space 
of three square feet only, it would require 336 acres of land 
for it to stand upon. The barrels, if placed in a row, would 
reach 220 miles. If the sugar was put up in paper packages 
of five pounds each, it would require 146,400,000 sheets of 
wrapping-paper ; and if only a yard of string was used to each 
package, there would be required 439,200,000 feet, or 83,000 
miles of string — more than three times enough to go round the 
world. If every retail clerk sold a hundred pounds of sugar 
each day, it would require nearly 25,000 clerks to sell it all in 
a year. If the dealers, wholesale and retail together, made a 
profit of only two cents a pound on this sugar, these profits 
would amount to nearly $15,000,000. 

How much they Eat in New- York. — During the three 
months ending the 1st inst, two hundred and nineteen thou- 
sand six hundred and thirteen animals were slaughtered for 
food in New-York City. Daring the nine months of the year, 
the total number of animals offered up on the altar of appetite 
in that city, reached seven hundred thousand seven hundred 
and fourteen, or, at the rate of seventeen thousand nine hun- 
dred and sixty-six per week, or nearly one million per year! 
The population is about five hundred thousand — that is an 
average of two animals per year to each inhabitant. Not 
much starving in New- York, at this rate. — Albany Register. 



Happy is the "Wooing that is not Long Adoing. — An emi- 
nent writer says : " It is my firm opinion, derived from expe- 
rience, that the period of courtship cannot be too short. I have 
reason to say, that when you have hooked your fish, the sooner 
you use your landing net the better." 

To avoid Smoke. — It is said, that if a silk handkerchief is 
wetted and placed over the face, a person may pass through 
dense smoke without inconvenience. 



Coleridge and Opium. 295 

A Fact for our Horticultural Readers. — It has been dis- 
covered that for the generality of flowers, and more especially, 
for geraniums, and the most delicate specimens of the lily 
tribe, common glue, diluted with a sufficient portion of water, 
forms a richer manure than guano or any other yet discovered. 
Plants placed in sand on the worst soils, display more beauty 
and vigor when watered with this composition, than those grown 
in the richest mould and only sprinkled w r ith water. 

A Family of Opium Lovers. — Some six months ago, a person 
visited our town, asking money to purchase medicines for his 
mother, who was sick. Recently, the same solicitor has been 
around on the same errand for other members of the family. 
What success has attended his solicitations, we know not ; but 
the object to which the funds are applied, is of so objection- 
able a nature that all should withhold their names, out of 
regard for the family, w r ho are the slaves of a habit to which 
drunkenness the most degrading is a comparative blessing. 
The entire family, it is said, subsist for the most part on opium, 
or its exhilarating and soporific influence, and this fearful habit 
has been so long indulged as to have grown into a second life. 
The example of Coleridge before the world, who acknow- 
ledged it the basest and most destructive of vices, and at the 
same time the most absolute of tyrants should, we think, be a 
sufficient warning to all after-comers to avoid the drug; but 
here is an example of a whole family addicted to the habit ; 
and it has brought upon them all its certain results — apathy, 
indolence, poverty, misery — and will eventually end in the 
most wretched death. — Elmira Republican. 

family jars. 
Jars of jelly, jars of jam, 
Jars of pottled beef and ham, 
Jars of early gooseberries nice, 
Jars of mince meat, jars of spice, 
Jars of orange marmalade, 
Jars of pickles, all home-made, 
Jars of cordial elder-wine, 
Jars of honey, superfine ; 
"Would that only jars like these, 
Could be found in families ! 



296 Hall's Journal of Health. 

Happy Marriages. — We clip the following official table 
from an English paper, giving a view of the connubial bliss in 
the city of London : 

Runaway wives 1,132 

Runaway husbands .... 
Married persons legally divorced 
Living in open warfare 
Living in private misunderstanding . 
Mutually indifferent .... 
Regarded as happy .... 

Nearly happy 

Perfectly happy .... 

N". B. The above census was taken by an old bachelor. — Ed. 



2,348 

4,175 

17,345 

13,279 

55,340 

3,175 

127 

13 



Secret of Comfort. — Though sometimes small evils, like 
invisible insects, inflict pains, and a small hair may stop a vast 
machine, yet the chief secret of comfort lies in not suffering 
trifles to vex one, and prudently cultivating an undergrowth 
of small pleasures, since very few great ones, alas! are let on 
long leases. — Sharp's Essays. 



Delirium Tremens. — A boy, calling on a doctor to visit his 
father, who had delirium tremens, and not rightly recollecting 
the name of the disease, called it the deviVs trembles^ thus 
making bad Latin, but very good English. 



Johnny Cakes. — Scald a quart of sifted Indian meal with 
sufficient water to make a thick batter; stir in a tablespoonful 
of salt ; flour the hands well, and mould it into small cakes ; 
fry them in fat enough nearly to cover them. When brown 
upon the underside they should be turned. It takes about twen- 
ty minutes to cook them. When done, split and butter them. 



Fried Apples. — Wash them, cut in two, remove the stem 
and core, and unpealed put them into a pan with butter and 
some water, put on the lid, place them on a stove, stir them 
now and then until they are soft, but do not burn them. Sour 
apples do not fry well. 



Inhalation in Consumption. 297 

INHALATION IN CONSUMPTION. 
By means of extensive advertisements and certificates in the 
newspapers, public attention has been drawn to the subject. 
I should, perhaps, not have noticed it in these pages, but for 
the request of some of my subscribers. For some fifty years 
past, the treatment of affections of the lungs, by inhalation, 
has appeared, disappeared and reappeared, with locust-like 
regularity, but always with variations ; a new substance being 
introduced at each new advent, so as to make it take. Warm 
water, vinegar, oxygen, the effluvia of a cow-house, iodine, 
turpentine, alcohol, and many other substances, all have their 
day, and die, the patient as well as the treatment. If any 
method of inhalation was even of frequent success, if it cured 
one case in twenty, of actual consumption, no newspaper 
advertisement or certificate would be needed, and in three 
months the successful man's office would be besieged night 
and day, and no hundred men could despatch the business. 
The veiy fact that it is necessary to follow up the advertising 
system in the papers issued on Saturdays and Sundays, the 
latter being unfortunately the day when the newspaper is read 
over and over three or four times, advertisements and all, is 
conclusive evidence that the success of medicated inhalations 
is not sufficiently striking to keep its head above water with- 
out outside aid and influences. The best thing to be inhaled, 
either in consumption or bronchitis, in any and every stage, is 
pure out-door air, which costs nothing, and is not hard to take, 
being at the same time the natural food of the lungs, the na- 
tural purifier of the blood, and having been fashioned by the 
Almighty for the accomplishment of that object, one would 
think it was the best, and that there could be no substitute. 

HOW TO AVOID CONSUMPTION. 

Eat a great deal, and exercise a great deal in the open air 
to convert what you eat into pure, healthful blood. Do not 
be afraid of out-door air, day or night. Do not be afraid of 
sudden changes of weather ; let no change, hot or cold, keep 
you in doors. If it is rainy weather, the more need for your 
going out, because you eat as much on a rainy day as on a 
clear day, and if you exercise less, that much more remains in 



298 HaWs Journal of Health. 

the system of what ought to be thrown off by exercise, and 
some ill result, some consequent symptom, or ill feeling, is 
the certain issue. If it is cold out of doors, do not muffle 
your eyes, mouth and nose in furs, veils, woolen comforters, 
and the like ; nature has supplied you with the best muffler, 
with the best inhaling regulator, that is, two lips ; shut them 
before you step out of a warm room into the cold air, and keep 
them shut until you have walked briskly a few rods and quick- 
ened the circulation a little ; walk fast enough to keep off a 
feeling of chilliness, and taking cold will be impossible. What 
are the facts of the case ; look at railroad conductors, going 
out of a hot air into the piercing cold of winter and in again 
every five or ten minutes, and yet they do not take cold 
oftener than others ; you will scarcely find a consumptive 
man in a thousand of them. It is wonderful how afraid con- 
sumptive people are of fresh air, the very thing that would 
cure them, the only obstacle to a cure being that they do 
not get enough of it ; and yet what infinite pains they take to 
avoid breathing it, especially if it is cold ; when it is known 
that the colder the air is the purer it must be, yet if people 
cannot get to a hot climate, they will make an artificial one, 
and imprison themselves for a whole winter in a warm room, 
with a temperature not varying ten degrees in six months ; all 
such people die, and yet we follow in their footsteps. If I 
were seriously ill of consumption, I would live out of doors 
day and night, except it was raining or mid-winter, then I 
would sleep in an unplastered log house. My consumptive 
friend, you want air, not physic, you want pure air, not medi- 
cated air, you want nutrition, such as plenty of meat and bread 
will give jCjp 33 and they alone ; physic has no nutriment, gasp- 
ings for air cannot cure you ; monkey capers in a gymnasium 
cannot cure you, and stimulants cannot cure you. If you 
want to get well, go in for beef and out-door air, and do not 
be deluded into the grave by newspaper advertisements, and 
unfindable certifiers. 



This number closes our first year's labors. "We began with- 
out a single subscription, our receipts have more than paid our 
expenses, and we have not a delinquent subscriber. We have 
made a good array of pleasant acquaintances, from many of 
whom we have received, unasked, material and moral counte- 



Advertising Notice. 299 

nance and encouragement, ending with a verbal and I believe 
a sincere " God speed you." 

"We think it most independent and best not to send the first 
number of the next year unordered to any present subscriber 
in or out of New York, unless to those with whom we are per- 
sonally acquainted. If any one desires to take the journal, it 
is easy to hand a dollar to the Postmaster, who will order it, 
and if they do not desire it, it is easier to do nothing. 

An Editor naturally feels that he has a claim on his sub- 
scribers, and certainly has a kindly attachment for them ; I 
do and would drop the acquaintance of any one of mine re- 
gretfully. I trust that all will subscribe again, and that each 
one will send an extra dollar for a year's journal for their 
minister. 

Four numbers will be sent for three dollars. For three 
dollars, two Journals and any two dollar weekly newspaper in 
New York will be sent for one year. The Journal and 
Harper's, or Putnam's Magazine for one year will be sent for 
three dollars, which is the annual subscription for either. 
If any present subscriber desires to drop the Journal, I recom- 
mend such to take the Scientific American of this city, or 
The Country Gentleman of Albany, as having more frequently 
valuable items in reference to health than any others, and 
what is more, such items are reliable. 



ADVEETISING NOTICE. 

During Eighteen Hundred and Fifty Four, between twelve 
and fifteen thousand numbers of our Journal have been circu- 
lated throughout the country. There is not a state or territory 
in the Union which it does not visit, embracing all classes, but 
chiefly professional and public men, lawyers, physicians, cler- 
gymen, Professors and Presidents of Colleges, and a few 
farmers. It must, therefore, be a remunerative vehicle of 
advertising books, especially theological, medical, law and 
school books ; the more so, as the Journal is stereotyped, and 
will be a permanently bound book, as good for reference years 
hence as to-day ; therefore, we desire the advertisements only 
of established houses, such as are likely to be permanent, 
especially book-stores, hotels, druggists, apothecaries, and 
medical schools. This Journal could be supported wholly by 
advertising patent medicines, but we intend lo give no aid or 
comfort to ignorance and imposture — it is on these that all 
patent remedies feed and thrive. 



300 IlalVs Journal of Health. 

Progress and Prejudice. De Witt & Davenport, Publishers, 160 & 162 Nassau- 
street, New York : 300 pp. By the Authoress of several other publications. Mrs. 
Gore is an English lady, whose writings have attracted considerable attention, the 
present volume being considered one of her best. 



The Youth's Galaxy for 1854. E. H. Fletcher, 11? Nassau-street. A delight- 
fully useful and interesting book for Youth, containing numerous engravings, pieces 
of music by Lowel Mason, and filled with instructive facts as to men and things. A 
healthful volume for the young. The public should patronize such publishers, and 
aid them in driving from the world the trashy absurdities called Jack the Giant 
Killer, Tom Thumb, Old Mother Hubbard and the like, whose readings are unmiti- 
gated nonsense. 



Presbyterian Standard. A monthly octavo of 24 pages, at one dollar a-year. 
Paducah, Ky. Desigued to illustrate and defend the doctrines of the Bible, as they 
are understood and maintained by the Presbyterian Church. A publication which 
may accomplish much good. I would be glad to see in some of the early numbers, 
three discourses lately delivered in my hearing, and which ought not to perish with 
a Sunday hearing ; to wit, two discourses preached by " Addison Alexander," in this 
city in October, and one by " Wadsworth" in Philadelphia, on the last Sunday in 
October, from the text " As the face of man answereth," (fee. Superior discourses to 
these I have never heard from Presbyterians, and seldom if ever their equals. Such 
sermons should live for ages for their far reaching, wide sweeping, and safe practical 
nature. 



The Western Casket, St. Louis. By Rev. S. W. Hodgeman ; containing a variety 
of religious matter, commendable both to the work and its Editor, and ought to be 
liberally sustained. A dollar monthly of thirty pages, devoted to Religion and 
Literature. Sometime ago, the Casket gave our " little" Journal a friendly notice. 
Considering that it is only six pages bigger than we, and that before we are as old 
we have arranged to double its size, we vote the expungement of the adjective. By 
the way, Mr. Casket, Wadsworth's " looking glass" sermon is apropos as noticed 
above. God's mirror, aud man. 



Mandeville's Elements of Reading and Oratory, 1854. By D. Appleton & Co 
356 pp., 12mo., $1. One of a series of school books, published by that eminent and 
enterprising firm. Of this series the St. Louis Board of Education says, " as a means 
of disclosing the true structure of our language, and pointing out the proper mode 
of parsing it, this series is believed to be altogether unequalled." 



Reid's Dictionary of the English Language. By the same firm, 564 pp., $1 
Professor Henry, of the University of New York, says, " it is an admirable book for 
the use of schools, and seems to be executed in general with great judgment, accu- 
racy, and fidelity. 

For every day office reference, the Editor has consulted Reid's Dictionary from 
its first issue by Appleton, now nine years ago, using for fuller and more critical 
reference, Webster's and Richardson's quartos. 



4/